Substance Use

Benda, B. B., R. F. Corwyn, and N. J. Toombs. 2001. "Recidivism among Adolescent Serious Offenders - Prediction of Entry into the Correctional System for Adults." Criminal Justice and Behavior vol. 28, pp. 588-613.
Abstract: This is a 2-year follow-up study of 414 adolescents, age 17 years, to determine what static and dynamic factors predict recidivism or entry into the correctional system for adults. The strongest predictor is prior incarcerations, followed by age persons started committing crime, gang membership, age they started using alcohol/drugs, their MMPIpd scores, and chemical abuse score. The denial and asocial subscales of the Jesness Inventory and all the subscales of the Carlson Psychological Inventory are significantly associated with recidivism. Implications of the study are discussed. [Source: SC]

Jang, S. J. and B. R. Johnson. 2001. "Neighborhood Disorder, Individual Religiosity and Adolescent Use of Illicit Drugs: A Test of Multilevel Hypotheses."Criminology vol. 39, pp. 109-+.
Abstract: We hypothesize about the relationships among perceiveid neighborhood disorder, individual religiosity, and adolescent use of illicit drugs, marijuana and hard drugs; and the age- varying effects of religiosity on illicit drug use. Applying hierarchical linear models to analyze the National Youth Survey data, We first find that neighborhood disorder and religiosity have hypothesized effects on illicit drug use independent of social bonding and social learning variables that partly mediate the effects. Second religiosity buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on illicit drug use. Third, the effects of religiosity on illicit drug use become stronger throughout adolescence The implications of the findings are discussed. [Source: SC]

Mainous, R. O., A. G. Mainous, III, C. A. Martin, M. J. Oler, and A. S. Haney. 2001. "The Importance of Fulfilling Unmet Needs of Rural and Urban Adolescents with Substance Abuse." Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing vol. 14, pp. 32-40.
Abstract: PROBLEM. Because o f the negative impact on health of drug and alcohol use, this study examined adolescent needs and substance use. METHODS. Subjects (N =191) were adolescents aged 14 to 19 in a rural and an urban high school. A modified version of the Need Subscale from the Addiction Research Center Maturation Scale measured a feeling o f satisfaction related to meeting basic needs, and an investigator's prepared questionnaire elicited current use of alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana. FINDINGS. Individuals with feelings of unmet needs were more likely to be current drinkers. Rural/urban residence was not a significant predictor in a multivariate analysis, but religiosity was. CONCLUSIONS. A feeling of unmet needs seems to be an important factor in adolescent substance use. [Source: CI]

McCuller, W. J., S. Sussman, C. W. Dent, and L. Teran. 2001. "Concurrent Prediction of Drug Use among High-Risk Youth." Addictive Behaviors vol. 26, pp. 137-142.
Abstract: Correlates of drug use were examined in a continuation high school sample (n = 1.315), using canonical correlation analysis. Fourteen demographic, attitudes/belief. and psychosocial pressure/anxiety-type variables were included as concurrent predictors. Eight drug-use-related measures were also placed into the analysis as outcome variables. Two factors were revealed. White ethnicity, not being Latino, all attitude/belief measures, and family conflict and depression showed relatively high loadings on the first predictor factor, and were associated with all drug-use measures. Latino ethnicity and being relatively unacculturated (i.e., tending to speak Spanish), most of the attitude/belief measures (but not sensation seeking or spirituality), and perceived peer approval to use drugs, trait anxiety, and depression showed relatively high loadings on the second predictor factor, and were associated with the hard-drug-use measures. These results suggest that there is a subgroup of unacculturated Latino youth who are anxious, who perceive they will achieve peer approval by using drugs, and who tend to use hard drugs. Indicated drug abuse prevention strategies may need to be tailored to this subgroup when developing and implementing programming. [Source: SC]

Merrill, R. M., R. D. Salazar, and N. W. Gardner. 2001. "Relationship between Family Religiosity and Drug Use Behavior among Youth." Social Behavior and Personalityvol. 29, pp. 347-357.
Abstract: This study evaluated the relationship between several dimensions of parental and family religiosity with adolescent drug use behavior. Analysis was based on self-reported responses to a questionnaire administered to 1,036 undergraduate college students at Brigham Young University of which 99.1% are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS). About 86% reported having never used drugs. The most commonly reported reasons for abstention from drugs were that drug use violates the participants' religious beliefs and their personal moral code. In contrast, concern about legal consequences, harming family reputation, and avoiding dishonest behavior were among the least common reasons for abstaining from drugs. Children of parents who were neutral, versus critical, about religion - or who considered religion of minor importance - were more likely to have a history of drug use. Protective factors against drug behavior included also parental positions of responsibility in the church and frequent family discussions involving religion and Christian conduct. The mother's view of religion was a stronger indicator of previous drug use behavior than either the father's view of religion, positions of church responsibility held by the parents, or arguments about religious teachings with parents. Discussion on topics of Christian conduct was a stronger indicator of previous drug use behavior than were either church attendance or discussions on topics of religious doctrine. [Source: SC]

Smithline, Catherine Williams. 2001. "Spirituality as a Protective Factor against Adolescent Substance Abuse."Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology - Berkeley/Alameda.
Abstract: In order to improve the prevention of adolescent substance abuse problems, spirituality as a protective factor against adolescent substance abuse was investigated. Spirituality was defined as (a) having a sense of existential well being, (b) being connected to and promoting the well being of one's community and oneself, and (c) having a personal and transcendent relationship with the life-giving force, a higher power, or some concept of God. It was hypothesized that (a) there would be a negative relationship between adolescents spirituality and substance abuse and (b) that spirituality during adolescence is in a period of change. The participants were 196 adolescents recruited from a non-denomination private high school (mean age = 15.4 years, sd = 1.40) and a Catholic high school (mean age = 16.4 years, sd = 0.56), in a suburban county of a major Western city. Due to the lack of an adolescent measure of spirituality, an adolescent focus group was conducted about their spiritual beliefs, and this information was used to construct the Smithline Spirituality Inventory for Teen [SSIT]. The participants completed the SSIT along with the Human Spirituality Scale [HSS] (Wheat, 1991), the Religious Attitudes and Practices Inventory (D'Onofrio, Murrelle, McCullough, Landis, & Eaves, in press), and the Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (Winters, 1991). The findings demonstrated several relationships between adolescent spirituality and substance use patterns, which appeared to be influenced by the religiosity of the adolescent and the developmental maturation of the adolescent. A positive relationship between spirituality and substance abuse was evidenced for non-religious adolescents, suggesting that adolescents without a religious background may seek spiritual experiences through alcohol and other drug use. In addition, spirituality was found to be positively related to age of first use, and for religious adolescents to the age when they first began using regularly. In addition, a developmental explanation for these relationships was provided that considered how adolescent spiritual beliefs change over time. The usefulness of the SSIT and the HSS as measures of adolescent spirituality was explored, and directions for future research were made. [Source: DA]

Sung Joon, Jang and Byron R. Johnson. 2001. "Neighborhood Disorder, Individual Religiosity and Adolescent Use of Illicit Drugs: A Test." Criminology vol. 39, pp. 109-143.
Abstract: Hypothesizes about the relationship among neighborhood disorder, individual religiosity and adolescent use of illicit drugs. Effects of religiosity on illicit drug use; Neighborhood disorder and drug use; Disorder and religiosity; Adolescent development, religiosity and drug use. [Source: AS]

Sutherland, I. and J. P. Shepherd. 2001. "Social Dimensions of Adolescent Substance Use." Addiction vol. 96, pp. 445-458.
Abstract: Objectives. The aim of this study was to explore in detail the relationship between various social aspects of young people's lives and substance use and differences in the degree of influence exerted by the different social factors as a function of age. Design, setting, participants. The study was a survey of pupils aged 11-16 in a stratified sample of five English schools. Data from 4516 participants were obtained in relation to their cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use and their contact with the police, perceived academic achievements and future expectations, religious beliefs, family structure, the importance of family versus peer opinions and suspension from school. Measures. Cumulative, age-specific preferences of substance misuse were compared. Logistic regression was used to rank the various risk factors. Results. Substantial differences were found between substance users and non-users and the various risk factors being examined. For example, of those who had only been in trouble with the police, 18.8% used illegal drugs compared with 1.6% of those who had not had a police contact and who had no other risk factors. Many of these relationships were age-sensitive. For instance, the negative relationship between belief in God and illicit drug use became stronger as age increased (non-believers: y = 8.1886x -9.16 R-2 = 0.9484; believers: y = 5.1514x -8.08 R-2 = 0.9247). These results suggest that, within this sample of English adolescents, there was a strong relationship between substance use and the social factors examined. Although there were differences depending upon whether cigarette, alcohol or illicit drug use was being modelled, logistic regression indicated that the social factors could be ranked in the following order of importance: concurrent use of the second and third substances, having been in trouble with the police, perceived poor academic performance and low future academic expectations, a lack of religious belief, coming from a non- intact family, favouring peer over family opinion and having been suspended from school. Many of these relationships were age-sensitive with substance use peaking at age 15. Conclusion. The models and relationships presented in this paper show that a constellation of behaviours are related to adolescent substance use. Also demonstrated is that behaviours cannot be considered in isolation, but need to be examined from an holistic or biopsychosocial standpoint. These relationships are complex and future research should consider not only causality of adolescent substance use, but also of the aetiology of the satellite behaviours. [Source: SC]

Vakalahi, H. F. 2001. "Adolescent Substance Use and Family-Based Risk and Protective Factors: A Literature Review." Journal of Drug Education vol. 31, pp. 29-46.
Abstract: Adolescent substance use has become a serious concern nationwide. Although there are many ways of viewing adolescent substance use, family influence has been established as one of the strongest sources of risk and protection. A review of the literature indicated relevant theories for understanding adolescent substance use and specific family-based variables influencing adolescent substance use. Tn general, there seems to be a relationship between adolescent substance use and family-based risk and protective factors. Relevant theories identified in the literature review include family systems theory social cognitive theory, social control theory, and strain theory. Specific family-based risk and protective factors include family relationships such as with siblings and parents and family characteristics such as ethnicity and religious backgrounds. Future implications for research and prevention/intervention in relation to family-based risk and protective factors are discussed. [Source: SC]

Benda, B. B. and R. F. Corwyn. 2000. "A Theoretical Model of Religiosity and Drug Use with Reciprocal Relationships: A Test Using Structural Equation Modeling." Journal of Social Service Research vol. 26, pp. 43-67.
Abstract: This study of 1093 adolescents from 6 public high schools was designed to test a hypothesized model formulated by theoretical elaboration of control theory with elements from social learning theory using structural equation modeling procedures. The primary purpose was to establish that religion is relevant to illicit drug use when its direct, indirect and reciprocal. effects are tested within a more complete system of relationships than found in existing studies. Most aspects of the model were supported by data and religion had direct inverse effects on illegal drug use for all adolescents studied. However, the feedback effects of drug use on religion were significant only among younger adolescents and females. Other age and gender differences were observed when the hypothesized model was tested with structural equation modeling procedures. The implications of these findings were discussed in regard to future conceptual work and intervention. [Source: SC]

Dick, D. M., J. K. Johnson, R. J. Viken, and R. J. Rose. 2000. "Testing between-Family Associations in within-Family Comparisons." Psychological Science vol. 11, pp. 409-413.
Abstract: Using behaviourally discordant siblings to test for gene- behavior associations is a common tool in molecular genetics, because the within-family contrast offers a research design that avoids confounds inevitable in all between-family comparisons of unrelated individuals. We propose a similar strategy to assess the behaviour-behaviour associations on which much of psychological science is built. Between-family correlations of personality test scores (e.g., sensation seeking) and behavioural outcomes (e.g., substance use) may be mediated by variables that differ between families (e.g., social class or religiosity) and correlate with both personality and outcome. Contrasting twin and nontwin siblings who were highly discordant for behavioral correlates of substance use, we tested whether between-family behavioral correlations replicated within families. Some, but not all, did. Within-family analysis of behaviorally discordant siblings may find wide application in efforts to clarify the meaning of correlational research data. [Source: SC]

Figlio, David and Jens Ludwig. 2000. "Sex, Drugs, and Catholic Schools: Private Schooling and Non-Market Adolescent Behaviors." Columbia University.

Gomes, J. L. G. and M. Munoz-Rivas. 2000. "Psychological Risk and Protection Factors for Drug Use by Adolescents." Psicologia Conductual vol. 8, pp. 249-269.
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to analyze the influence and the differential weight of certain psychological variables (selfconcept and depression, other characteristics of personality and of antisocial behavior and ethical-moral values) in drug use by adolescents. A sample of 1.570 adolescents of both sexes was used (54.4% men and 45.6% women) belonging to the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The results showed that several substances of use studied were empirically grouped into three factors called: "legal drugs" "illegal drugs" and "medical drugs". In turn, several stepwise regression analysis were carried out with each one of the three factors and it was pointed out that the main psychological risk factors to explain the use of legal drugs were self-esteem, presence of antisocial behaviors and desinhibition; on the contrary the most important protection factors were the presence of positive selfconcept, a high level of sincerity and religious practice. Risk and protection factors for illegal and medical drugs were also analyzed. These data are taken into account when designing a prevention program for drug use. [Source: SC]

Grunbaum, J. A., S. Tortolero, N. Weller, and P. Gingiss. 2000. "Cultural, Social, and Intrapersonal Factors Associated with Substance Use among Alternative High School Students." Addictive Behaviors vol. 25, pp. 145-151.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify cultural, social, and intrapersonal factors associated with tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use among students attending dropout prevention/recovery high schools, Four mutually exclusive categories of substance use were used as outcome measures, and religiosity, educational achievement, educational aspiration, family caring, others caring, self-esteem, optimism, coping, depression, loneliness, and self-efficacy were used as predictor variables. In the final multivariate model more family caring and loneliness were inversely associated with marijuana use; young age, more family caring, less coping ability, church attendance, and low educational aspirations were significantly associated with cocaine use. This study demonstrates the importance of health education and health promotion programs for students attending alternative high schools which include prevention of initiation, as well as treatment. [Source: SC]

Johnson, Byron R. 2000. A Better Kind of High : How Religious Commitment Reduces Drug Use among Poor Urban Teens. Pennsylvania: CRRUCS.

