Cerel, J., M. A. Fristad, E. B. Weller, and R. A. Weller. 2000. "Suicide-Bereaved Children and Adolescents: II. Parental and Family Functioning." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry vol. 39, pp. 437-444.
Abstract: Objective: The current study extends the authors' earlier examination of suicide-bereaved (SB) children from the Grief Research Study, a longitudinal study of childhood bereavement after parental death, by examining the children's family history of psychopathology and family environment before and after death. Method: Twenty-six SE children, aged 5 to 17 years, and their 15 surviving parents were compared with 332 children bereaved from parental death not caused by suicide (NSB) and their 201 surviving parents in interviews 1, 6, 13, and 25 months after the death. Results: Suicide completers evidenced more psychopathology than parents who died from reasons other than suicide. Contrary to expectations, surviving SE parents were not more impaired than NSB parents. Before the death, SE families were less stable than NSB families and relationships with the deceased SE parent were compromised. However, no differences were detected between groups in children's relationships with their surviving parents. Likewise, few differences were found in social support or changes in religious beliefs. Conclusions: SE children generally come from families with a history of psychopathology and substantial family disruption. However, surviving SE parents do not exhibit higher rates of psychopathology than other bereaved parents and many have positive relationships with their children. [Source: SC]

Thomas, H. 2000. "History of Childhood Maltreatment Increased Risk of Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults... Commentary on Brown J, Cohen P, Johnson J.G., et al. Childhood Abuse and Neglect: Specificity of Effects on Adolescent and Young Adult Depression and Suicidality. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999 Dec;38:1490-6." Evidence Based Nursing vol. 3, p. 87.
Abstract: Questions: Does a history of childhood abuse and neglect increase risk of depressive disorders and suicidal behaviour in adolescents or young adults? Does this risk differ by type of maltreatment (ie, physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect)? Design: Population based cohort study beginning in 1975, with follow up in 1992. Setting: 2 counties in upstate New York, USA. Participants: 639 youths (52% men) who were > 18 years of age for whom information about child maltreatment was available from state records. Assessment of risk factors: Data on child maltreatment were obtained from the New York State Central Registry for Child Abuse and Neglect and from retrospective self reports during the 1992 follow up. Data were also collected on the following contextual factors: sex, ethnicity, IQ, difficult childhood temperament, low maternal education, low maternal self esteem, maternal alienation, anger, dissatisfaction, external locus of control, sociopathy, serious maternal illness, low maternal and paternal involvement, low parental warmth, low religious participation, teenage mother when youth was born, single parenthood, welfare support, low family income, large family size, and poor marital quality. Main outcome measures: Depressive disorders, assessed using the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children with algorithms for DSM-III-R diagnoses, and self reported suicide attempts. Main results: 81 cases of child abuse and neglect were identified; 24 children (30%) had > 1 type of maltreatment. After adjustment for contextual factors, participants who had a history of maltreatment had an increased risk of major depressive disorder (OR 3.00, CI 1.43 to 6.33), dysthymia (OR 4.83, CI 1.89 to 12.44), and suicide attempts (OR 3.29, CI 1.94 to 16.74) compared with participants who had no history of maltreatment Adolescents had an increased risk of repeated suicide attempts (OR 30.29, CI 1.70 to 539.80). Participants who were sexually abused had the highest risk of major depressive disorder (OR 3.17, CI 1.04 to 9.56), dysthymia (OR 9.74, CI 2.79 to 34.27), suicide attempts (OR 5.71, CI 1.94 to 16.74), and repeated suicide attempts (OR 8.40, CI 1.86 to 38.06). Participants who were physically abused had an increased risk of depression during adulthood (OR 3.83, CI 1.38 to 10.58) and repeated suicide attempts during adolescence (OR 10.74, CI 1.06 to 108.72). Childhood neglect alone was not associated with depressive disorders or suicidal behaviour. Conclusions: History of childhood maltreatment increased the risk of depressive disorders and suicidal behaviour in adolescents and young adults, independent of contextual factors associated with maltreatment. Children who were sexually abused had higher risks of depressive disorders than those who were physically abused or neglected. [Source: CI]

Fortson, Darryl L. 1999. "Stemming the Tide of Teen Suicides." Emerge vol. 10.
Abstract: Fortson comments on the problem of suicide among black teens and discusses the nature of teen suicide. He links suicide to depression, dependency deprivation, and household guns. He suggests that parents talk to teens about disappointments in their lives, and the pain that suicide inflicts on parents. He also suggests leading children to follow some religion. [Source: BS]

Harper, Diane Joan Provencher. 1999. "A Study of Adolescent Depression, Suicide, Self-Esteem and Family Strengths in Special Education Female Students Compared with Regular Education Female Students."Thesis, Walden University, Naples.
Abstract: Depression, one of the most common affective disorders, can lead to a state in which the person feels hopeless, becomes unable to function, and is overwhelmed with negative cognitions. Data for this study were gathered from a group of female students to determine if there was a relationship between depression and family strength, suicide (cognitive distortions), or self-esteem. Sources of data included the Beck Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Family Strengths Inventory, a background questionnaire, and official student records. This study was conducted in an effort to affect the efforts of the educational and counseling professionals, as well as anyone working with teens. The study was conducted with a convenience sample of 48 high school students who ranged in age from 14 to 19 years. The frequency of adolescent depression, as identified by scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicated that the special education group had a higher percentage of depression than the regular education subjects. Also, the special education group had lower self-esteem and family strengths, and experienced more suicide attempts than the regular education students. Based on the results obtained in this study, some recommendations were offered. Programs to train professionals to recognize signs and symptoms of depression and signs of cognitive distortions should be available. Also, research is needed regarding students who relocate or those who enter a brand new high school. The study of male depression, as well as the investigation of the variables connected with ethnic, racial, region of the country, religious backgrounds and other demographic, social, and economic factors, and investigation of insurance coverage programs for adolescents merit professional attention. [Source: PI]