Miller, L., M. Davies, and S. Greenwald. 2000. "Religiosity and Substance Use and Abuse among Adolescents in the National Comorbidity Survey."Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry vol. 39, pp. 1190-1197.
Abstract: Objective: To replicate previous findings among adults of an inverse association between religiosity and substance use among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Method: Subjects were 676 (328 female and 348 male) adolescents in the National Comorbidity Survey who were assessed for substance use and abuse with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Religiosity was assessed through affiliation with religious denomination and through response to 7 questions concerning belief and practice. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses replicated in adolescents the 2 religiosity factors of personal devotion and personal conservatism previously identified by Kendler among adults, although the 2 factors were more highly correlated in adolescents than in adults. Personal devotion (a personal relationship with the Divine) and affiliation with more fundamentalist religious denominations were inversely associated with substance use and substance dependence or abuse across a range of substances (alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, or any contraband drug). Personal conservatism (a personal commitment to teaching and living according to creed) was inversely associated with use of alcohol only. Conclusion: Low levels of religiosity may be associated with adolescent onset of substance use and abuse. [Source: SC]

Rivers, Monica Corbitt. 2000. "Resisting Risk: The Protective Roles of Family Environment and Personal Resilience among African-American Adolescent Girls Living in Low-Income Neighborhoods." Ph.D. Thesis, Vanderbilt University.
Abstract: Personal resilience was examined as a mediator of the influence of specific family environment variables (cohesion, control, achievement-orientation, moral-religious emphasis, and conflict) on selected developmental outcomes (academic achievement, alcohol and tobacco use, sexual behavior, and delinquent behavior) in African-American early adolescent girls. The sample included 106 10 to 12 year old African-American girls living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Findings provided no evidence of a direct effect of family environment on developmental outcomes; therefore, the hypothesized mediational model could not be tested. Additional analyses, however, revealed significant direct effects of personal resilience on two developmental outcomes under investigation, alcohol and tobacco use and delinquent behavior. Possible explanations for the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. [Source: DA]

Rotheram-Borus, M. J. 2000. "Expanding the Range of Interventions to Reduce HIV among Adolescents." AIDSvol. 14, pp. S33-S40.
Abstract: Objective: Structural interventions are identified to reduce adolescents' HIV risk. Method: The goals, strategies, approaches, and delivery sites of adolescent HIV prevention programs are reviewed. Results: In addition to reducing sexual activity and substance use, HIV prevention programs may also reduce adolescents' HIV risk by: decreasing poverty; ensuring access to HIV testing, healthcare, general social skills training, and employment opportunities; and requiring community service for students. Adolescent HIV prevention programs do not currently utilize diverse modalities (computers, videotapes, television, telephone groups, computerized telephones) or sites (parents' workplaces, religious organizations, self-help networks, primary healthcare clinics) for delivering interventions. Diversifying current approaches to HIV prevention include: economic development programs; mandating delivery of programs at key developmental milestones (e.g, childbirth, marriage) and settings (school-based clinics, condom availability programs); securing changes in legislative and funding policies through ballot initiatives or lawsuits; and privatizing prevention activities. Conclusions: To implement structural HIV interventions for adolescents requires researchers to shift their community norms regarding the value of innovation, adopt designs other than randomized controlled trials, expand their theoretical models, and adopt strategies used by lawyers, private enterprise, and lobbyists. [Source: SC]

Vakalahi, H. F., R. S. Harrison, and F. V. Janzen. 2000. "The Influence of Family-Based Risk and Protective Factors on Adolescent Substance Use." Journal of Family Social Work vol. 4, pp. 21-34.
Abstract: The influence of family-based risk and protective factors on adolescent substance use was examined in this study. Parental education level, ethnic background, religious affiliation, sibling substance use, family conflict, and family involvement were the specific risk and protective factors examined. Five thousand and nine adolescents in the state of Utah were randomly sampled and completed the survey. Responses of 4,983 adolescents were included in the data analysis. High parental education level, religiously affiliated, and family involvement are protective factors for adolescent substance use. Ethnic minority background, sibling substance use, and family conflict are risk factors for adolescent substance use. Future implications for intervention and research in relation to family-based risk and protective factors are discussed. [Source: CI]

Brunswick, Ann F. 1999. "Structural Strain: An Ecological Paradigm for Studying African American Drug Use." Drugs and Society vol. 14, pp. 5-19.
Abstract: Suggests that drug involvement differences in the African American community are best explained by heterogeneity in degrees of success in & attachment to mainstream social institutions (family, church, schools, workplaces). These considerations predominate in structural strain theory. Here, an ecological model is used to operationalize the theory & posit three different interlinking levels of social influence on individual drug use behavior: social structural, institutional, & interpersonal networks (representing macro-, exo-, & microsystem, respectively). Findings are presented from a 25-year study conducted with one community-representative cohort of African American youth in Harlem, New York City, that supports the importance of the structural strain premise in explaining African American drug use patterns. An example of study measures, arrayed according to the ecological paradigm, is provided, & its utility is demonstrated in enumerating sources of error that have led to incomplete & sometimes contradictory findings regarding African American drug use. [Source: SA]

D'Onofrio, B. M., L. Murrelle, L. J. Eaves, M. E. McCullough, J. L. Landis, and H. H. Maes. 1999. "Adolescent Religiousness and Its Influence on Substance Use: Preliminary Findings from the Mid-Atlantic School Age Twin Study." Twin Research vol. 2, pp. 156-168.
Abstract: Research has consistently shown that religiousness is associated with lower levels of alcohol and drug use, but little is known about the nature of adolescent religiousness or the mechanisms through which it influences problem behavior in this age group. This paper presents preliminary results from the Mid-Atlantic School Age Twin Study, a prospective, population-based study of 6-18-year-old twins and their mothers. Factor analysis of a scale developed to characterize adolescent religiousness, the Religious Attitudes and Practices Inventory (RAPI), revealed three factors: theism, religious/spiritual practices, and peer religiousness. Twin correlations and univariate behavior-genetic models for these factors and a measure of belief that drug use is sinful reveal in 357 twin pairs that common environmental factors significantly influence these traits, but a minor influence of genetic factors could not be discounted. Correlations between the multiple factors of adolescent religiousness and substance use, comorbid problem behavior, mood disorders, and selected risk factors for substance involvement are also presented. Structural equation modeling illustrates that specific religious beliefs about the sinfulness of drugs and level of peer religiousness mediate the relationship between theistic beliefs and religious/spiritual practices on substance use. Limitations and future analyses are discussed. [Source: ML]

Forthun, L., N. Bell, and C. Peek. 1999. "Religiosity, Sensation Seeking, and Alcohol/Drug Use in Denominational and Gender Contexts." Journal of Drug Issues vol. 29, pp. 75-90.
Abstract: A study was conducted to examine religiosity, sensation- seeking, and alcohol/drug use in denominational and gender contexts. Data were gathered from a sample of 526 university students anonymously completed an assessment packet. The results failed to indicate support for arousal theory predictions or for moderating effects of denominational and gender contexts. Religiosity, sensation seeking, denominational affiliation, and gender were found to be relatively independent predictors of substance use, and their importance was found to vary according to the type of substance and specific indicator of use. [Source: SS]

Galaif, E. R. and M. D. Newcomb. 1999. "Predictors of Polydrug Use among Four Ethnic Groups: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study." Addictive Behaviors vol. 24, pp. 607-631.
Abstract: We examined adolescent risk and protective constructs associated with adult polydrug use among four ethnic groups. Both mean and relational differences among the constructs were examined by ethnic group. Teenage polydrug use was a significant predictor of adult polydrug use for Caucasians, African-Americans, and Latinos. Although this relationship was not evident for Asians, teenage alcohol use increased adult cigarette use, and early religiosity increased adult alcohol use. Early parental support/bonding predicted less adult Polydrug Use for Caucasians. For Latinos, general social conformity and low liberalism decreased cigarette use as an adult. In general, the implications of the results are that prevention strategies should emphasize the reduction of teenage drug use to decrease adult polydrug use among Caucasians, Latinos, and African-Americans. Future research should examine other possible risk and protective conditions related to adult polydrug use among diverse populations. [Source: SC]

Haskin, Jacqueline Moreau. 1999. "Personality and Family Relationship Correlates of Drug Abstention in Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Wayne State University.
Abstract: Considerable research has been devoted to studying the causes and correlates of drug use and abuse among adolescents. This literature has revealed that occasional use signifies developmentally appropriate experimentation, while the extreme behaviors of abuse and abstention are signs of underlying emotional problems. Abstention has not been directly researched. Information on abstention has been a byproduct of the use/abuse literature. Personality and family relationship correlates of drug abstention were investigated in a sample of 292 seniors from a Midwestern, middle-class suburban high school. Using the level of substance involvement as a predictor of adjustment, abstainers, user/experimenters, and abusers were compared on personality and family relationship variables. Levels of adjustment were evaluated in terms of the personality characteristics of novelty-seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence and the level of relationship problems with the father independent of the adolescent/mother relationship. Additional information was gathered on demographic and background factors. The primary hypothesis that abstention is related to a personality profile high in reward dependence and harm avoidance, and low in novelty seeking behaviors was partially supported. A strong relationship between abstention and a personality low in novelty seeking behaviors was found. The secondary hypothesis that abstention is related to low levels of relationship problems with the father independent of the adolescent/maternal relationship was not supported. The results showed that differences in perceived conflict with parents are not a significant influence on substance abuse level. A strong relationship between substance use level and grade point average and religiosity was found. Abstainers achieved significantly higher grade point averages than user/experimenters and abusers. Abstainers reported attending religious activities or services significantly more frequently than the other groups, and abstainers were significantly more likely to consider religion extremely important in their lives than user/experimenters and abusers. Implications for incorporating these findings into programs aimed at preventing drug abuse were presented. [Source: DA]

Long, Welsey and Courtney Vaughn. 1999. ""I've Had Too Much Done to My Heart": The Dilemma of Addiction and Recovery as Seen through Seven Youngsters' Lives." Journal of Drug Education vol. 29, pp. 309-322.
Abstract: Aware of the dearth of in-depth studies on recovering adolescent addict alcoholics, we conducted a year-long qualitative study of seven formerly-addicted youth committed to recovery. The research question was: how do addicted youth become and remain sober? Bending to social stress, including racism and ethnic prejudice, three participants relapsed. However, personal commitment augmented by familial, community, spiritual, and educational support encouraged four to remain sober. Learning from both those who failed and succeeded, the theoretical concepts of surrender, social stress, and resiliency helped to interpret the participants' patterns of response and better understand adolescent recovery. Copyright 1999, Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. [Source: EA]

Oetting, E. R. 1999. "Primary Socialization Theory. Developmental Stages, Spirituality, Government Institutions, Sensation Seeking, and Theoretical Implications. V." Substance Use & Misuse vol. 34, pp. 947-982.
Abstract: This fifth and final paper in the series on primary socialization theory includes discussion of issues raised by participants in a forum on the theory. The theory states that drug use and deviant behaviors occur as an outcome of bonding with primary socialization sources and the transmission of norms through those sources. Personal traits and secondary socialization sources influence drug use and deviance indirectly and! through their effects on the primary socialization process. Developmentally, the only primary socialization source for the preschool child is the family. In early grade school years, the primary socialization sources are the family and school. Peer clusters emerge as a primary socialization source later, with their greatest effect occurring during adolescence. Adults have varied primary socialization patterns. Levels of ego development among adults may alter the primary socialization process. Spirituality is defined, and its influence on drug use is discussed. Government institutions, such as the criminal justice system, welfare, and child protective services, are now included among secondary socialization sources; The fact that the general theory of primary socialization is not ethnocentric or temporocentric is discussed. Implications of the: theory for understanding existing or potential risk and protective factors for deviance, and for improving the effectiveness of prevention and treatment are discussed. [Source: SC]

Pullen, L., M. A. Modrcin Talbott, W. R. West, and R. Muenchen. 1999. "Spiritual High Vs High on Spirits: Is Religiosity Related to Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Abuse?" Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing vol. 6, pp. 3-8.
Abstract: This study investigated relationships between alcohol and drug abuse by adolescents and frequency of religious service attendance in the south-east United States. Data obtained from surveys of 217 adolescents, age 12-19 years, was analysed. The adolescents included participants from both clinical and non-clinical settings. Results from both groups showed that, as attendance at religious services increased, alcohol and drug abuse decreased. Spirituality is a concept that warrants further study to determine if its inclusion in treatment programs could enhance recovery or drastically reduce recidivism. [Source: CI]

Pullen, L., M. A. Modrcin-Talbott, W. R. West, and R. Muenchen. 1999. "Spiritual High Vs High on Spirits: Is Religiosity Related to Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Abuse?" Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing vol. 6, pp. 3-8.
Abstract: This study investigated relationships between alcohol and drug abuse by adolescents and frequency of religious service attendance in the south-east United States. Data obtained from surveys of 217 adolescents, age 12-19 years, was analysed. The adolescents included participants from both clinical and non-clinical settings. Results from both groups showed that, as attendance at religious services increased, alcohol and drug abuse decreased. Spirituality is a concept that warrants further study to determine if its inclusion in treatment programs could enhance recovery or drastically reduce recidivism. [Source: CI]