Neeleman, J. and G. Lewis. 1999. "Suicide, Religion, and Socioeconomic Conditions. An Ecological Study in 26 Countries, 1990." Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health vol. 53, pp. 204-210.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: Relative risks are frequently assumed to be stable across populations but this may not apply in psychiatric epidemiology where sociocultural context may modify them. Such ecological effect modification will give curved associations between aggregated risk factor and outcome. This was examined in connection with the ecological association between suicide rates and an aggregate index of religiosity. DESIGN: Ecological study of associations between suicide rates and an index of religiosity, adjusted for socioeconomic variation. The effect of stratification of the study sample according to levels of religiosity, was examined. SETTING: 26 European and American countries. SUBJECTS: Interview data from 37,688 people aggregated by country. OUTCOME MEASURES: Age and sex specific (1986-1990) suicide rates. MAIN RESULT: Adjusted for socioeconomic variation, negative associations of male suicide rates with religiosity were apparent in the 13 least religious countries only (test for interaction F (1, 25) = 5.6; p = 0.026). Associations between religiosity and female suicide rates did not vary across countries. CONCLUSION: The bent ecological association was apparent only after adjustment for socioeconomic variation suggesting that, rather than confounding, ecological modification of individual level links between religion and male (but not female) suicide risk is the responsible mechanism. This concurs with micro-level findings suggesting that suicide acceptance depends not only on personal but also on contextual levels of religious belief, and that men are more sensitive to this phenomenon than women. In psychiatric epidemiology, relative risks vary with the exposure's prevalence. This has important implications for research and prevention. [Source: ML]

Hossler, Elizabeth A. 1998. "The Influence of Social Integration, Religious Integration, and Religious-Social Regulation on Suicidal Behaviors among Seventh-Day Adventist Youth." Thesis, Andrews University, Berrien Springs.
Abstract: Problem. Since Durkheim's classic 1897 study of differences in suicide rates between Catholics and Protestants in Europe, much research has focused on the relationship between religion and suicide. Pescosolido and Georgianna (1989) have suggested that Durkheim's Catholic/Protestant paradigm may not work well in the more heterogenous religious culture within the United States. This present study used Pescosolido and Georgianna's (1989) social network theory to examine the influence of social integration, religious integration, and religious-social regulation on attempted suicidal behavior in Seventh-day Adventist adolescents. Method. The data used for this study came from the Valuegenesis (1989) survey conducted by the Search Institute (Minnesota) on behalf of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Seventh-day Adventist adolescents, ages 11 to 18, were included in the sample. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of the model on self-reported attempted suicidal behavior in four different analyses. Results. The results indicated that, after the effects of the controlled variables were accounted for, the social-religious integration and regulation model, although statistically significant $(p<.01),$ did little proportionally (.01) to improve the goodness of fit of the model in predicting attempted suicidal behavior. Furthermore, only one of the theoretical variables, a social integration variable for denominational identity, was a significant predictor in all of the statistical analyses. Another variable, a religious integration variable--Adventist orthodoxy--was significant in three of the analyses. However, like the full model, neither of these two variables was substantively important. The results indicated that, after the effects of the controlled variables were accounted for, denominational identity and Adventist orthodoxy, although statistically significant $(p<.01),$ did little proportionally (.004 and.002, respectively) to improve the goodness of fit of the model in predicting attempted suicidal behavior. Two other variables, family religious socialization and attendance, were each a significant predictor in only one of four different analyses. Conclusions. The religious-social integration and regulation model, although statistically significant, contributed little proportionally towards predicting attempted suicidal behavior in Seventh-day Adventist youth. Further research that examines the use of this theoretical model (1) in and across other denominations and (2) with adult populations is needed. [Source: PI]

Kirmayer, L. J., L. J. Boothroyd, and S. Hodgins. 1998. "Attempted Suicide among Inuit Youth: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Prevention." Canadian Journal of Psychiatry-Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie vol. 43, pp. 816-822.
Abstract: Objective: To identify potential risk and protective factors associated with attempted suicide among Inuit youth, a population known to have a high rate of both attempted and completed suicide in recent years, Method: A secondary analysis of data on 203 Inuit youth (aged 15 to 24 years) from a random community survey conducted by Sante Quebec in 1992. Factors previously, identified in the literature and ill clinical consultation and ethnographic research were tested with bivariate statistics and logistic regression models for each gender. Results: At the bivariate level positive correlates included substance use (solvents, cannabis, cocaine), recent alcohol abuse evidence of a psychiatric problem, and a greater number of life events in the last year. Regular church attendance was negatively associated with attempted suicide. Multivariate analysis indicated that a psychiatric problem, recent alcohol abuse, and cocaine or crack use were the strongest correlates of attempted suicide for females, while solvent use and number of recent life events were the strongest correlates for males. Conclusions: Suicide prevention programs can be targeted at youth who are using substances, particularly solvents, cocaine, and alcohol, have psychiatric illness, and have experienced recent negative life events. Involvement in church or other community activities may reduce the risk for suicide. Consideration of gender differences may allow more precise identification of those at risk for attempted suicide. [Source: SC]

McFarland, William P. 1998. "Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Student Suicide." Professional School Counselingvol. 1, pp. 26-29.
Abstract: Part of a special section on sexual minority youths and school counselors. Research indicates that homosexual youth are at significant risk of suicide. This is because homosexual youth form their identities in a homophobic and homohostile environment that exposes them to risk factors for suicide. These risk factors are the negative attitudes of society, poor self-esteem, abuse from family members, the views of traditional and fundamentalist religion, abuse in school, social isolation, substance abuse, lack of support from some mental health professionals, refused entry to some youth programs, lack of skills in relationships with lovers, being forced to leave home prematurely, and AIDS. Comprehensive, developmental school guidance programs are being developed and implemented by professional school counselors to help reduce suicide among homosexual youth. The four components of developmental programs--the guidance curriculum, responsive services, individual planning, and program management--are discussed. [Source: EA]

Aoki, Wayne T. and Anne A. Turk. 1997. "Adolescent Suicide: A Review of Risk Factors and Implications for Practice." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 16, pp. 273-279.
Abstract: Adolescent suicide is a complex social phenomenon with multiple determinants. Females are estimated to attempt suicide at 3 times the rate of males. The risk factors are previous attempts, depression, substance abuse, family pathology, and contagion effects. None of the 5 factors can be predictive of suicidality at the individual level, they can be a useful guide for the practicing clinician and those who work with adolescents. Adolescents referred for therapeutic services need to be screened for mood disorder. The family needs to be assessed for pathology or as potential resource of support. Suicidal intervention techniques for clinicians often include a no suicide contract which involves an agreement to call the clinician when they experience strong suicidal thoughts. Cognitive problem-solving techniques are also helpful. It is stated that the church is needed to be a stronger voice with youth because of the message of hope, forgiveness, and reconciliation. [Source: PI]