Rounds-Bryant, J. L., P. L. Kristiansen, and R. L. Hubbard. 1999. "Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study of Adolescents: A Comparison of Client Characteristics and Pretreatment Behaviors in Three Treatment Modalities." American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse vol. 25, pp. 573-591.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The present study presents background and pretreatment characteristics of adolescent substance abuse treatment clients, and it provides a mechanism for describing perhaps the largest research sample of adolescents who were in drug treatment in this decade. METHODS: The sample was 3382 subjects who presented for treatment from 1993 to 1995 in 37 programs in Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania: Miami, Florida; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Chicago, Illinois; Portland, Maine; and New York City, New York. Informed permission for the youth to participate was obtained from the subject's custodial parent/guardian, and both the youth and the youth's parents or guardians provided informed assent if they agreed to participate as subjects. Adolescents then were interviewed privately and confidentially by a trained professional interviewer who was independent of the treatment programs. The interviews queried subjects about their background, including education and employment; physical and mental health; use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs; sexual experiences; legal problems: religious beliefs; and treatment experience. RESULTS: The long-term residential treatment modality was the least gender balanced of the modalities and had the most African-American and Hispanic clients. This modality was distinguished by the proportion of clients who were referred to treatment by the juvenile or criminal justice system. Compared with other clients in other modalities, short-term inpatient clients were more likely to be female and white. Inpatient clients also reported more indicators of psychiatric impairment. Outpatient clients were slightly younger than clients in the other modalities, and more of them were attending school at the time of admission to treatment. Outpatient clients had the least criminally involved lifestyles, their rates of (regular daily or weekly) drug use were also the lowest of the three modalities for all drugs assessed, and they had the least drug treatment experience. CONCLUSIONS: These results merit several recommendations. One is the need for more community-based adolescent substance abuse treatment programs. An additional recommendation is for more substance abuse treatment programs in facilities that serve incarcerated youth. Finally, and perhaps most critically, it is recommended that programs be designed to address such specialized issues as comorbid substance abuse and psychiatric problems, family dysfunction, physical and sexual abuse, gender and ethnic differences, and academic performance. [Source: ML]

Schmit, Harvey Michael. 1999. "The Influence of Home, Friends, School and Church on the Development of Values and Behavior in Adolescence among Lutheran School Students." Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Abstract: The role of four supportive contexts in predicting reported values and problem behavior among adolescents in Lutheran schools was investigated. The sample of students in Lutheran schools (N = 7858) was selected from Search Institute's 1990-94 national research program. Predictors included gender, ethnicity, grade and level of parent education, as well as four contextual variables. These included: (1) care and support in the home context, (2) modeling in the friend context, (3) support and encouragement from teachers in the school context, and (4) involvement in the church context. Dependent variables included values (defined as concern for others and their welfare), and problem behaviors involving the use of soft drugs, engaging in violence, and the use of hard drugs. All constructs were measured using self report items on a questionnaire. Regression analysis indicated that involvement and support in the four contexts mediated the effects of the demographic variables on values and problem behavior. The friend context had the strongest and most positive relation with the outcomes, with less problem behavior and more positive values related to perceptions of a positive friend context. Cross product interaction terms in the regression equations revealed that there were some interactions between contexts of the home or church context was weak when the friend context was stronger. Results are discussed in terms of current theory, particularly regarding the role of demographic variables, the function of supportive contexts, and implications for Lutheran schools. [Source: PI]

Smiley, Rosalie. 1999. "A Study of the Factors Influencing the Use of Drugs and Alcohol by African-American Adolescent Females." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh.
Abstract: Adolescents are currently using licit and illicit drugs at an increasing rate and are beginning at a younger age. Adolescents are also often using multiple drugs simultaneously. Although a number of studies have addressed adolescent substance abuse and its consequences, there is a paucity of research that has investigated the substance usage of African-American teenaged women. This study of the adolescent experiences of fifty-one African-American women in recovery investigated five general areas: (1) What factors contributed to the respondents' ongoing drug and alcohol use during adolescence? (2) What could have prevented or inhibited their ongoing drug and alcohol use when they were teens? (3) What led the respondents to enter treatment? What aspects of treatment were most helpful? Least helpful? (4) What could prevent African American adolescent females from initiating drug and alcohol use? From becoming involved in ongoing drug and alcohol use? (5) What would be most effective in getting African-American adolescent females to enter treatment? What services should be provided to them? The non-randomly selected respondents were interviewed using an instrument containing open- and closed-ended items, developed by the researcher. The findings from this study present a complex picture of the life experiences of these respondents. The women interviewed identified a number of factors as contributing to their initial and ongoing drug and alcohol use, including families' drug and alcohol use; peers' use of drugs and alcohol; lack of connection to social institutions, especially the church; and the availability and accessibility of drug and alcohol in their homes, school and communities. Basing their recommendations on what they perceived to be the unique vulnerabilities of African American adolescent females, respondents suggested various actions that families, schools, and communities could take to deter adolescent substance involvement. [Source: DA]

Trusty, Jerry and Richard E. Watts. 1999. "Relationship of High School Seniors' Religious Perceptions and Behavior to Educational, Career, and Leisure Variables." Counseling and Values vol. 44, pp. 30-39.
Abstract: This study used data from a national sample of 12,992 US high school seniors to investigate the relationship of religious perceptions and behavior to several school, career, and leisure variables. Seniors' positive perceptions of religion and frequent attendance at religious services were related to positive parental involvement, positive school attitudes and behaviors, and infrequent problem behaviors. Parental involvement mediated the effects of religious perceptions and behavior on adolescents, academic attitudes and drug use. However, a large portion of the effects of religious perceptions and behavior was independent of parental involvement. Implications for counselors and educators are provided. [Source: PI]

Vakalahi, Halaevalu F. 1999. "Adolescent Substance Use in Utah: The Influence of Family-Based Risk and Protective Factors." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Utah.
Abstract: This study examined the influence of family-based risk and protective factors on adolescent substance use. Adolescents were classified as nonusers, experimenters, and users. Experimenters were examined only in relation to adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. In examining other drugs, users included those who may be experimenting with substances, as well as those who may be using substances regularly. Based on a theory-driven framework and empirical studies, research questions focused on the influence of family-related variables on adolescent substance use. These variables included parental education level, ethnic background, religious affiliation, sibling substance use, family conflict, and family involvement. The sample consisted of 5,009 adolescents randomly surveyed in the state of Utah. Responses of 4,983 adolescents met the criteria for inclusion; thus, they were included in the data analysis. Overall, this study supported prior research, indicating that adolescent substance use is influenced by family-based variables. Family attributes and relationships served as risk or protective factors. Findings suggest that high parental education level, nonminority background, being religiously affiliated, and family involvement are protective factors for adolescent substance use. On the other hand, low parental education level, minority background, being nonreligiously affiliated, sibling substance use, and family conflict are risk factors for adolescent substance use. Whites and Asian/Pacific Islanders reported the highest percentage in nonuse of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, whereas Whites, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians reported the highest percentage in nonuse of marijuana. Moreover, LDS (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) adolescents reported the highest percentage of nonuse of all substances. Possible explanations are offered, and implications for future research and practice are suggested. Future research is recommended, especially in relation to ethnic minority-related protective factors. Moreover, this study underscores the importance of research using the risk-focused model as a framework for addressing and understanding adolescent substance use. [Source: PI]

Vaughn, C. and W. Long. 1999. "Surrender to Win: How Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Users Change Their Lives." Adolescence vol. 34, pp. 9-24.
Abstract: Adolescent drug and alcohol addiction is a serious problem in the United States. However, some addicted adolescents do quit drinking and using drugs. This paper offers a phenomenological analysis of seven young adults who managed to surrender their addictions and, for anywhere from five to fifteen years, construct sober identities. The participants came from highly dysfunctional homes, began substance use as children, and were polydrug users. A series of catastrophic life events led them to Alcoholics Anonymous, where they were exposed to self-reflective prayer, a cadre of recovering adolescents and, in particular, adults who offered detached nurturing. This provided the support they needed to confront their addictions through the Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. [Source: ML]

Westermeyer, J. 1999. "The Role of Cultural and Social Factors in the Cause of Addictive Disorders." Psychiatric Clinics of North America vol. 22, pp. 253-273.
Abstract: For many centuries, generations of young people were protected from the early onset of addictive disorders. Although addiction to drugs and alcohol had been well known for centuries, widespread addiction has occurred only in recent centuries. Because the human gene pool or human biochemistry did not likely change suddenly to produce this result, social and cultural factors likely have produced widespread addiction. From another perspective, the sociocultural factors that once protected our societies against widespread addiction may have become weakened or inoperative. Our social institutions--our families, schools, religions, neighborhoods, and governments--no longer protect us and our young from addiction as they once did. The failure of traditional social institutions to protect us from addiction does not mean that we must seek drug panaceas only in nonsocietal venues, such as medications and psychotherapies. Rather, we should look to those elements of our institutions that have failed us and seek to bolster them. A gradually evolving body of literature on this topic demonstrates that institutional changes can serve to reduce widespread addiction among us. Moreover, these changes can be implemented at many levels: within our families, schools, friendship groups, workplaces, churches, neighborhoods, and legislatures. [Source: ML]

Yarnold, Barbara M. 1999. "Cocaine Use among Miami's Public School Students, 1992: Religion Versus Peers and Availability." Journal of Health and Social Policy vol. 11, pp. 69-84.
Abstract: Longitudinal (1989-1992) survey data (N = 1,690 respondents in 1992) are drawn on to examine the use of cocaine by 507 adolescents in Dade County, FL, public schools. Statistically significant factors that tend to increase the probability of cocaine use by adolescents include having peers who use cocaine, being white, & having ready access to the substance. Although not statistically significant, adolescents were more likely to use cocaine if they knew of the risks associated with cocaine use. Hence, the typical user may be a risk-taker, enjoying the dangers involved with cocaine use. The only statistically significant variable that inhibits these adolescents' use of cocaine is having religion as an important part of their lives. [Source: SA]

Zacharioudakis, Manos Antonis. 1999. "Problem Behaviors of Greek-American Adolescents: The Relationship of Ethnic Identification to Risks and Protective Factors." Ph.D. Thesis, St. John's University (New York).
Abstract:In a cross-sectional study of 257 Greek-American (GA) adolescents from across the US (ages 16-19, 72% female, 93% USA born) the incidence and psychosocial corrlates of problem behaviors (PB) (i.e. smoking, drinking, marijuana, heavy drugs, sexual intercourse, deviant behaviors) were explored. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory's (PBT) generalizability in this population were examined. Differences in PB incidence, risks, and predictors, explored through correlational and multiple regression analyses, across GA ethnic identification, gender, and school status (i.e. high school-college) were found. The findings generally supported PBT. Strong positive intercorrelations among all PB, all (but one) positive intercorrelations among prosocial behavior, and all negative correlations of PB with prosocial behavior, and all negative correlations of PB with prosocial behaviors were documented, as hypothesized. The "one latent factor of general deviance" hypothesis found support for males, but not for females or the total sample. Higher Greek-identified youth showed higher drinking, smoking, and deviance, and lower marijuana/drug use and sexual experience scores, compared to lower Greek-identified youth, but these differences were due to SES differences and disappeared when SES factors were partialled out. Family cohesiveness showed protective main effects for most PB but no interaction with ethnicity effects. Family adaptability failed to show any significant effects. Significant gender differences were found: males showed higher marijuana, alcohol use, deviance scores, and sexual promiscuity and less diet/laxative pill use that females (no smoking or heavier drug use gender differences were found). Females showe higher levels of religiosity, stressful events and psychopathology (i.e. anxiety and general symptomatology, but not depression). College students showed higher scores for most PB (except heavy drugs or deviance). Youth from non-intact parental marriages showed significantly higher levels of all PB while intact family incidence showed a positive correlation to Greek ethnic identity. In predicting the total sample's PBindex, in decreasing order, friends' regular engagement In smoking/drinking/marjuana use/sex, time going to bed on weekends, stressful life events, relative parent-friend influence, non-acceptance of premarital sex by youth, intolerance of deviance, parental approval of PB, and age, were the significant predictors. Significant differences in predictors were found among ethnic, gender, and college-status subgroups (e.g. a high contribution of PBT "personality" variables only for high Greek identifiers, of family cohesion for females, and of "perceived environment" factors--i.e. friends models and parental controls--for males). [Source: DA]

Bahr, Stephen J., Suzanne L. Maughan, Anastasios C. Marcos, and Bingdao Li. 1998. "Family, Religiosity, and the Risk of Adolescent Drug Use." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 60, pp. 979-992.
Abstract: With questionnaire data from a random sample of 13,250 adolescents, the authors used structural equation modeling to estimate how mother-adolescent bonding, father-adolescent bonding, parental monitoring, family aggression, family drug problems, and religiosity were associated with adolescent use of alcohol, marijuana, and amphetamines and depressants. Mother-adolescent bonding and family drug problems had modest, indirect effects on the likelihood of adolescent drug use. Father-adolescent bonding, parental monitoring, and family aggression had relatively weak effects on adolescent drug use. Students who were religious tended not to use drugs or to have close friends who use drugs. The influence of these risk factors was similar for both females and males and for all 3 types of drugs. [Source: PI]

Chard -Wierschem, Deborah Jo. 1998. "In Pursuit of the "True" Relationship: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Religiosity on Delinquency and Substance Abuse." Ph.D. Thesis, State University of New York At Albany.
Abstract: The long held notion that religious beliefs and practices deter crime and deviance has been embraced by scholars as well as society in general. Yet, studies examining the relationship between religion and deviance have yielded little insight. Past research on the religiosity-delinquency relationship has been severely criticized for lack of theory, poor operationalization of religious beliefs and behavior, inadequate statistical analyses and in general, has been frustrated by many contradictory findings. This study addresses these criticisms by placing the religion-delinquency relationship within the framework of an elaborated social control theory and proposes to test this theory using longitudinal data from the Rochester Youth Development Study. Results from the longitudinal analysis suggest that religiosity does indeed have an effect on both delinquency and drug use: religious youth are less likely to engage in delinquency or drug use than non- religious or less religious youth. However, most of the effect of religiosity on delinquency and substance use is indirect through other model variables, in particular, through conventional values, delinquent peers and delinquent values. These relationships were fairly consistent across three different time periods, suggesting that although the quantity or quality of religiosity may change as a youth matures, the basic manner in which religiosity operates in deterring delinquent behavior remains relatively consistent. Parent religiosity was also found to be strongly related to youth religiosity and to increased educational commitment. The main theoretical model was also tested for three denominational categories of youth (Catholic, Protestant and Non-Denominational Christian) and for a sample of youth who said they did not believe in a particular religion. Although sample sizes were relatively small, differences in the way in which religiosity did (or did not) effect delinquency and substance use were observed. Finally, reciprocal relationships between youth religiosity, delinquent peers, delinquent values and delinquency were also explored. More evidence exists to indicate that youth religiosity decreases delinquency and substance use rather than the reverse. Policy implications and suggestions for further research are also discussed. [Source: DA]