CuddyCasey, M. and H. Orvaschel. 1997. "Children's Understanding of Death in Relation to Child Suicidality and Homicidality." Clinical Psychology Review vol. 17, pp. 33-45.
Abstract: This review examines children's understanding of death and how such understanding may be related to the increasing incidence of child suicidality and homicidality. Several factors have been reported to influence children's acquisition of the concepts of death. Those most often reported involved include children's age, cognitive development, and exposure to death; religion and culture appear to play a more minimal role. Most of what we know about how and when children begin to understand death is derived from research with healthy children. Although less robust, the data available from chronically physically ill children and suicidal children indicate some distortions in and less mature concepts of death. These distortions may indeed make death appear more attractive and less permanent to some suicidal children. Despite these provocative findings, no similar investigations have been conducted with homicidal children. Implications of these data for future research and potential intervention are discussed. [Source: SC]

Gibbs, J. T. 1997. "African-American Suicide: A Cultural Paradox." Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior vol. 27, pp. 68-79.
Abstract: African-American suicide rates have traditionally been lower than White rates despite a legacy of racial discrimination, persistent poverty, social isolation, and lack of community resources. This paper focuses on four issues: (1)patterns and trends of Black suicide across the lifespan; (2) risk and protective factors in subgroups of Blacks; (3) the influence of cultural factors on suicide patterns of Blacks; and (4) implications of these patterns for prevention and early intervention of suicidal behavior among African Americans. Risk factors for Black suicide include: male sex, early adulthood, substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, family or interpersonal conflict, antisocial behavior, and homosexuality. Protective factors that mitigate the risks of suicide include religiosity, older age, southern residence, and social support. Implications for preventive policies and programs are discussed to counter the recent trend of rising suicide rates among adolescents and very elderly Blacks. [Source: SC]

Neumark Sztainer, Dianne, Mary Story, Simone A. French, and Michael D. Resnick. 1997. "Psychosocial Correlates of Health Compromising Behaviors among Adolescents." Health Education Research vol. 12, pp. 37-52.
Abstract: Investigated psychosocial correlates of diverse health-compromising behaviors among adolescents of different ages. Ss included 123,132 11-21 yr old males and females in 6th, 9th, and 12th grade. Psychosocial correlates of substance abuse, delinquency, suicide risk, sexual activity, and unhealthy weight loss behaviors were examined. Psychosocial variables included emotional well-being, self-esteem, risk-taking disposition, number of concerns, extracurricular involvement, religiosity, school connectedness and achievement, physical and sexual abuse, and family connectedness and structure. Results show that risk-taking disposition was associated with nearly every behavior across age and gender groups. Other consistent correlates included sexual abuse and family connectedness. Correlates of health-compromising behaviors tended to be consistent across age groups. However, stronger associations were noted between sexual abuse and substance use for younger adolescents, and risk-taking disposition and school achievement were stronger correlates for older youth. Findings suggest the presence of both common and unique etiological factors for different health-compromising behaviors among youth. [Source: PI]

Kirmayer, L. J., M. Malus, and L. J. Boothroyd. 1996. "Suicide Attempts among Inuit Youth: A Community Survey of Prevalence and Risk Factors." Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica vol. 94, pp. 8-17.
Abstract: Thr prevalence of and risk factors fur attempted suicide and suicidal ideation were examined with a survey of 99 Inuit, aged 14-25 years, residing in a community in Northern (Quebec. A total of 34+ACU- of survey respondents reported a previous suicide attempt, and 20+ACU- had attempted suicide more than once. A suicide attempt had resulted in injury in about 11+ACU- of those surveyed. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was also very high: 43+ACU- of subjects reported past thoughts of suicide, and 26+ACU- had had suicidal thoughts during the month before the survey. Risk factors for suicide attempts included male gender, having a friend who had attempted or committed suicide, a history of being physically abused, a history of solvent abuse, and having a parent with an alcohol or drug problem. Protective factors included a family history of having received treatment Eor a psychiatric problem, more frequent church attendance, and a high level of academic achievement. While individuals in the community who are at high risk for suicide can be targeted for preventive measures, the high prevalence and effect of family problems on likelihood of suicide attempts indicate the need fur family- and community-based approaches. [Source: SC]

Page, Randy M. 1996. "Youth Suicidal Behavior: Completions, Attempts and Ideations." High School Journal vol. 80, pp. 60-65.
Abstract: Discusses the incidence of suidical behavior in adolescent youth and gives profiles for groups of adolescents who are most at-risk for suicide. Attempted suicide, suicidal ideation, and factors most frequently cited as related to the rising rate of adolescent suicide (e.g., social/academic competition, violence, and lack of connection to religion) are also summarized. Finally, guidelines for dealing with suicidal youth and strategies for school and community suicide prevention are presented. [Source: PI]

Zhang, J. and S. H. Jin. 1996. "Determinants of Suicide Ideation: A Comparison of Chinese and American College Students." Adolescence vol. 31, pp. 451-467.
Abstract: A LISREL model that incorporates both social and psychological factors was used to explain Chinese and American college students' suicide ideation. Questionnaire data were obtained from one Chinese sample (N = 320) from four universities in Beijing and one American sample (N = 452) from one university in the Rocky Mountain area. As in the American sample, Chinese females score higher on the ideation scale than Chinese males, but the overall rate is lower for the Chinese than for the American college students. The findings in the American data support previous Literature that family cohesion and religiosity are inversely related to suicide ideation, while the Chinese data suggest a positive correlation between religiosity and suicide ideation. This article offers a comparison of different cultural environments for Chinese and American adolescent development. [Source: SC]

Boehm, Kathryn E. and Nancy B. Campbell. 1995. "Suicide: A Review of Calls to an Adolescent Peer Listening Phone Service." Child Psychiatry and Human Development vol. 26, pp. 61-66.
Abstract: Of 11,152 calls to a national US teen peer listening phone service May 1987-Dec 1992, 441 were about suicide & 57% of these were from females, ages 15-16. Teens concerned with suicide called later in the evening & discussed other issues, eg, self-esteem, family problems, substance use, pregnancy, abuse, spirituality, legal issues, & eating disorders. Only 8 of the most recent 223 calls warranted call tracing. Discussion centers on setting up listening services, training teen answerers, & clinical implications. [Source: SA]

Huff, C. O. 1995. "The Relationship between the Source, Recency, and Degree of Stressors in Adolescence and Suicide Ideation." Ed.D. Thesis, The University of Tennessee.
Abstract: This research was undertaken for the purpose of identifying and verifying factors that predict the degree of suicide ideation in the adolescent population. An instrument was designed which was a modification of two scales: the Adolescent Life Change Event Scale developed by Yeaworth, York, Hussey, Ingle, and Goodwin; and the Suicide Intent Scale by Beck, Schuyler, and Herman. The instrument was evaluated for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. The sampling frame consisted of the students in the Knoxville, Tennessee, school system. Five schools were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. To ensure equal representation of all age groups in the sample, classes from each school were utilized that were composed exclusively of ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth graders. The sample consisted of 382 adolescents from ages 14 to 18 years. Frequency counts were completed on the following data: the recency of stressors, degree of stressors, and recency of suicide ideation. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine which variable(s) were significant in predicting adolescent suicide. Tukey's Multiple Comparison Procedures compared the means of the different groups to identify significant differences. The major findings of the study were: (1) recency of stressor and degree of stressor together were significant in the prediction of the degree of suicide ideation and accounted for 80 percent of the variance; (2) recency of stressor and degree of stressor together were significant in the prediction of the recency of suicide ideation and accounted for 68 percent of the variance; and (3) the potential amount of perceived stress of an event varied when the actual occurrence of the event was considered. Based upon the findings of the study, the following major recommendations were made: (1) the curriculum for health education should address developmental issues of adolescence, coping, and provide a safe place for the adolescent to practice these skills; (2) parent workshops should be developed to focus on teaching parents developmental issues and coping skills; (3) groups for adolescent support should be formed in facilities where this age group congregates such as church, school, and recreational centers; and (4) such groups should be evaluated to determine their influence on the degree and recency of stress and suicide ideation. [Source: CI]

Shagle, Shobba C. and Brian K. Barber. 1995. "A Social-Ecological Analysis of Adolescent Suicidal Ideation."American Journal of Orthopsychiatry vol. 65, pp. 114-124.
Abstract: Investigated the effects of family, school, peers, and religion on adolescent suicidal ideation, using self-derogation as a mediating variable. 123 5th, 188 8th, and 162 10th graders responded to measures including items from the Beck Depression Scale, M. Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem Scale, and the family conflict scale of the Colorado Self-Report of Family Functioning Inventory. As was hypothesized, the effects of different social variables were largely mediated by self-derogation. Family variables were more salient predictors of both self-derogation and suicidal ideation than were nonfamily variables. [Source: PI]

Zito, Michael Dominick. 1994. "A Study of Perceived Family Interactions of Suicidal Depressed and Nonsuicidal Depressed Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Seton Hall University School of Education.
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to systematically research four family interaction variables found in the clinical observation literature on suicidal adolescents and to compare the family interactions of depressed-suicidal (DS) with depressed-nonsuicidal (DNS) adolescents. The family interactions studied were aggression/hostility, rejection, rigidity, and enmeshment/symbiosis. A total of 51 white adolescents (63% female, 37% male) who were mostly Catholic (72%) and predominantly Italian and Irish, in full or part (85%), were included in a discriminant function analysis. It should also be noted that a total of 69 subjects were paid to participate in the study. The dissertation defense committee requested that additional subjects be added to the study from previously discarded data. Four of the subjects were nonsuicidal-nondepressed but were not included in the formal analysis due to small group size. Fifty-one were included in the discriminant function analysis as originally planned and mentioned above. The remaining 14 of the 65 were suicidal-nondepressed subjects and were included in supplemental analyses at the request of the dissertation defense committee. Following a significant MANOVA analysis on all 65 subjects, a direct discriminant function analysis was performed on 51 subjects which yielded one significant discriminant function (p <.002) accounting for 30.25% of the variance, The variables that evidenced a meaningful correlation (pm.40 or higher) with the discriminant function were aggression/hostility-rejection perceived from mother (.90), aggression/hostility-rejection perceived from father (.65), and perceived cohesion (-.55). However, stepwise discriminant function analysis indicated that cohesion did not contribute significant additional variance to the discriminant function when aggression/hostility-rejection from mother and aggression/hostility-rejection from father were entered. Hypothesis 1 which suggests that aggression/hostility-rejection will discriminate between DNS and DS groups was supported. Hypothesis 2 which suggests that rigid family relations would be evident in both DNS and DS groups was not supported. Hypothesis 3 which states that the DNS and DS groups will be enmeshed was not supported. Overall, the results indicated that perceived aggression/hostility-rejection was significantly higher in families of DS than DNS adolescents and that DS adolescents perceived their family to be significantly more disengaged on the Cohesion scale than DNS adolescents. The manner in which aggression, hostility, rejection and disengagement contribute to depression and suicide risk was discussed. Specifically, the adolescent may perceive chronic aggression, hostility and rejection as a message that the adolescent is "unwanted" and perhaps "expendable." Therefore, suicidal behavior appears to be an acting out of a perceived parental wish. Implications for family therapy were discussed. The results of the supplemental analyses showed some support for and some contradiction of the discriminant function analysis findings. The supplemental analyses need to be interpreted cautiously. [Source: DA]

Greening, Leilani and Stephen J. Dollinger. 1993. "Rural Adolescents' Perceived Personal Risks for Suicide." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 211-217.
Abstract: Examined the relationshp between religion and suicidal cognitions among high school students. 220 male and 235 female high school students rated on a 7-point scale their personal risks for lethal events, including suicide. Over half the adolescents (56%) reported some risk for suicide, of which 12% reported that their subjective risk was quite likely. A greater percentage of females (28%) than males (15%) reported high risk ratings. Public high school students were significantly more likely to report serious suicide risks than parochial high school students. This finding is discussed in the context of E. Durkheim's (1897 [1951]) proposition that religions deter self-destructive impulses. [Source: PI]

Stuart-Smith, Trish. 1993. "Adolescent Suicide--a Cry for Help." St Mark's Review vol. 152, pp. 30-33.