Conley, O. Stephen. 1998. "Early Sexual Onset: A Study of the Relationship between Social and Psychological Factors in the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health." Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to utilize the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Wave I) to develop models to predict the onset of sexual intercourse before the age of 16, the experience of forced sexual intercourse for females and the choice to have multiple sexual partners with both genders. One cross-sectional wave of the public use dataset from this large nationally representative study (Add Health) was analyzed. Social and psychological variables were tested through logistic regressions and descriptive statistics. Findings demonstrated that 41.5% of male adolescents and 37.3% of female adolescents in the sample had experienced sexual intercourse. More than half of the nonvirgin subjects (53.1%) reported beginning sexual intercourse by the age of 16. Initial predictive models found that black males who report having trouble with teachers ($p < .01$), early dating onset ($p < .05$) and use cigarettes ($p < .05$) are more likely to experience sexual intercourse prior to the age of 16 (N = 563). A second model found black males more likely to experience intercourse prior to age 16 if they report having trouble with teachers ($p < .01$), early dating onset ($p < .05$), use cigarettes ($p < .05$), see religion as very important in their lives ($p < .05$), have a mother who has received welfare payments ($p < .05$), and began early use of marijuana ($p < .05$).When all races and genders were assessed in model predicting sexual intercourse before age 16, ($N = 5,702$) several factors showed significance at the $p < .01$ level. These included early dating onset, failure of one or more of four core subjects, being African American, using cigarettes, having a mother who has received welfare, having been expelled from school, females experiencing forced sexual intercourse, father's attitude that is accepting of adolescents having sex with a steady girlfriend or boyfriend, use of alcohol outside of the family, early marijuana use, trouble with teachers and not feeling loved and wanted. African American youth were more than three times as likely as other races to experience sexual intercourse under age 16. Young women who had been forced to have sexual intercourse were more than three times as likely as those who had not been forced to experience sexual intercourse under age 16. A model (N = 3,080) predicting females who are forced to have sexual intercourse found significance at the $p < .01$ level for the following factors: early dating onset, African American, no residential father in the home, cigarette use, being expelled from school, use of alcohol outside of the family, and not feeling loved and wanted. Conversely, a model predicting males who force females to have intercourse found highest significance if there was no father in the home, the mother had received welfare, and parents were accepting of adolescent sexual intercourse with a steady girlfriend. Multiple partners were predicted in the final logistic regression model (N = 1,400) if the subject was male, had friends who used cigarettes, used alcohol outside of the family, had been dishonest with parents about whereabouts and for females, if they had experienced forced sexual intercourse. Implications of the findings for program and policy development are discussed, and recommendations are made for additional research with the Add Health public use dataset. [Source: DA]

Donohue, B., V. B. Van Hasselt, M. Hersen, and S. Perrin. 1998. "Role-Play Assessment of Social Skills in Conduct Disordered and Substance Abusing Adolescents: An Empirical Review." Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse vol. 8, pp. 1-28.
Abstract: An integration and critical examination of studies that have evaluated social skill functioning in delinquent and substance abusing youth utilizing role-pray assessment is warranted. Hence, the purpose of this paper is threefold: (a) to delineate the often misunderstood term "social skill," (b) to describe role-play assessment, the most commonly utilized method to evaluate social skill functioning and, (c) to critically examine studies investigating social skills of conduct disordered and substance abusing adolescents. [Source: SC]

Gaviria, Alejandro. 1998. "Three Essays on Social Interactions and Intergenerational Mobility." Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego.
Abstract: This dissertation consists of three loosely connected essays in applied microeconomics with a special emphasis on social interactions. The first essay uses a sample of tenth-graders drawn from the National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS) to test for the presence of peer-group effects on five different activities: drug use, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, church going, and dropping-out of high school. The empirical analysis reveals strong evidence of peer-group effects at the school level for all activities analyzed. These effects remain after controlling for personal and school characteristics, family background variables, and several measures of parental behavior and parental involvement in their children's daily life. Mild evidence of endogeneity bias is found for two of the five activities analyzed (drug use and alcohol drinking). The second essay studies the interplay between borrowing constraints and intergenerational relations. This essay uncovers compelling evidence showing that the inability of parents to borrow against their children's earnings depresses the earnings of poor children vis-a-vis rich children with the same ability and retards social mobility among the poor. This evidence contradicts several recent studies that argue that innate ability is the overriding determinant of educational attainment in the United States. The essay also shows that siblings inequality seems to be independent of family wealth. This finding is important because it contradicts the predictions of most economic models of resource allocation within the family. The third essay offers an explanation to the escalation of violent crime that occurred in Colombia during the 1980s. The essay considers three implicit models that isolate different types of externalities among criminals. In the first model criminals make crime more appealing to nearby residents by congesting the law enforcement system and hence lowering the probability of punishment. In the second model the interaction of career criminals and local crooks speeds up the diffusion of criminal know-how and criminal technology. In the third model the daily contact of youth with criminal adults and criminal peers results in the erosion of morals and hence in a greater predisposition toward crime. The essay shows that a myriad of empirical evidence--both statistical and anecdotal--lends support to the previous models in general and to the congestion-in-law-enforcement model in particular. [Source: DA]

Hackerman, Ann E. and Paul King. 1998. "Adolescent Spirituality: A Foundation for Recovery from Drug Dependency." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly vol. 16, p. 89.
Abstract: Examines the spiritual basis for the treatment of adolescents who are chemically dependent, while focusing on three concepts associate with the Alcoholics Anonymous Program as a recovery initiative. Evidence supporting spiritual decline; Characteristics of adolescents diagnosed with chemical abuse; Significance of spirituality in recovery; Effectiveness of the Alcoholics Anonymous Program. [Source: AS]

Hughes, Jean Susan. 1998. "The Relationship of Leisure Lifestyle to Selected Risk Behaviors of Adolescents."Ed.D. Thesis, University of Arkansas.
Abstract: Currently, there is a need to develop holistic models that address the multidimensional, psychosocial determinants of adolescent risk behavior. Approximately 40% of an adolescent's waking hours are unstructured, unsupervised discretionary time. This study surveyed 114 students in an alternative high school program. A risk behavior index was developed that was a composite measure of the incidence and severity of adolescent pregnancy, juvenile delinquency, substance use, undereducation, and stress. Using simultaneous regression, the risk index was examined in relation to (1) selected leisure variables of intrinsic leisure motivation, leisure constraints, leisure satisfaction and leisure interests; (2) selected social variables of gender, age, employment status of mother, income, number of adults in the household, relationship with parents, ruralness and number of siblings; (3) selected personal variables of school discipline problems, grade point average, absences, employment status of subject, and weekend curfew; and (4) selected group belonging variables of gang membership church membership, school athletics, school club, youth group, and community recreation agency. The leisure related measures used the intrinsic leisure motivation scale of Weissinger and Bandalos (1995), the leisure constraint scale of Raymore, Godbey, Crawford, and von Eye (1993), the leisure satisfaction scale of Ragheb and Beard (1980), and the leisure interest scale of Beard and Ragheb (1992). The results showed a negative relationship of the risk index to intrapersonal constraints, outdoor leisure interests and belonging to a church. There was a significant positive relationship between the risk index and belonging to a gang, working, problems at school and grade point average. None of the social variables were related to risk behavior. The significance of the study is the development of a risk index as a composite score. The study indicates a need to measure adolescent interests in order to meet their needs and create more involvement in structured settings. [Source: PI]

Johnson, K., D. D. Bryant, D. A. Collins, T. D. Noe, T. N. Strader, and M. Berbaum. 1998. "Preventing and Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use among High-Risk Youths by Increasing Family Resilience." Social Work vol. 43, pp. 297-308.
Abstract: This study examines the effects of a community-based program designed to delay onset and reduce the frequency of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use among high-risk youths, ages 12 to 14, through strengthening family resilience. It is part of a larger five-year demonstration project funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP). The program was implemented in multiple church communities in rural, suburban, and inner-city settings. Program components of this study included parent or guardian and youth training, early intervention services, and follow-up case management services. The results show that the program produced positive direct effects on family resilience. The evaluation also found positive moderating effects on delayed onset of alcohol and other drug use and frequency of alcohol and other drug use among youths in the form of conditional relationships with changes in those family resilience factors that were targeted by the program. [Source: CI]

Lindenberg, C. S., R. Solorzano, M. Kelley, V. Darrow, S. C. Gendrop, and O. Strickland. 1998. "Competence and Drug Use: Theoretical Frameworks, Empirical Evidence and Measurement." Journal of Drug Education vol. 28, pp. 117-134.
Abstract: Statistics show that use of harmful substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine) among women of childbearing age is widespread and serious. Numerous theoretical models and empirical studies have attempted to explain the complex factors that lead individuals to use drugs. The Social Stress Model of Substance Abuse [1] is one model developed to explain parameters that influence drug use. According to the model, the likelihood df an individual engaging in drug use is seen as a function of the stress level and the extent to which it is offset by stress modifiers such as social networks, social competencies, and resources. The variables of the denominator are viewed as interacting with each other to buffer the impact of stress [I]. This article focuses on one of the constructs in this model: that of competence. It presents a summary of theoretical and conceptual formulations for the construct of competence, a review of empirical evidence for the association of competence with drug use, and describes the preliminary development of a multiscale instrument designed to assess drug protective competence among low-income Hispanic childbearing women. Based upon theoretical and empirical studies, eight domains of drug protective competence were identified and conceptually defined. Using subscales from existing instruments with psychometric evidence for their validity and reliability, a multi-scale instrument was developed to assess drug protective competence. Hypothesis testing was used to assess construct validity. Four drug protective competence domains (social influence, sociability, self-worth, and control/responsibility) were found to be statistically associated with drug use behaviors. Although not statistically significant, expected trends were observed between drug use and the other four domains of drug protective competence (intimacy, nurturance, goal directedness, and spiritual directedness). Study limitations and suggestions for further psychometric testing of the instrument are described. [Source: SC]

O'Malley, P. M., L. D. Johnston, and J. G. Bachman. 1998. "Alcohol Use among Adolescents." Alcohol Health & Research World vol. 22, pp. 85-93.
Abstract: Several ongoing national surveys, including the Monitoring the Future study, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, are investigating the drinking behaviors of adolescents in the United States. These studies have found that the majority of adolescents under the age of 18 have consumed alcohol, although the minimum legal drinking age is 21. Drinking rates may even have increased in recent years in some age groups. No substantial differences exist among various sociodemographic subgroups with respect to drinking rates, although alcohol consumption generally is lowest among African-Americans and highest among whites. Moreover, alcohol consumption increases sharply throughout adolescence. Various attitudinal and behavioral factors, such as religious involvement, truancy, and average grade level, also influence adolescents' drinking behaviors. Almost two-thirds of 12th graders who report consuming alcohol experience at least one alcohol-related problem. Most adolescents drink to experience the pleasurable effects of alcohol such as having a good time with friends. [Source: SC]

Poulson, Ronald L., Marion A. Eppler, Tammy N. Satterwhite, Karl L. Wuensch, and Lessie A. Bass. 1998. "Alcohol Consumption, Strength of Religious Beliefs, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Students." Journal of American College Health vol. 46, pp. 227-232.