Trovato, Frank. 1992. "A Durkheimian Analysis of Youth Suicide: Canada, 1971 and 1981." Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior vol. 22, pp. 413-427.
Abstract: Tested E. Durkheim's (1897 [1951]) hypothesis that suicide varies inversely with the extent of social integration in family, religious, political, and economic life. The relationship between family integration, religious integration, and economic anomie on young Canadians' (aged 15-29) suicide rate for 1971 and 1981 was examined. Findings provide confirmation for the hypothesis that religious detachment among the young is associated with increased proneness to commit suicide. The effect of family dissolution was positive and significant for both young men and women in 1981 but not in 1971, giving partial confirmation for the family integration explanation of suicide. The economic anomie thesis received no support. [Source: PI]

Adelberg, Marla. 1991. "Suicidal Ideation among Adolescent Jews." M.SC. Thesis, The University of Manitoba (Canada), Winnipeg.
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to assess suicidal ideation among adolescent Jews. The data were collected from 86 students attending a private Jewish high school, in grades 9 through 12. Subjects were administered Beck's Depression Inventory, the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale and a brief demographic questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that 36% of the students reported suicidal thoughts. Religious affiliation, nationality, parental marital status and community involvement were all found to be nonsignificant factors involved in suicidal ideation. Religious observance and locus of control were found to be significant factors. More specifically, adolescents with an external locus of control and adolescents who were nonobservant were more likely to have suicidal thoughts. [Source: DA]

Auvil, C. A. 1991. "A Durkheimian Model for Prediction of Suicidal Ideation in an Adolescent Population."D.N.Sc. Thesis, Rush University, College of Nursing.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test Durkheim's egoistic theory of suicide, via questionnaire, among a stratified random sample of nonhospitalized adolescents (age 15-19 years) living in the four major geographic areas of the United States (n = 268). Family integration was measured by examining parental marital status and the adolescent's perception of parental rejection (PPR) using a scale developed by the Behavioral Research and Evaluation Corporation (1976). Suicidal ideation was measured using a scale developed by Sommerfeldt and Clark. Religious integration (RI) was measured using Auvil's R-I Scale. The construct of hopelessness (HS) was measured by Beck's Hopelessness Scale. The Marlowe-Crowne scale (H-C 1(10)) was included to estimate the effects of social desirability (SD) upon the independent and dependent variables. The hypotheses were that PPR and HS would predict SI, and that RI would be a mediating variable between HS and SI. Correlational analysis revealed no significant correlation between MS and HS, nor between MS and SI (p > .01). RI was not significantly correlated with either HS or SI (p > .01). A significant correlation was found between PPR and HS (r = -.52, p < .001), between PPR and SI (r = -.41, p < .001), and between HS and SI (r =.48, p < .001). Analysis of variance did not support Durkheim's conclusion that Catholics are more protected against SI than Protestants. Discriminant function analysis did not support the Durkheimian notion that RI is a protective variable against adolescent SI. Discriminant analysis indicated that HS, PPR, SD, and MS correctly classified the SI adolescents in 72% of the cases. However, this group of variables was more successful in predicting adolescents with low suicidal ideation (80% correctly classified) than adolescents with high suicidal ideation (53% correctly classified). Hopelessness followed by PPR were the strongest predictors of SI. Testing of Durkheim's theory in this adolescent population did not support his religious tenet of suicide, and provided weak support for his tenet that parental marital status and the adolescent's perception of parental rejection would be strongly associated with high suicidal ideation. (Scientific symbols modified where possible in accordance with CINAHL policy.) [Source: CI]

Lester, David. 1991. "Social Correlates of Youth Suicide Rates in the United States." Adolescence vol. 26, pp. 55-58.
Abstract: Found the 1980 suicide rates of youths in the US to be associated with 3 clusters of social variables: social integration, age structure, and race/religion. These associations also were found for older groups, suggesting similarities in the impact of social variables on regional suicide rates. [Source: PI]

Baird, Jeff Gerard. 1990. "The Relationship between Suicide Risk, Hopelessness, Depression, and Religious Commitment in High School Students." Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine suicide risk in high school students. The relationship between religious commitment, hopelessness, and depression on suicide risk was analyzed. The effect of religious commitment on hopelessness was also studied. Among adolescents, suicide is now the second leading cause of death. One major area of concern is the prevention of this self-destructive behavior and the suicide risk factors involved. Subjects included 164 freshman and sophomore students from one Christian and three public high schools which represented low, middle, and high socioeconomic levels. The instruments used were: (a) the Suicide Probability Scale (Cull & Gill, 1982); (b) the Hopelessness Scale (Beck, Weissman, Lester, & Trexler, 1974); (c) the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961); and (d) a modified version of the Sacks Religious Commitment Inventory (1974a). Analysis of the data revealed a significant negative correlation between religious commitment and suicide probability. When religious commitment was higher, the probability of suicide risk tended to be lower. A significant negative correlation was also found between religious commitment and hopelessness, which indicated that as religious commitment goes up, hopelessness goes down. Depression and hopelessness were significantly related to suicide risk, but depression proved to be a stronger influence on suicide risk than hopelessness. Additional findings showed that the students from the Christian school were significantly higher on religious commitment than the students from the three public schools. The Christian school students scored the lowest on depression and hopelessness and second lowest on suicide risk. Grades were examined, and the results indicated that students who usually received low grades were at a higher risk for suicide, depression, and hopelessness than were the students who received higher grades. Ethnicity was also studied. The non-Caucasian students were significantly higher on suicide risk and depression than the Caucasian students. The supportive value of religion warrants further replication and research for effective suicide intervention. Comparing hopelessness and depression as predictors for suicide risk in normal adolescent populations merits continued study. A different demographic representation of adolescents with a greater sociocultural diverse sample should be addressed in future research. [Source: DA]

Holzman, Alan David. 1990. "Adolescent Attitudes toward Suicide: Attempters Versus Nonattempters."Ph.D. Thesis, New York University.
Abstract: Adolescents' attitudes toward suicide are assessed using the SAVE Scale. Hypothesis I suggests that attempters will have more accepting attitudes toward suicide than non-attempters. Hypothesis II suggests that attempters will have more accepting attitudes toward the suicide attempts of others who attempted for a reason similar to their own than to those who attempted for other reasons. Information was gathered from 30 subjects (15 attempters and 15 non-attempters) over a 17 month period.. All subjects were from a hospital based patient population. Findings support both hypotheses. Several background factors were also examined and discussed in relationship to the two groups of subjects. These background factors include: family and peer history of suicidal behavior, suicide ideation, race, sex, and religion. [Source: DA]

Rutledge, Essie Manuel. 1990. "Suicide among Black Adolescents and Young Adults: A Rising Problem." Pp. 339-351 in Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health, edited by Arlene Rubin Stiffman and Larry E. Davis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Abstract: (from the chapter) examine the suicidal trends of black youth age 15-24 and . . . provide explanations for various factors associated with suicide the latter focuses mainly on macrosociological research with some attention to microsociology macrosociological research is the main choice of analysis because the data examined are aggregate trend data, and the focus is on those characteristics that might increase the probability of suicide within the Black youth population the microsociological research uses the individual as the unit of analysis; therefore, studies of attempted suicides will be reviewed sociocultural variables related to suicide [economic status, urbanization, religiosity]. [Source: PI]

Woods, Dorris Stubbs. 1990. "Risk Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation in Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abusers." Ph.D. Thesis, Claremont Graduate School.
Abstract: This study examined risk factors associated with suicidal ideation in adolescent and young adult male substance abusers with regard to the self-reported drug- use behavior and other factors. The subjects who participated in the study consisted of the study group and a comparison group. The study group included clients in treatment for substance abuse. The comparison group included students in various educational institutions in Los Angeles County. Each of the two groups had approximately equal numbers of black, white and Hispanic subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 18-29 years. It was hypothesized that: (1) the drug-abuse group would show more suicidal ideation than the non-abuse group (comparison) as measured by Beck's Hopelessness Scale; (2) suicidal ideation would have a positive association with problem-family communication and negative association with open-family communications as measured by Olson's Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PACS); (3) suicidal ideation will show a significant and negative association with achieved ego identity measure but a significant and positive association with diffused ego identity measure as measured by Adams' Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (OMEIS); (4) there is a significant and positive association between intensity of drug abuse and the degree of suicidal ideation; (5) more suicidal ideation will be found in black and white youths who abuse drugs than Hispanic youths who abuse drugs; (6) Hispanics who are Catholic will have less suicidal ideation than black or white youth who are Protestant or of other religious affiliation; (7) there is a positive association between social conflict and suicidal ideation. The data were analyzed utilizing several statistical procedures: correlation analyses, analyses of variance and factorial analyses of variance and content analysis for non-quantified data. As stated above, the variables under consideration for this study were the use and non- use of drugs, ethnicity, religion, family structure, social conflict, and ego identity status. [Source: DA]

Barry, Brian. 1989. "Suicide: The Ultimate Escape."Death Studies vol. 13, pp. 185-190.
Abstract: Suggests that the reasons for the upsurge in the number of teenage suicides may be due to factors such as changed societal values, creating a more materialistic and self-oriented ethos. It is noted that, as traditional religious and theological constraints on individual behavior give way and society's understanding of the nature of human contracts changes, increases in divorce, abortion, drug abuse, euthanasia, and suicide could result. [Source: PI]

Bolger, Niall, Geraldine Downey, Elaine Walker, and Pam Steininger. 1989. "The Onset of Suicidal Ideation in Childhood and Adolescence." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 18, pp. 175-190.
Abstract: Suicidal behavior among adolescents in the US has increased threefold since 1950, becoming the third leading cause of death in this population. Here, the relationship between suicidal ideation & suicidal behavior is explored, based on the questionnaire responses of 364 undergraduates. A developmental approach to suicidal ideation leads to the prediction that the impact of the demographic variables & life experiences on suicidal thoughts will vary by developmental stage. Findings reveal that thoughts of suicide had occurred to the majority of respondents at some point in their lives. At all ages, females were at higher risk for considering suicide than males, & whites than nonwhites; non-Catholics, however, were no more likely than Catholics to consider suicide. It is concluded that the results demonstrate the importance of examining patterns of suicidal ideation in nonclinical samples in order to provide a basis for targeting primary prevention efforts. [Source: SA]

Daly, Doris L. 1989. "The Relationship between High School Class, Grades, Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Concerns." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University.
Abstract: This research was conducted to increase knowledge of a population of adolescents by means of an assessment of their concerns. Research has demonstrated that environmental conditions impact on adolescent concerns, and therefore, a local survey provides knowledge relevant to each population. In addition to a survey of concerns, demographic variables--grade level, grade point average and participation in extracurricular activities were included to determine the mediating role of each variable on adolescent concerns. To add knowledge to the contemporary complex problems of adolescent suicide, alcoholism, and drug abuse, an analysis of specific items relating to these problems were included in this study. Comparative studies to determine if concerns are mediated by community differences and by time (zeitgeist) were also conducted. To assess concerns, the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) (Mooney & Gordon, 1950) was used. This instrument contains 330 items of concerns grouped into 11 distinct categories. A new category, "Drugs and Alcohol," was added by the researcher and contained 30 items relating to drug and alcohol concerns. The sample consisted of 356 students (grades 9-12) who attended a private male college-preparatory high school. These students responded to the MPCL, the new category, and a questionnaire including the demographic information. The data was analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed the top three ranking categories of concerns in this population were: "Adjustment to School Work," "Social/Psychological Relations," and "Morals and Religion." Multivariate discriminant analyses revealed groups differentiated by each demographic variable--grade level, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities were significantly different, with the exception of 11th and 12th grade groups. The tenth grade, low grade point average, and "no" activity groups had higher levels of total concerns with academic concerns the major category. In addition, t tests revealed respondents to each of the suicide, alcohol, and drug items of concern showed significantly higher levels of concerns in the majority of categories in comparison to nonrespondents. Finally, comparisons with earlier research demonstrated that students in this current study (1987) responded to a higher level of total concerns. [Source: DA]