Scharf, Alice Anne. 1998. "Environmental Stress, Potential Protective Factors, and Adolescent Risk-Taking." Ph.D. Thesis, Fordham University, New York.
Abstract: Recent research has examined the impact of various risk and protective factors on adolescent risk-taking behaviors; however these studies have been narrowly focused and often included aggregated indices measuring involvement in several behaviors. The present study examined contributions of life event stress and daily hassles as risk factors and religiosity and attitudinal intolerance for deviance as protective factors for five separate behaviors including: adolescent alcohol use, marijuana use, delinquent behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and the potential for dropping out of school. Participants included 201 urban and mostly minority high school students from all four grades. Results from simultaneous regression analyses demonstrated the following eight significant interactions: life events and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, daily hassles and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, and life events and extrinsic religiosity for alcohol use; life events and extrinsic religiosity and life events and intrinsic religiosity for marijuana use; life events and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, daily hassles and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, and life events and extrinsic religiosity for delinquent behaviors; and life events and extrinsic religiosity for the potential for dropping out of school. Only main effects were found to be significant for levels of risky sexual behaviors. Being male significantly predicted higher levels of delinquent behaviors and risky sexual behaviors. All other demographics inconsistently predicted levels of risk-taking behaviors. For males, significant interactions were found for alcohol use and delinquent behaviors. And for females, significant interactions included life event stress with extrinsic religiosity and life event stress with intrinsic religiosity for alcohol use. Results indicate that levels of religiosity and attitudinal intolerance for deviance generally had moderating effects for adolescents experiencing high levels of life events or daily hassles. Contributions of both stressors to higher levels of all five risk-taking behaviors suggest that involvement in these behaviors may be maladaptive ways to cope with stress. High levels of protective factors appear to guard adolescents against involvement in substance use, delinquency, and the potential for dropping out of school. Adolescents facing high levels of stress who have low levels of protective factors are at particular risk for engagement in risk-taking behaviors in response to stress. [Source: DA]

Wallace, John M., Jr. and Tyrone A. Forman. 1998. "Religion's Role in Promoting Health and Reducing Risk among American Youth." Health Education and Behaviorvol. 25, pp. 721-741.
Abstract: Although past research has documented religion's salutary impact on adult health-related behaviors and outcomes, relatively little research has examined the relationship between religion and adolescent health. This study uses large, nationally representative samples of high school seniors to examine the relationship between religious importance, attendance, and affiliation and behaviors that compromise or enhance adolescents' health (unintentional and intentional injury, substance use, lifestyle behaviors). Relative to their peers, religious youth are less likely to engage in behaviors that compromise their health (e.g., carrying weapons, getting into fights, drinking and driving) and are more likely to behave in ways that enhance their health (e.g., proper nutrition, exercise, and rest). Multivariate analyses suggest that these relationships persist even after controlling for demographic factors, and trend analyses reveal that they have existed over time. Particularly important is the finding that religious seniors have been relatively unaffected by past and recent increases in marijuana use. [Source: PI]

Wright, Pamela Purdy. 1998. "A Different Perspective: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents Identifying Their Experiences Using Legal and Illegal Substances."Ph.D. Thesis, The Wright Institute.
Abstract: Epidemiological research has provided information about the frequency, quantity, and types of drugs used among adolescents as well as theories on causation, initiation of use, and profiles of those who are at risk. Adolescent substance use is still increasing. Phenomenological research provides a means to understand the attraction to an altered state of consciousness with legal and illegal substances. At a suburban high school in San Mateo County, 162 out of 277 ethnically diverse Seniors participated in the study. Using a 1-5 Likert scale, 137 participants rated how often they had a particular phenomenological experience when they used their favorite legal or illegal substance. A total of 125 Phenomenological Descriptions of Drug Use (PDDU) were analyzed: caffeine (n = 53), alcohol (n = 48), and marijuana (n = 24). The 35 phenomenological descriptors developed by the researcher related to changes in thought process, time perception, sense of self, emotions, physical being, spirituality, and sensory perceptions. A questionnaire addressed the variables of prescription drugs, peer influence, and accessibility of drugs. There were no skewed effects from the variables. Parametric and non-parametric statistics were used to analyze descriptive data and hypotheses. The six highest-rated descriptors were all in the categories of 'emotional' and 'sense of self' and seemed to address needs that are unfilled in the high school youth of today. For 24 of the 35 descriptors, statistically different experiences were reported, related to type of drug favored. Five descriptors had a statistically significant main effect for gender and/or a significant interaction between favorite drug and gender. Six descriptors had a statistically main effect for ethnicity with 4 groups (Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic/Latino, and Korean). This research corroborates the results of other phenomenological studies: substance users seek an altered state of consciousness. Caffeine, a stimulant, even served this purpose. Many of the 35 phenomenological descriptors have validity most evident with use of caffeine, alcohol, and marijuana. This phenomenological study is unique in that the participants are a non-addicted, ethnically diverse population. [Source: PI]

Yarnold, Barbara M. 1998. "Steroid Use among Miami's Public School Students, 1992: Alternative Subcultures: Religion and Music Versus Peers and the "Body Cult"."Psychological Reports vol. 82, pp. 19-24.
Abstract: This analysis examined self-reported use of steroids by 478 adolescents in Dade County, Florida public schools during 1992. Statistically significant factors which tended to increase the probability of steroid use by adolescents included peer use of steroids, being male, and residing either with their mothers or on their own. The only statistically significant variables which are negatively related to steroid use are that religion is an important part of their lives and that students are involved in musical activities at school. [Source: SS]

Ark, Pamela Dale. 1997. "Health Risk Behaviors and Coping Strategies of African- American Sixth Graders."Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Tennessee Center For the Health Sciences, Memphis.
Abstract: Children, eleven to fourteen years, experience times of lifestyle change. Children can develop health behaviors that could result in illness and premature death. The reduction of risk behaviors among children, addressed in the Healthy People 2000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990) goals, recommended education regarding injury prevention, physical activity. and healthy nutritional choices. Study purposes included: examine height, weight, and blood pressure measurements; investigate health risk behaviors and coping strategies; and determine relationships among physiological variables, health behaviors, and coping strategies. Health behaviors were measured by a version of 1995 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a 70 item survey on unintentional injuries; tobacco, alcohol, and drug use; dietary behavior; and physical activity. Coping strategies were measured by Ryan-Wenger's Schoolagers Coping Strategies Inventory (SCSI), a 26 item survey on frequency and effectiveness of coping strategies. The conceptual framework guiding the study was Neuman's Systems Model (1995). Client variables included: physiological: height, weight, and blood pressure measurements; psychological: coping strategies; sociocultural: living in proximity to inner city school; developmental: age and gender; and spiritual: prayer as a coping strategy. The sample was 173 African American sixth graders, ages 11 to 14, females (n = 98) and males (n = 75), from five inner city schools with written parental consent. There was no statistical difference by gender in body mass index. Statistical differences were found by gender with more males than females reporting physical fighting. Older males than females, ages 12 and 13, reported tobacco and marijuana use. There was zero reported use of cocaine and no statistical differences by gender on alcohol, dietary behaviors, or physical activity. Coping strategies (sample mean was 19.4) reported more often were prayer (75 percent) and watch television or listen to music (75 percent). Multiple regression showed interaction effects of unintentional injuries with gender and SCSI effectiveness scale. There were statistical differences in means between females and males, ages 12 and 13, suggesting need for further investigation of coping strategies. Further investigation of coping strategies among sixth graders and their family in relationship with the environment is recommended to determine coping strategies of the family unit. [Source: DA]

Belgrave, Faye Z., Tiffany G. Townsend, Valerie R. Cherry, and Dellena M. Cunningham. 1997. "The Influence of an Africentric Worldview and Demographic Variables on Drug Knowledge, Attitudes, and Use among African American Youth." Journal of Community Psychology vol. 25, pp. 421-433.
Abstract: Examined the influence of Africentric values, spirituality, and demographic variables on drug knowledge, attitudes, and use. Participants were 189 4th- and 5th-graders (83 males and 106 females; aged 8.5-13 yrs) attending public schools. Measures of Africentric values (i.e., Collective Work/Responsibility, Cooperative Economics, and Self-Determination), spirituality, age, and whether or not the child resided in a 2- or 1-parent household were obtained. The results of regression analyses indicated that Collective Work/Responsibility and Cooperative Economics were significant predictors of attitudes toward drugs. Collective Work/Responsibility and spirituality were significant predictors of perceived drug harmfulness. Age and spirituality were significant predictors of drug usage. Age was the only significant predictor of drug knowledge. The Collective Work/Responsibility subscale was the strongest predictor of drug outcomes. The implications for using Africentric prevention approaches for decreasing risk factors and increasing protective factors for drug use among African American youth are discussed. [Source: PI]

Benda, Brent B. 1997. "An Examination of a Reciprocal Relationship between Religiosity and Different Forms of Delinquency within a Theoretical Model." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency vol. 34, pp. 163-186.
Abstract: Results from a study of 1,093 adolescents (aged 13-20 yrs) do not support the argument that property crimes, crimes against persons, and use of alcohol and other drugs are behavior manifestations of an interrelated constellation or syndrome of delinquency. A factor analysis clearly shows that the various forms of delinquency studied load on three distinct factors. In addition, whereas the hypothesized theoretical model does explain considerable variation in frequency of alcohol use and of criminal behavior (22% and 24%, respectively), it does not account for much variance in drug use (6%). Whereas there are reciprocal relationships between religiosity and drug use and religiosity and crime, only the feedback effect of religiosity on alcohol use is significant. These latter findings suggest that future studies need to examine reciprocal relationships and that the relationship between alcohol use and religiosity needs to be re-examined conceptually and empirically in future studies. [Source: PI]

Benda, Brent B. and Robert Flynn Corwyn. 1997. "A Test of a Model with Reciprocal Effects between Religiosity and Various Forms of Delinquency Using 2-Stage Least Squares Regression." Journal of Social Service Research vol. 22, pp. 27-52.
Abstract: This was a study of 1,093 9th-12th graders from 6 different public high schools, where the same integrated theoretical model of control and social learning theories fit the data on alcohol use, heavy alcohol consumption, use of marijuana, criminal behavior, sexual exploration, and suicidal thoughts. It was observed that the model explained significantly more variance in some of these forms of delinquency than in others, indicating only equivocal support for the deviance syndrome argument in the literature. This study also found that religiosity was a significant influence only on criminal behavior, whereas the feedback effect of delinquency on religiosity was significant for all forms of delinquent behavior studied. [Source: PI]

Cook, Christopher C. H., Deborah Goddard, and Rachel Westall. 1997. "Knowledge and Experience of Drug Use Amongst Church Affiliated Young People." Drug and Alcohol Dependence vol. 46, pp. 9-17.
Abstract: Prevalence of drug use was estimated among 7,666 church-affiliated young people in GB, drawing on 1995 self-report questionnaire data. For subjects (Ss) ages 12-16, 23.4% had been offered at least one of a list of drugs, & 9.7% had tried such drugs. For Ss ages 17-30, the figures were 46.1% & 23.3%, respectively. These figures are perhaps slightly less than those obtained in secular surveys. Those who gave more positive responses to questions on Christian commitment were less likely than those who did not to have been offered any of the drugs or to have used them. A lifetime history of ever having smoked demonstrated a far stronger association, with smokers being 15-20 times more likely to have used one of the listed drugs. [Source: SA]

Corwyn, Robert Flynn, Brent B. Benda, and Karen Ballard. 1997. "Do the Same Theoretical Factors Explain Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Adolescents?" Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly vol. 15, pp. 47-62.
Abstract: Scale data from 1,093 adolescents from six public high schools in MD, OK, & AR showed that the same theoretical model of control & social learning theories fit reports of alcohol & marijuana use, but did not explain the use of amphetamines, barbituates, cocaine, or opiates. Religiosity was a significant influence only on certain forms of drug use whereas the feedback effect of drug use on religiosity was significant for all forms. Implications for treatment intervention are discussed. [Source: SA]

Francis, Leslie J. 1997. "The Impact of Personality and Religion on Attitude Towards Substance Use among 13-15 Year Olds." Drug and Alcohol Dependence vol. 44, pp. 95-103.
Abstract: A sample of 11,173 13-15 yr old secondary school pupils completed a scale of attitude towards substance use alongside the short form of the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), measures of personal religiosity and an index of denominational identity. The data demonstrate that a negative attitude toward substance use is associated with tendermindedness, introversion, stability and social conformity. Personal religiosity and membership of Protestant sects are also positively correlated with rejection of substance use, even after controlling for individual differences in personality. [Source: PI]

Gilfort, April Jackson. 1997. "The Relationship of Cultural Theme Discussion to Engagement with Acting out, African-American Male Adolescents in Family Therapy." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University.
Abstract: The following study examines the relationship between cultural theme discussion within the therapy session and adolescent behaviors that characterize engagement and disengagement (i.e. therapeutic relationship, patient participation, exploration, and negativity). Discussion of nine cultural themes (trust/mistrust, anger/rage, alienation, respect/disrespect, spirituality, the journey from boyhood to manhood, issues of racial identity and socialization, racism, and hopelessness) with substance using, conduct disordered, African American male adolescents in family therapy was examined as a way to enhance the therapy engagement of these adolescents within Multidimensional Family Therapy. During sessions when these adolescents were judged to be the most engaged, when they were rated to have the highest level of collaboration with their therapist, and when they were judged to be exploring their feelings and emotions to the highest level, it was found that these young, African American men discussed their Journey from Boyhood to Manhood in the very next session. Additionally, it was found that when adolescents and their therapists spend more time discussing the themes of anger/rage, alienation, and Journey from Boyhood to Manhood they show more behaviors characterizing engagement and less behaviors which characterize disengagement in the same session and in the session following their highest level of discussion. [Source: DA]

Kutter, Catherine J. and Diane S. McDermott. 1997. "The Role of the Church in Adolescent Drug Education."Journal of Drug Education vol. 27, pp. 293-305.
Abstract: In the present study, interactions among 3 dimensions of religiosity were evaluated in 238 adolescents (aged 13-18 yrs): (1) religious proscriptiveness, (2) involvement in church activities (ICA), and (3) the importance an individual places on church activities (IM). Each has previously demonstrated an inverse relationship with adolescent substance use. Religious proscriptiveness interacted with ICA and with IM in relation to adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other drugs. Additionally, among adolescents who had ever used alcohol, a positive relationship was observed between religious proscriptiveness and binge drinking such that the highest incidence of binge drinking was reported by those affiliated with proscriptive religious groups. Findings suggest that the church may be an important vehicle for drug education. [Source: PI]

McFadden, C. L. and J. K. Yardley. 1997. "Substance Use as a Predictor of School Outcomes." Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport vol. 68, pp. A-40.
Abstract: Represents information on the Youth Leisure Study (YLS) which presents the predictive findings of five substance use variables on four school outcomes, controlling for some demographic characteristics and importance of religion. What the YLS questionnaire contained; Findings of the study outlined; What the findings demonstrate; What school problems are associated with. [Source: AS]

Navarro, Jay, Stan Wilson, Lawrence R. Berger, and Timothy Taylor. 1997. "Substance Abuse and Spirituality: A Program for Native American Students."American Journal of Health Behavior vol. 21, pp. 3-11.
Abstract: An innovative program to prevent substance abuse among Native American students, implemented at the Instit for American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, NM, emphasized traditional values, history, & spirituality to enhance self-esteem. It involved readings, classroom discussions, Native American ceremonies, & student projects. Among the issues that surfaced were concerns about identifying "legitimate" elders for ceremonies, extensive diversity among Native American youth, relative neglect in the literature of women's importance in tribal life, & both common & conflicting religious themes among different tribes. The program was evaluated via final exam essays & class discussion among 35 students. [Source: SA]

Neumark Sztainer, Dianne, Mary Story, Simone A. French, and Michael D. Resnick. 1997. "Psychosocial Correlates of Health Compromising Behaviors among Adolescents." Health Education Research vol. 12, pp. 37-52.
Abstract: Investigated psychosocial correlates of diverse health-compromising behaviors among adolescents of different ages. Ss included 123,132 11-21 yr old males and females in 6th, 9th, and 12th grade. Psychosocial correlates of substance abuse, delinquency, suicide risk, sexual activity, and unhealthy weight loss behaviors were examined. Psychosocial variables included emotional well-being, self-esteem, risk-taking disposition, number of concerns, extracurricular involvement, religiosity, school connectedness and achievement, physical and sexual abuse, and family connectedness and structure. Results show that risk-taking disposition was associated with nearly every behavior across age and gender groups. Other consistent correlates included sexual abuse and family connectedness. Correlates of health-compromising behaviors tended to be consistent across age groups. However, stronger associations were noted between sexual abuse and substance use for younger adolescents, and risk-taking disposition and school achievement were stronger correlates for older youth. Findings suggest the presence of both common and unique etiological factors for different health-compromising behaviors among youth. [Source: PI]

Sutherland, M. S., C. D. Hale, G. J. Harris, P. Stalls, and D. Foulk. 1997. "Strengthening Rural Youth Resiliency through the Church." Journal of Health Education vol. 28, pp. 205-218.
Abstract: A coalition of six African American churches in Jackson County, Florida was formed in the mid-1980s, first to provide prevention services to older church and community members. Alliance services were expanded later to include alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) at risk youth. Project year one (1991) (or fiscal year 1991-92) served as the baseline comparison year. Each church was of a size where all participating youth could be identified and given the opportunity to contribute data. Accordingly, these same youth were surveyed both in project years one and four (fiscal year 1994-95). Data were gathered by trained interviewers using jury validated questionnaires. Self-reports of substance use have been found to be relatively stable across time. Significance was tested using the chi-square test for equality of proportions. There is strong indication of substantial behavior change. Fifteen of the 34 target attitudes and behaviors showed statistically significant changes. In general, most of the changes were positive. In 1994 (compared to 1991) children were more likely to avoid drinking alcohol, stay away from bad situations, count on their friends for help when confronting serious problems, less likely to participate when friends "get high," have healthier self-images, and perform better in school. Gender had no effect on responses. [Source: CI]

Albrecht, Stan L., Cheryl Amey, and Michael K. Miller. 1996. "Patterns of Substance Abuse among Rural Black Adolescents." Journal of Drug Issues vol. 26, pp. 751-781.
Abstract: Data from the most recent Monitoring the Future survey (N = 12,168 high school seniors) are used to examine the role of race & residence in substance abuse patterns. Consistent with previously reported research, residence differences are modest, & black youth are much less likely then whites to report drug use. In the bivariate analysis, major correlates of use include gender, family structure, religious attendance, grade point average (GPA), & availability of unearned income. In the multivariate analysis, race, family structure, religious attendance, GPA, & unearned income remain significant. The potential protective role played by family & church in drug use by rural, black adolescents is discussed. [Source: SA]

Amey, Cheryl H., Stan L. Albrecht, and Michael K. Miller. 1996. "Racial Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Religion." Substance Use and Misuse vol. 31, pp. 1311-1332.
Abstract: Investigated the extent to which differences in religiosity are responsible for racial differences in adolescent drug use, using data from the Monitoring the Future survey of high school seniors (N = 11,728, average age 17 or 18 yrs). Specifically, this study examined: (1) in a bivariate context, the relationship between race and 3 measures of religiosity: religious affiliation, attendance, and importance; (2) the relationship between these measures of religiosity and cigarette smoking, drinking, marijuana use, and the use of other illegal drugs; and (3) drug use in a multivariate context. Statistical analyses show that religion does provide some protection from drug use by adolescents. However, religiosity has less of an impact on the drug use of Black adolescents, perhaps as a result of the diverse roles of the Black church. [Source: PI]

Chandy, Joseph M., Robert W. Blum, and Michael D. Resnick. 1996. "Female Adolescents with a History of Sexual Abuse: Risk Outcome and Protective Factors."Journal of Interpersonal Violence vol. 11, pp. 503-518.
Abstract: Examined the school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, pregnancy risk, and chemical use of 1,011 female teenagers with a history of sexual abuse and a comparison group of 1,011 female teenagers without a background of abuse. Results show that abused Ss had higher rates of these adverse outcomes than nonabused Ss. Among abused Ss, protective factors against adverse outcome included a higher degree of religiosity, perceived health, caring from adults, living with both biological parents, and the presence of a clinic or nurse at school. Risk factors that increased the likelihood of adverse outcome included perceived substance use in school, mothers' use of alcohol, family stressor events during the past year, and worry about sexual coercion. [Source: PI]

Corcoran, Jacqueline. 1996. "Ecological Factors Associated with Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting."Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Texas At Austin.
Abstract: The central purpose of this research was to discover, using Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework (1979) of an ecological systems model, the combination of factors that successfully predicted pregnancy/parenting status in a convenience sample of 105 teens attending pregnancy prevention programs across a southwestern state. Non-pregnant/non-parenting teens were compared with pregnant and/or parenting teens along factors organized by the following three main systems of interacting categories of variables as explicated by Bronfenbrenner (1979): (1) the microsystem consisting of the psychological variables of self-esteem, depression, and stress levels experienced, and the social psychological variables of alcohol and drug abuse; (2) the mesosystem consisting of religious affiliation and family structure, family functioning, problems with friends, the neighborhood, and the school as well as enacted social support; (3) the macrosystem consisting of household income, parents' occupations, and race. Logistic regression modeling with the entire data set as well as gender and race subsets indicated support for an ecological systems model. The final model included macrolevel (income), mesolevel (communication problems within the family, Catholic religious affiliation, a positive relationship with school, fiancial support from family), and microlevel (age, high stress) factors that acted in combination to predict pregnancy status. The female-only group (N = 82) and the Hispanic group (N = 42) were the only subsamples to have enough members to support statistical modeling. The model for females includes the macrosystem variables of age and income, the mesosystem variables of religious orientation, emotional support from friends, and family communication, and the microsystem variables of depression and drug use. For Hispanics, the macrosystem variables of age and income and the microsystem variable of stress were the factors to enter the logistic regression model. Suggestions for future research and policy and service delivery recommendations are discussed. [Source: DA]

Diniaco, Georgiann. 1996. "The Relationship of Family Status and Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, The Ohio State University.
Abstract: The purpose of this collaborative descriptive study was to determine the relationship of family status and (1) adolescent alcohol and other drug use; (2) create an adolescent profile and (3) identify predictors of alcohol use for adolescents living within these family status groups. Population included a total of 57,494 students grades 6-12 enrolled during the fall 1994-95 within 18 districts which were members of the Drug-Free Schools Consortium, which included a midwestern city and surrounding suburban schools. The Primary Prevention Awareness, Attitude, and Usage Scales (PPAAUS) and locally developed Activities and Experiences inventory were used to conduct this study. Chi square analyses found differences by family status groups with the following characteristics: race, grade average, post high school plans; alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana use; family messages; the intent/willingness to use alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana; location of use; decision making factors; activity involvement; negative behaviors; resource person and feelings. Gender and grade level differences were reported within each family status group. The CHAID Analysis reported the following predictors of alcohol use. Grade level was reported as the number one predictor for use for all family status groups. The importance of family values, family messages and social involvement were identified as predictors for certain grade levels within all the family status groups. Involvement with religion, community service, sports and physical activities, academics and work for pay; feeling happy, sad, angry and stressed; acceptance of friends, ethnic background, and gender differences were also reported as predictors of alcohol use with the various family status groups. Recommendations were made for further research and family prevention programming. [Source: DA]

Hopkins, Gary Lee. 1996. "An AIDS Risk Appraisal of Students Attending Seventh-Day Adventist High Schools in the United States and Canada." Ph.D. Thesis, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda.
Abstract: Since its first recognition in 1981, the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become a global disease of increasing prevalence. Because there is no current cure or vaccination available to effectively prevent AIDS, health education has become an important method of reducing the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which is known to cause AIDS. A substantial amount of research has been conducted in public high schools aimed at identifying determinants of students AIDS-risk behaviors. With the exception of one study conducted by Ludescher (1992), theory based AIDS- behavioral research in Christian student populations have not been reported. In the present study, 1,748 students attending 69 Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) four-year high schools completed a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess (1) the HIV/AIDS-related behaviors of substance use and sexual intercourse before marriage and the determinants of these two risk behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1989), and (2) HIV/AIDS related attitudes, normative beliefs, and perceived control in a sample of SDA high school students based on the TPB. A substantial number of research participants reported prior sexual and drug use behaviors. The rates of both of these behaviors were lower in SDA than in non-SDA respondents. Those students who reported that their parent(s) used either tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana demonstrated higher rates of past sexual intercourse and substance use than those students who reported that their parent(s) were not users of any of the three substances. Using multiple regression analysis, the best predictor of the respondents intention to have sexual intercourse before marriage their perceived control over this behavior. Further, the cognitive underpinnings that best predicted the students perceived control regarding sexual intercourse before marriage were spiritual strength and encouragement from their teachers. Useful conclusions drawn from this research were not that a certain proportion of SDA youth engaged in sexual behaviors or substance use, but were rather that SDA youth are not immune or exempt from engaging in behaviors that place them at risk for unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. Also, some of the cognitive underpinnings of the student's attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control as they relate to sexual intercourse have now been identified. Educators can now act by creatively designing strategies that when implemented may serve to reduce the consequences of the acts studied. The Office of Education of the North American Division of Seventh-day Adventists might consider a continuous assessment based on behavioral theory that would further clarify determinants of health risk behaviors in their student population in the future. An analysis such as this would allow for quick corrective interventions when indicated. [Source: DA]

Johanson, C. E., F. F. Duffey, and J. C. Anthony. 1996. "Associations between Drug Use and Behavioral Repertoire in Urban Youths." Addiction vol. 91, pp. 523-534.
Abstract: Converging with psyche-social research findings, animal and human laboratory studies indicate that behavioral alternatives are important determinants of drug-taking. To investigate associations between how early adolescents spend their time, i.e. their behavioral repertoire and drug use (use of marijuana, crack/cocaine or inhalants), we analyzed data from an epidemiological sample of 1516 urban middle-school students who had completed private interviews in spring 1993. The interview included a 36-item questionnaire to assess how frequently the youth engaged in different activities; history of drug-taking was assessed separately. Multiple logistic regression was wed to estimate associations between drug we and each of seven behavioral domains as well as sex, age and racial-ethnic status. Youths spending a great deal of time working for pay and assuming other adult-like roles were more likely to have initiated drug use (estimated odds ratio, OR = 3.49; p = 0.002). Those who spent much time in religious activities were less likely (OR = 0.2, p < 0.001). An exploratory search for interactions disclosed other associations that merit attention in future research. These results corroborate evidence on the potential etiological significance of behavioral repertoire in relation to risk of drug use. [Source: SC]

Johnson, Knowlton, Denise Bryant, Ted Strader, Gregory Bucholtz, D. Collins, and T. Noe. 1996. "Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use by Strengthening Community, Family, and Youth Resiliency: An Evaluation of the Creating Lasting Connections Program." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 11, pp. 36-67.
Abstract: Examines the Creating Lasting Connections (CLC) program, a 5-yr demonstration project for delaying and reducing alcohol and drug use among high-risk 12-24 yr olds, and reports the findings from its implementation in multiple church communities. CLC aims to positively impact resiliency factors in 3 domains: Church community, family, and individual. Its major components include community mobilization, parent/guardian and youth training, early intervention, and follow-up case management services. Its implementation in rural, suburban and inner-city settings was evaluated over a 1 yr period. Data collected before CLC initiation, after parent and youth training, and after the followup case management reveals that CLC successfully engaged church communities in substance abuse activities, and produced positive direct effects on family and youth resiliency. It had moderating effects on onset and frequency of alcohol and drug use. [Source: PI]

Livingston, Bobby L., Sr. 1996. "The Faith Community Participating as an Advocate for Spiritual Construction and Reconstruction in an Urban Context." Thesis, Wesley Theological Seminary, Washington, D.C.
Abstract: This project seeks to eliminate use of illicit drugs by young black males in an urban context by using a pedagogic program/initiative in a faith community. The project found that the root cause of problems involving "crack" cocaine probably stems from economic inequality and the USA's unwillingness to promote fair employment treatment for all citizens. Interdiction by law enforcement agencies and community-based street patrols are among the failed efforts to eradicate the problem. Successful resolutions can occur by using biblical teachings, and through supporting and encouraging courageous mothers and parents who rear their children to understand the importance of respect for authority and love for God, for self, and for others. The project recommends a wholistic approach that involves every segment of our society to rectify the problem. [Source: RI]

McBride, Duane C., Patricia B. Mutch, and Dale D. Chitwood. 1996. "Religious Belief and the Initiation and Prevention of Drug Use among Youth." Pp. 110-130 in Intervening with Drug Involved Youth, edited by Clyde B. McCoy and Lisa R. Metsch. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Abstract: (from the chapter) examine briefly selected religious perspectives on alcohol and drug use and chemically altered states of consciousness review selected literature on the empirical relationship between religious values and drug use examine data on reasons for alcohol and drug abstinence among college students in 2 colleges operated by a proscriptive Christian denomination [examine] the theological and philosophical underpinnings of religious views, reviewing selected empirical literature on religiosity and drug use religion and altered states of consciousness [altered states of consiousness and the monotheistic religions, Judaism and alcohol and drugs, Christianity and alcohol and drugs, Islam and alcohol and drugs] the empirical relationship between drug use and religious values and involvement reasons for abstinence in a conservative Christian young adult population [reasons for abstinence, differences in ethnicity, a note on gender differences] data were . . . presented showing that specific religious commitment may be a powerful component of abstinence decisions among religious youth, particularly minority youth [Source: PI]