Schneider, Stephen G., Norman L. Farberow, and Gabriel N. Kruks. 1989. "Suicidal Behavior in Adolescent and Young Adult Gay Men." Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior vol. 19, pp. 381-394.
Abstract: In a study of suicidal ideation among gay males, questionnaire data were collected from 2 groups of self-identified gay men ages 16-24 (N = 52 from gay student organizations, & 56 from rap groups sponsored by gay & lesbian community centers). Analysis of variables including family history of alcoholism & abuse, social support, religious affiliation, & race, along with suicide ideation, reveals that suicide attempts were more often associated with intrapersonal distress & occurred most often while the men were "closeted" &/or had experienced recent rejection due to their homosexuality. Familial factors also predisposed youth to suicidal behavior, as well as not having established a "positive gay identity." [Source: SA]

Conrad, Nancy Homsey. 1988. "High School Students' Causal Attributions of Peer Suicidal Behaviors." Ed.D. Thesis, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick.
Abstract: This exploratory study was designed to use the attributional model to explore adolescents' perceptions about the causes of peer suicides. Additionally, variables related to the adolescent's family background, social relationships and self were examined to determine factors that may influence suicidal behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-six eleventh and twelfth grade students from a suburban public school district near a large metropolitan area in the Northeast completed three self-report measures, an open-ended question measuring causality, a scenario four-point scale rating blame, and a background questionnaire. Forty-two students were seen in follow-up interviews to verify data. Two major tenets of attribution theory are that people interpret events and the consequences of the events to arrive at decisions about their personal dispositions, and that a person makes different attributions depending on whether he or she is in the actor or observer position. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance and crosstabulations for three groups, male and females, suicidal behaviors and knowledge of a suicidal person. Specific tests included the Dunn Multiple Range Test, Fisher's Exact Test (Two-Tailed) and chi-square. The findings indicate that 23% of the high school students studied, reported self hurt behaviors and 6.7% reported suicide attempts. A theme of "too much pressure" was reported by 40% of the adolescents as a cause of suicide. The quality of family life and parental acts of affection were identified as very important ways to decrease suicidal behaviors. Significant differences were seen in internal/external causality (p $<$.05) for sex differences and suicidal behaviors, depending on the test measure used. Divergence from anticipated findings indicated that adolescents with suicidal behaviors (actors) made fewer external attributions than the non-suicidal (observer) adolescents. Parent's marital status, church attendance, school performance/attendance, social supports, knowledge of a suicidal person and health were statistically significant when students were compared by suicidal behaviors and suicidal ideation. Results were discussed in terms of the need for additional research with adolescent populations and health professionals. [Source: DA]

Greenberg, Michael R., George W. Carey, and Frank J. Popper. 1987. "Violent Death, Violent States, and American Youth." Public Interest vol. 87, pp. 38-48.
Abstract: Data from the National Center for Health Statistics are used to compute rates of violent death - from suicide, homicide, automobile accidents, & other accidents - among whites aged 15-24 for the 48 contiguous US states for 1939-1941, 1949-1951, 1959-1961, 1969-1971, & 1977-1979. Analysis reveals that the Ru western states invariably had the highest death rates from all causes for all periods, while the Ur northeastern states had the lowest. Moreover, the overall white M violent death rate in the 6 most dangerous Ru western counties was 13% higher than the comparable black rate in 6 eastern inner cities. It is also found that Emile Durkheim's explanation of suicide as springing from lack of integration into society holds across the nation for all forms of violent death, as measured by such indices of integration as religious participation & divorce & unemployment rates. Thus, in policy terms, the violent regional culture of the Ru West, along with national & worldwide changes in the family, lifestyles, & values, combine to place enormous stress on the young, & to create vast obstacles to their physical & psychological well-being; nearly all are beyond the direct or immediate impact of public intervention. 2 Maps. [Source: SA]

Housley, Kathleen. 1986. "Churches Respond to Teen Suicide." Christian Century pp. 438-439.

Kreutzer, Franklin D. 1986. And Therefore Choose Life: A Jewish Response to Teens in Crisis. New York: United Synagogue of America, Commission on Teenage Suicide.

Griffiths, J. Kent. 1985. "Indices of Adolescent Suicide Attempts." D.S.W. Thesis, The University of Utah.
Abstract: The adolescent of today experiences a variety of stressors. The focus of this study was on multideterminant stress factors which may predispose the adolescent to a suicide attempt. The purpose of the research was to study adolescents who have attempted suicide (parasuicide) to formulate a set of indices which would help to explain the phenomenon of adolescent suicide. These results were then contrasted with those from two comparison groups. Forty-five adolescents were studied in each of the three groups. The theoretical framework was developed from the review of the adolescent suicide and social support literature. The correlates of suicide were organized into six indices. Four stressor indices were designed as Problem Events, Problem Behaviors, Intrapersonal Conflict, and Interpersonal Conflict. Two social support indices were identified as Supportive People and Support Satisfaction. The six research hypotheses were related to the indices and stated that the suicide attempting group would demonstrate significantly higher levels of stress factors and less adequate perceived social support on the three instruments used, when contrasted with the comparison groups. The survey research design compared the parasuicides with youth receiving outpatient psychological counseling and adolescents receiving inpatient medical and surgical treatment. Demographic variables showed that there were significant differences between the groups in regard to marijuana use, alcohol use, religious activity, and immediate family history of suicide. The findings show that parasuicides experience multideterminant stressors, particularly Intrapersonal Conflict, and less supportive relationships than their teenage counterparts. The analyses revealed statistically significant differences between the parasuicides and at least one comparison group on 46 of the 95 variables (48%). Twelve discriminant variables accounted for between 48% and 65% of the variance between groups. A cluster of correlations was labeled "negative preoccupation" and examined negativism, desperation, anger, and thoughts of self-harm. A second cluster included depressive variables of hopelessness, unhappiness, and feelings of depression. Research goals should focus on "at-risk" prediction, and social work clinicians should emphasize the intrapersonal, cognitive world of any troubled adolescents. [Source: DA]