Mott, Frank L., Michelle M. Fondell, Paul N. Hu, Lori Kowaleski Jones, and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. 1996. "The Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High- Risk Adolescent Population." Family Planning Perspectivesvol. 28, pp. 13-16.
Abstract: Study indicates several factors, including mother's early sexual activity and extensive work, to determine whether person would have sex by age of 14. A study using data for mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children aged 14 or older indicates that, after accounting for a wide range demographic and socioeconomic antecedents, children are significantly more likely to become sexually active before age 14 if their mother had sex at an early age and if she has worked extensively. In addition, early sexual debut is eight times as likely among black boys as among-non- Hispanic white boys. Children who use controlled substances at an early age are more than twice as likely to have sex before age 14 as those who do not, although the type of substance having an effect is different for girls (cigarettes) and boys (alcohol). Church attendance is an important determinant of delayed sexual activity, but only when a child's friends attend the same church. [Source: CW]

Nylander, Albert B., III, Yuk Ying Tung, and Xiaohe Xu. 1996. "The Effect of Religion on Adolescent Drug Use in America: An Assessment of Change, 1976-1992."Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Utilizes multiple birth cohorts as a marker of historical times to examine the important impacts of religion on the use of drugs among US high school seniors ages 17-18. Ordinary least squares & tobit analyses were used to test the usefulness of religious variables on using other illegal drugs & marijuana across 3 birth cohorts 1976-1992. The data analyzed were from the cumulative "Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youths, 1976-1992: Concatenated Core File," which was obtained from the Inter-University Consortium for Political & Social Research at the U of Michigan (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Mally, 1994). The results show that adolescents who found religion more important to their life were less likely to use drugs than those who did not, & that religion is a predictor of the use of drugs across each birth cohort, although the strength of the coefficients decline for each successive birth cohort. It is shown that religion serves as a mechanism of social control. Moreover, for all birth cohorts, the effects of religion remained statistically significant in predicting adolescent drug use. Similar results were found for both ordinary least squares & tobit regression. [Source: SA]

Oler, Carlton Hugh. 1996. "Spirituality, Racial Identity, and Intentions to Use Alcohol and Other Drugs among African-American Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cincinnati.
Abstract: Two hundred and forty-nine African-American 4th, 5th, and 6th graders attending predominantly African-American secular and non-secular elementary schools participated in a study to investigate the relations of spirituality, racial identity, and intentions to use alcohol and other drugs. The students completed the (1) Children's Drug Use Survey (CDUS), Oetting et al., 1985); (2) Botvin Alcohol and Drug Attitude Scale (BADAS, Botvin et al., 1990); (3) Tentative Drug Use Scale (TDUS, Horan and Williams, 1975); (4) Age Universal Religious Orientation Scale-Revised (AUROS-R, Gorsuch and McPherson, 1989); (5) Religious Commitment Questionnaire (RCQ, Penneck and Epperson, 1985); (6) Banks Scale (BS, Banks, 1984); and a (7) Demographic Information Sheet. The results showed that (1) African-American students higher in spirituality and racial identity did have significantly stronger disapproving attitudes about the use of alcohol and other drugs than those students with lower levels, and that (2) African-American students higher in spirituality evinced greater intentions not to use alcohol and other drugs than those students with lower levels. Additionally, there were a number of significant differences relative to school-type, SES, and grade level. Some differences included that students in non-secular schools had a higher spirituality and racial identity, and engaged in less substance use than students in secular schools, and that students from lower SES backgrounds considered religion more important than students from higher SES backgrounds, although students from higher SES levels attended church more often. Based upon the results of the study, it was concluded that spirituality and racial identity, particularly spirituality, do predict African-American preadolescents' receptivity to the use of alcohol and other drugs, and that efforts should be made to strengthen students in these areas to buffer them from media and peer pressure to use. Limitations of the study and su [Source: PI]

Perkins, Daniel Francis. 1996. "An Examination of the Organismic, Behavioral, and Contextual Covariates of Risk Behaviors among Diverse Groups of Adolescents."Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University, Detroit.
Abstract: This study explored the interrelationship of risk behaviors (i.e., alcohol and drug use, antisocial behavior/delinquency, sexual activity, and school misconduct) and, in turn, their relationships with individual-organismic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, and ethnicity), individual-behavioral characteristics (i.e., involvement in extracurricular activities, religiosity, and view of the future), and contextual characteristics (i.e., family support, parent-adolescent communication, peer group characteristics, and school climate). A sample of 16,375 Michigan adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years, derived from the Community-Based Profile of Michigan Youth study, was administered the Search Institute Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire (ABQ), a self report measure indexing adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. In almost all cases, correlations among risk behaviors within the entire sample and within the age, gender, and ethnic subgroups were significant. Correlations between males and females and among the racial/ethnic and age groups generally did not differ significantly. However, intercorrelations among European American adolescents were generally higher than was the case for corresponding correlations among African American adolescents. Multiple regressions were used to assess how the risk behaviors were predicted by the individual and contextual characteristics, and to determine whether this covariation differed among subgroups. All results were significant and, across equations, peer group characteristics was the most frequent significant predictor. Age, gender, and religiosity were significant predictors, particularly in the multiple regressions for sexual activity. Self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, view of the future, and family support were not significant predictors. Results were discussed in regard to this study's limitations and to directions for future research. Limitations were associated with the study's cross sect. [Source: PI]

Weinbender, Miriam L. M. and Annette MacKay Rossignol. 1996. "Lifestyle and Risk of Premature Sexual Activity in a High School Population of Seventh-Day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989." Adolescence vol. 31, pp. 265-281.
Abstract: Evaluated Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture that reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents. Ss were 8,321 SDA students from 58 high schools who responded to a questionnaire concerning specific behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes that appear to be associated with high-risk health behaviors among this population. Results are consistent with those from other populations regarding the associations between adolescent sexual activity and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. In addition, several behaviors that are discouraged within SDA culture, such as going to a movie theater, drinking caffeinated beverages, or participating in competitive sports, also were associated with early sexual activity among SDA youth. It is hypothesized that these latter behaviors may predict the emergence of other high-risk behaviors in both SDA and popular cultures. [Source: PI]

Berkowitz, M. W., A. L. Begun, A. Zweben, J. K. Giese, G. Mulry, C. Horan, T. Wheeler, J. Gimenez, and J. Piette. 1995. "Assessing How Adolescents Think About the Morality of Substance Use." Drugs and Society vol. 8, pp. 111-124.
Abstract: A phenomenological cognitive model of how adolescents think about the socio-moral aspects of substance use is presented. The study argues that the ways that adolescents make meaning of substance use has been neglected. A four-construct assessment battery is described, including measures of moral judgment stage, social knowledge domain categorization of substance use behaviors, ethical relativism, and interpersonal problem solving. The methods employed include oral interviews, card sorts, objective questionnaires, and videotaped family conflict resolutions. A second example of the phenomenological approach presented is the study of adolescent risk-taking, derived from a theoretical model posited by Levitt, Selman and Richmond (1991). Adolescent risk-taking is operationalized, assessed, and measured with objective questionnaires, oral interview questions, and videotaped family interactions. This approach offers new insight into the more traditional means of understanding adolescent substance use and a potential source for designing prevention and intervention programs. [Source: SA]

De Gaston, Jacqueline F., Larry Jensen, and Stan Weed. 1995. "A Closer Look at Adolescent Sexual Activity."Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 24, pp. 465-479.
Abstract: Examines adolescent sexuality, drawing on survey data from 1,228 parochial students in the eastern US. Few claimed that sex was forced or even pressured. Over 50% reported "going steady" as their relationship status when experiencing their first intercourse. Another 25% reported that they were "dating" or "knew each other well." Approximately 20% reported that drugs or alcohol were used at the time of first sex, & 75% had first sex at either their own home or a friend's home. Nearly 50% wished they had waited longer before having sex, especially the females & the more religious students. Half of the nonvirgin students reported having had only 1 sexual partner. The implications of this information for setting social policy, & designing & implementing effective sex education programs are discussed. [Source: SA]

Gomez, Mary Rose. 1995. "Adolescent Drug Use: A Comparative Study of Predictive Factors." Thesis, University of Denver.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find consistency across time in the predictor variables of adolescent drug use. Because of the inconsistencies in the literature in the area of direct causes of adolescent drug use, a theoretical path latent variable model was established and compared to fit the data at two different time periods. The major hypothesis was that the theoretical model would fit the data the same at both time periods. The theoretical model was based on developmental theory, literature review, and previous models established by Sherry et al. (1991), Oetting and Beauvais (1989), Swain et al. (1987), and Winchell (1993). The data were collected from a group of adolescents when the students were freshmen in high school (Time I) as well as when they were seniors in high school (Time II). The theoretical model had 7 latent variables which included: Adolescent Drug Use, Spirituality Coping, Coping Skills, Anger, Peer Associations, Peer Use, and Family Function. The only independent variable was the Family Function variable. Once the data were collected from the two different time periods, the theoretical model was tested to determine fit. The fit criteria included global fit measures, component measures, and invariance testing. Results indicated that the theoretical model fit the data at Time I, but not at Time II. Yet, a latent path that was consistent across time was the path of Spirituality Coping to Adolescent Drug Use. Additionally, the path of Family Function to Spirituality Coping was found to be significant at both times. In the literature, Peer Use has been emphasized as the major predictor of Adolescent Drug Use; however, in this study, it was found to be a significant predictor in Time I, but not at Time II. In summary, the outcomes of this study reveal that the theoretical model did not fit the data across time. And, the predictor variables of adolescent drug use are not the same for the freshmen at Time I, and they are for the seniors at Time II. [Source: PI]

Gorsuch, R. L. 1995. "Religious Aspects of Substance Abuse and Recovery." Journal of Social Issues vol. 51, pp. 65-83.
Abstract: Studies have typically found less substance abuse among highly religious people than among less religious people. Some research suggests that religiousness is associated with lower substance abuse because religious people have been socialized to accept anti-abuse norms, are involved with anti-abuse peers, and have a mechanism for satisfying needs for social contact and meaning in life. However, the relationship occurs only for a nurturing and supportive religiousness, and not for a restrictive, negativistic, and ritualistic religiousness. While religiousness has seldom been a variable in the treatment of substance abuse, the available data suggest that, for religious people who desire that their beliefs be considered in such treatment, the treatment may be effective if it shifts abusers from restrictive, negativistic, and ritualistic religiosity, and toward nurturing and supportive religiousness. Knowledge of this research may help nonreligious institutions in their efforts to treat substance abuse. [Source: SC]

Harbach, Robert L. and W. Paul Jones. 1995. "Family Beliefs among Adolescents at Risk for Substance Abuse." Journal of Drug Education vol. 25, pp. 1-9.
Abstract: Examined the extent to which 30 adolescents at-risk for substance abuse express different beliefs about the importance of family, religiosity, education, and work in comparison to their own parents and to 39 control adolescents and their parents. Data were gathered using the Family Belief System measure. Parents of at-risk Ss did not hold significantly different beliefs related to family, religiosity, education, and work than parents of control Ss. Beliefs of the at-risk Ss were significantly different from control Ss and from both parent groups. The absolute difference in age between parent and adolescent was significantly smaller in the at-risk group as compared to the control group. Results support the hypothesis that parents of at-risk adolescents have not been as successful as parents of other adolescents in passing on family beliefs and values. [Source: PI]

Hardesty, Patrick H. and Kathleen M. Kirby. 1995. "Relation between Family Religiousness and Drug Use within Adolescent Peer Groups." Journal of Social Behavior and Personality vol. 10, pp. 421-430.
Abstract: 475 students attending a nontraditional high school participated in a cross-sectional study of the relations between family religiousness (FMR) and use of 10 illicit drugs among peers. Questionnaires focused on peer drug use, family social climate, and FMR. Higher levels of FMR were related to lower use of illicit drugs among peers. After controlling for other family social climate variables, FMR accounted for significant variance of peer use of beer, distilled alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, crack, and amphetamines. FMR may affect how teens choose their peers and may provide a measure of protection against adolescent drug use since evidence suggests that peer drug use is the largest determining factor in individual use. [Source: PI]

Velez, C. N. and J. A. Ungemack. 1995. "Psychosocial Correlates of Drug Use among Puerto Rican Youth: Generational Status Differences." Social Science & Medicine vol. 40, pp. 91-103.
Abstract: This study investigates the role of several social psychological variables which could help explain the process by which Puerto Rican adolescents become vulnerable to drug use involvement with exposure to a host society, New York City, where the prevalence of drug use is higher than in the society of origin, Puerto Rico. To study how acculturation affects the psychosocial factors associated with adolescent drug use, four generational status groups of Puerto Rican students living in two settings -- New York City and San Juan, Puerto Rico -- were surveyed: New York Ricans (New York City-born Puerto Ricans); New York migrants (island-born Puerto Ricans living in New York); Puerto Rican islanders (adolescents who had never lived outside of Puerto Rico); and Puerto Rican immigrants (New York City-born youngsters of Puerto Rican parentage whose families had returned to live on the island). A theoretical model developed to explain adolescent problem behavior, which posits a continuum of antecedent, intrapersonal, interpersonal and perceived environment dimensions theoretically conducive to adolescent drug use, guided the analysis. Analysis of variance was used to test for generational status group differences in each of the psychosocial risk factors. The relationship between generational status, the intervening psychosocial variables, and drug use were explored through multiple regression analyses. The data showed that Puerto Rican youth's generational status was systematically related to differences in the occurrences of the social psychological risk factors for adolescent drug use involvement. With greater exposure to the New York City environment, Puerto Rican youngsters were more likely to report problems in parental socialization, personal control and perceived environment domains. Each of the psychosocial characteristics was associated with the students' drug use involvement, and these relationships were conditioned by generational status. New York Ricans exhibited the greatest susceptibility to drug use involvement in the presence of weakening of parental controls, increased tolerance of deviance and drug use, increased unconventionality with respect to school and church, and peer use of legal and illegal drugs. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables together explained 47% of the variance in the drug use involvement of Puerto Rican adolescents. [Source: CI]