Stack, Steven. 1985. "The Effect of Domestic/Religious Individualism on Suicide, 1954-1978." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 47, pp. 431-447.
Abstract: The proposition that domestic & religious life form a complex of collectivistic values that influence the tendency for suicide is tested using data from the US National Center for Health Statistics, 1969-1978, & J. Diggory's "United States Suicide Rates, 1933-1968: An Analysis of Some Trends" (in Schneidman, E., Suicidology: Contemporary Developments, New York: Grosse & Straton, 1976). A Cochrane-Orcutt analysis indicates that changes in a principle component measuring domestic/religious individualism are significantly correlated with changes in the national suicide rate, especially the youth suicide rate. The susceptibility of the younger cohort to cultural change & religious individualism is suggested. Findings are viewed in light of previously proposed models of suicide. Although the link between unemployment rates & suicide is upheld, no support for a "death dip" in presidential elections years is apparent. [Source: SA]

Stillion, Judith M., Eugene E. McDowell, and Jacque H. May. 1984. "Developmental Trends and Sex Differences in Adolescent Attitudes toward Suicide." Death Educationvol. 8, pp. 81-90.
Abstract: The impact of developmental trends & differences on adolescent suicide is explored; attention is also given to sex differences. In one study, an inventory of attitudes toward suicide was completed by 106 ninth graders, 196 twelfth graders, & 84 Coll students in NC; Rs also furnished information on demographic & religious traits. In a second, the same inventory was completed by 84 gifted ninth graders in NC (48 of whom were enrolled in a special summer enrichment program) & 106 nongifted; the selected gifted group completed 2 related inventories of attitudes. Older adolescents agree less with all reasons for suicide than younger adolescents; the same is true of Ms as opposed to Fs & gifted as opposed to nongifted Fs. These findings are discussed in terms of adolescents' cognitive development & sex-role characteristics. [Source: SA]

McEnery, Gerard Joseph. 1983. "Correlates of Attitudes About the Acceptability of Suicide among High School and College Students." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pittsburgh.
Abstract: This study was undertaken to answer questions about the value-standards of today's adolescents. There has been speculation in recent years about changing attitudes of youth in regard to suicide. Coincidentally, according to the United States Public Health Service, the adolescent suicide rate in this country increased 250% in the twelve years between 1960 and 1972. The study surveyed 132 high school Juniors, 127 high school Seniors, 275 Introduction to Psychology students and 76 Advanced Psychology students to determine their attitudes about the acceptability of suicide. One of the instruments used consisted of a fifty-item questionnaire regarding a variety of psycho-social issues. Among the items was a question about whether or not people should have the right to decide whether they want to live or die. In addition, three other suicide- related questions were included. An average of responses to all the suicide-related questions was calculated to determine a "suicide-acceptance" score. A slight decline in suicide-acceptance was noted relative to the latest study in 1976. Besides the suicide-related questions, a variety of other value-related items dealing with current psycho- social matters of interest were included in the survey. Responses to such items were then correlated with attitudes of suicide-acceptance. A strong correlation between self-determination and suicide-acceptability, for example, was evidenced from that comparison. Of further interest was the relatively small number (37%) of respondents who consistently expressed their disagreement with the concept of the acceptability of suicide in general. The survey also included an "information sheet" consisting of eighteen demographic items. A variety of patterns were established between the demographic information and the responses to survey items. The high percentage of the sample population that considered themselves to be religious, for example, was significant in relationship to the way attitudes were expressed concerning items that had moral implications. It is suspected that the religiously biased sample contributed to the apparent decline in the hypothesized trend of increased suicide-acceptance. [Source: DA]

Stack, Steven. 1983. "The Effect of the Decline in Institutionalized Religion on Suicide, 1954-1978."Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 22, pp. 239-252.
Abstract: The study adopts a social integration/regulation perspective that predicts a rise in suicide from the decline in institutionalized religion. Using Cochrane-Orcutt iterative regression procedures, the investigation links the decline of religion, measured in church attendance, with a rise in suicide. The religious factor tends to be more closely associated with suicide than the rate of unemployment, a control taken from one of the dominant paradigms on suicide. The decline in religion was most closely associated with the suicide rate of young adults, the group with the greatest decline in church attendance. To 1978, the analysis suggests that any alleged increase in "invisible religion" had not been adequate to offset the effect of the fall in institutionalized religion on suicide. While the fall in church attendance was the most important factor associated with rising suicide rates, the rate of unemployment and military participation were also significant. [Source: RI]

Stivers, Cathie Gail. 1983. "Parent-Adolescent Communication and Its Relationship to Adolescent Depression and Suicide Proneness." Ph.D. Thesis, Southern Illinois University At Carbondale, Carbondale.
Abstract: Suicide is among the four leading causes of death among adolescents in the United States, and suicide rates in this age group are increasing dramatically. A possible factor related to adolescent suicide may be that of inadequate or insufficient parent-adolescent communication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the communication level between selected adolescents and their parents, and to determine its relationship to the parents' perceptions of their adolescent's depression as it relates to suicide proneness. The Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory (PACI) (Bienvenu, 1969) was used to measure communication, and the Suicide-Depression Inventory (SKI) (Martin, 1974) was used to measure depression and suicide proneness. All contact with the study sample was done by mail. Of the 411 adolescents and their parents who were initially contacted, 53 adolescents and their parents completed and returned the instruments. These participants, from a rural setting in Southern Illinois, comprised a sample which was predominantly White and Protestant. Adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 18 years old with a mean age of 15.5, and the parents ranged from 31 to 59 years of age with a mean age of 42.1. Upon statistical analysis of the instrument scores, simple correlation coefficients expressed significant relationships between mother and adolescent scores, but not between father and adolescent scores. However, when controlling for other independent variables (other-parent's instrument scores, religion, age, socioeconomic status), neither the father's nor the mother's instrument scores was significantly related to the adolescent's SDI score. The adolescent PACI score was the only independent variable that produced a significant semi-partial correlation coefficient. A multiple regression procedure was used to determine the power of the independent variables to predict adolescent SDI score. Only one of the independent variables entered and stayed in the predictor model at the .05 level, and that was the adolescent's PACI score (p-.001). [Source: DA]

Kelly, Regina R. 1980. "An Investigation of the Effects of Race, Sex, and Age Differences on Selected Cultural and Psychological Factors Related to Suicide." Thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.