Yarnold, Barbara M. and Valerie Patterson. 1995. "Factors Correlated with Adolescents' Use of Crack in Public Schools." Psychological Reports vol. 76, pp. 467-474.
Abstract: Examined 8 factors correlated with crack use using self-report data from 479 7th-22th graders in Florida public schools: academic standing of Ss, whether peers are crack users, whether it is easy to obtain crack, whether Ss live alone or with fathers or mothers, whether other family members have problems with drugs or alcohol, and whether religion is important to Ss. The relationship between drug use and these 8 variables was studied while controlling for 10 other variables: age, race, and gender of Ss, whether Ss had an early initiation into alcohol or cigarettes, whether they perceived risks associated with crack use, and whether they engaged in athletic or other school-related activities. After application of the Bonferroni correction, only 2 variables emerged as related to crack use: having friends who use crack and living alone. [Source: PI]

Bahr, Stephen J. 1994. "Religion and Adolescent Drug Use: A Comparison of Mormons and Other Religions."Pp. 118-137 in Contemporary Mormonism: Social Science Perspectives, edited by Marie Cornwall, Tim B. Heaton, and Lawrence A. Young. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Bailey, R. C., Y. I. Hser, S. C. Hsieh, and M. D. Anglin. 1994. "Influences Affecting Maintenance and Cessation of Narcotics Addiction." Journal of Drug Issues vol. 24, pp. 249-272.
Abstract: A sample of 354 narcotics addicts remanded to the California Civil Addict Program (CAP) in 1962-64 was followed for over twenty-four years. Self-report data collected at initial treatment admission and in two followup interviews (1974-75 and 1985-86) included information on family history, patterns of drug use and criminal involvement, and other behaviors, The sample was classified into four exclusive groups: Winners (N=59), who had been abstinent from narcotics and other serious drug use and had not been involved in criminal activity during the thirty-six-month period prior to interview; Striving addicts (N=46), who had been abstinent from narcotics use, but not necessarily other drugs, and had no incarceration for a period of twelve months prior to interview; Enduring addicts (N=146), who had used narcotics and typically other drugs within the prior 12-month period but had avoided incarceration; and Incarcerated addicts (N=103), incarcerated at some time during the twelve-month period, and whose drug use was varied. Winners had generally negative familial experiences including little encouragement from parents, who in the main had adverse relationships, higher rates of sexual molestation, and were least happy in childhood. Despite this environment Winners evidenced early independence and self-confidence. Striving addicts were characterized by usually non-substance-using, church-going parents. Most had ceased narcotics use, but remained heavily involved with alcohol and marijuana. Enduring addicts, mostly from lower socioeconomic status families that exhibited extensive substance use and physical arguments, commonly accessed methadone treatment and avoided incarceration while persisting in narcotic addiction and crime. Incarcerated addicts, typically raised in dysfunctional, substance-using families, received the most parental caring along with the most severe punishment. They exhibited persistent involvement in crime, violence, and drug use. [Source: SC]

Perkins, H. Wesley. 1994. "The Contextual Effect of Secular Norms on Religiosity as a Moderator of Student Alcohol and Other Drug Use." Pp. 187-208 in Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion. JAI Press.

Sutherland, Mary S. and Gregory J. Harris. 1994. "Church-Based, Youth Drug Prevention Programs in African-American Communities." Wellness Perspectivesvol. 10, p. 3.
Abstract: Describes the organizational, administrative and program activities of a drug prevention program conducted by African-American churches in the rural South. Church health committees as facilitators; Objective and activity areas; Indication that drug culture for respondents appears to be restricted to legal drugs; Vulnerability and potential of abuse of alcohol and other drugs. [Source: AS]

Bahr, Stephen J., Ricky D. Hawks, and Gabe Wang. 1993. "Family and Religious Influences on Adolescent Substance Abuse." Youth and Society vol. 24, pp. 443-465.
Abstract: Examined how family and religious variables are associated with adolescent substance abuse (SA). 322 adolescents (aged 11-28 yrs) and their parents or guardians participated in the study. The adolescents were either drug free, experimenters, referred as suspected drug users, or already in trouble with the law. Findings indicate that level of peer drug use (DU) was associated with SA. Parental monitoring and family DU did not have direct impacts on adolescent DU but had moderately strong associations with peer DU. Family cohesion and religious importance were not associated with peer DU. [Source: PI]

Free, Marvin D. 1993. "Stages of Drug Use: A Social Control Perspective." Youth and Society vol. 25, pp. 251-271.
Abstract: Three models reflecting stages of substance use (alcohol use, alcohol and marijuana use, polydrug use) were tested. Path analysis examined data from 916 undergraduates who completed questionnaires at a church-affiliated university or a state university. School bonds (e.g., school involvement) contributed little toward an explanation of substance use. Religiosity and religious conservatism accounted for some of the variance in substance use, primarily underage drinking. Results suggest that explanations of substance use can be enhanced through development of models employing stages of drug involvement. [Source: PI]

Mercer, Joyce Ann. 1993. "The Devil Made Me Do It: Teens, Drugs, and Satanism." Reclaiming Children and Youth: Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems vol. 2, pp. 11-15.
Abstract: Examines teen Satanism as a phenomenon of adolescent development issues & its relation to chemical abuse. An overview of cults & the Church of Satan is given as a context for identifying social alienation of youth & high-risk behaviors of drug use & sexual exaltation. A case study is presented of a male (age 16) who engaged in satanic rituals for reasons of self-esteem. It is asserted that five issues are central to the relation between adolescent development & Satanism: identity, authority, sexuality, belonging, & spirituality. [Source: SA]

Nakkula, Michael James. 1993. "Toward Methodological Dialogue in Adolescent Risk Research." Ed.D. Thesis, Harvard University.
Abstract: This study examined whether the clustering, prediction and self-reported meaning of various forms of high-risk behavior differed within two divergent high school cultures. 406 students were sampled, 242 from an urban high school in a low-income, working-class community, and 164 from a suburban high school in a middle-income, working-class and professional community. The urban subsample was largely African-American (35%) and Hispanic (30%), with smaller numbers of Haitian (15%) and Caucasian (7.5%) students. The suburban subsample was almost exclusively Caucasian (86%). Females comprised 55% of the sample within each school; males 45%. Sampling was largely random. Nine forms of high-risk behavior were included in the assessment of clustering differences: Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, harder drug use, multiple substance use, crime, depressive behavior, school-related problems, and sexual behavior. Involvement in each of these behaviors was assessed by the Risk and Prevention Questionnaire and Interview (RAP QI) (Nakkula, Way, Stauber, & London, 1989), a lickert-type survey, developed in consultation with high school students representing a broad range of reading levels. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis uncovered three clusters of behaviors within each school. The cluster of depressive behavior and school-related problems was found within both schools, while the two unique urban school clusters were sexual behavior with crime and the substance use cluster of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use and multiple substance use. The two unique suburban school clusters were cigarette smoking, alcohol use and sexual behavior; and marijuana use, multiple substance use, harder drug use and crime. Within each school, cluster scores were best predicted, via multiple regression, by different combinations of risk and resiliency factors, including family functioning, quality of relationships with parents and friends, hopefulness/hopelessness, religiosity, and friends' and family substance use, each of which was assessed by the RAP QI. Qualitative analyses of indepth research interviews were conducted to interpret the meaning of selected regression findings for each school. The particular strategy for using quantitative and qualitative methods interactively, designed and exemplified here, represents movement toward a methodological dialogue that can deepen our understanding of adolescent high-risk behavior. [Source: DA]

Swaim, Randall C., Eugene R. Oetting, Pamela Jumper Thurman, Fred Beauvais, and Ruth W. Edwards. 1993. "American Indian Adolescent Drug Use and Socialization Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison." Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology vol. 24, pp. 53-70.
Abstract: Examined are the links between drug use & the socialization characteristics of family, religious identification, school adjustment, & peer drug associations in a group of American Indian youth. Previous research (Oetting, Eugene R., & Beauvais, Fred, "Peer Cluster Theory, Socialization Characteristics and Adolescent Drug Use: A Path Analysis," Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1987, 34, 3, 205-213) using a path model to test the relationships between these variables among Anglo youths demonstrated that peer drug associations mediate the influence of the other variables, & that peers are likely to be the primary factor in youth drug abuse. Here, the same path model is applied to a group of 477 northern Plains & southwest American Indian students in grades 11 & 12 from 2 reservations. Ss were administered an anonymous drug & alcohol survey during regular school classes. The findings of the study on Anglo youths were replicated with two important exceptions: peer drug associations were not as highly correlated with drug use for Indian youths, & family sanctions against drugs had a direct influence on drug use in addition to an indirect influence. It is suggested that differences in family dynamics among Indian youth may account for these discrepancies. [Source: SA]

Thomas, B. S. 1993. "Drug-Use in a Small Midwestern Community and Relationships to Selected Characteristics." Journal of Drug Education vol. 23, pp. 247-258.
Abstract: A description of 1074 high school students' alcohol and other drug (AOD) use along with the consequences of such use was supplemented with comparisons of grade level and gender differences and analyses of the relationships between AOD use and incidence of adverse consequences with grade point average, attendance at religious services, frequency of dating, frequency of driving a car and frequency of having trouble at school. Alcohol was clearly the drug of choice and produced a variety of adverse consequences. Most frequently reported were arguments, trouble with parents and at school and nausea or vomiting. Grade level differences were found, but few significant gender differences emerged. Significant relationships between AOD use and consequences with all other independent variables were found. [Source: SC]

Beauvais, F. 1992. "Characteristics of Indian Youth and Drug-Use." American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research vol. 5, pp. 51-67.
Abstract: The overall high rates of drug use found among Indian youth may be accounted for in part by lack of educational and employment opportunity and other endemic problems of Indian reservations. Individual drug involvement is most highly related to membership in drug-using peer clusters; but because of physical isolation, links between drug use and close friends are weaker for Indian youth, and family influence is felt more strongly. Anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem are not related to drug involvement, but angry youth are more likely to have drug- involved peers. Risk factors for Indian youth are low family caring, age first drunk, poor school adjustment, weak family sanctions against drugs, positive attitudes toward alcohol use, risk of school dropout, father not at home, and poor religious identification. [Source: SC]

Cochran, John K. 1992. "The Effects of Religiosity on Adolescent Self-Reported Frequency of Drug and Alcohol Use." Journal of Drug Issues vol. 22, pp. 91-104.
Abstract: Homogeneous effects cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the effects of personal religiosity on self-reported frequency of drug and alcohol use in 3,065 7th-22th grade adolescents. While the existence of an inverse religiosity-substance use relationship is well documented, questions still exist concerning the nature of these relationships. A literature review reveals 3 rival hypotheses: the anti-asceticism hypothesis, which predicts stronger relationships among the "softer" drug types; the moral condemnation hypothesis, which predicts stronger relationships among the "harder" drugs; and the hellfire hypothesis, which predicts stable effects across drug types. These data provide strong support for the more general hellfire hypothesis, with equivalent parameter estimates for the effects of religiosity observed for each drug type. [Source: PI]

Fehlauer, Elsie E. 1992. "Attitudes, Influences and Expectations of Adolescent Dating Behaviors: A Survey of High School Students." M.Ed. Thesis, University of Alberta (Canada).
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between adolescents' peer expected dating behaviors and their actual dating behaviours. Noteworthy among the data gathered, was the strong support given to the "permissiveness with affection" code and existence of the "double standard" for acceptable sexual behavior. Reported dating behaviours reflected the respondents' perceptions that they were more experienced than their peers. Gender differences appeared to exist for the two, less committed levels of dating, but when going steady, the female respondents reflected similar behaviours and expectations to those forwarded by their male counterparts. Roughly half of the surveyed students indicated they had been sexually active, most by the time they were fifteen years of age. Religiosity, academic success, level of alcohol consumption, drug and tobacco use, as well as parents' marital status were strongly associated with sexual activity of the adolescent sin this survey. Results further indicated that although the peer group influences adolescent behaviours, the parents are of equal importance in influencing adolescent decisions. [Source: DA]

Francis, Leslie J. and Gerald A. Bennett. 1992. "Personality and Religion among Female Drug Misusers." Drug and Alcohol Dependence vol. 30, pp. 27-31.
Abstract: Investigated the relationship between personality and religion among drug abusers. 50 entrants (aged 16-39 yrs) to a 1-yr long Christian residential rehabilitation program for female drug abusers completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the adult form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Towards Christianity (L. J. Francis and M. T. Stubbs; see record 1988-25206-001). Comparison of the Ss' mean scores on the EPQ and the published norms indicated that Ss scored higher on psychoticism and neuroticism and lower on extraversion and the lie scale. The results suggest that psychoticism is the personality dimension fundamental to religiosity, and that neither neuroticism nor extraversion, as measured by the EPQ, is related to religiosity. [Source: PI]

Maton, Kenneth I. and Marc A. Zimmerman. 1992. "Psychosocial Predictors of Substance Use among Urban Black Male Adolescents." Drugs and Society vol. 6, pp. 79-113.
Abstract: Lifestyle, social support/stress, and well-being were used to predict frequency of alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use among 150 urban African-American male adolescents (aged 15-29 yrs). Ss, most of whom had dropped out of school, participated in an initial interview and a follow-up interview 6 mo later. Lifestyle was a significant predictor of marijuana and hard drug use at both measurement points, and a predictor of alcohol use at 1 measurement point. Support/stress explained significant variance in alcohol use at both measurement points, and in marijuana use at 1 measurement point. Independent variance in substance use was explained by in-school status, spirituality, and life event stress. Low self-esteem predicted increased marijuana use 6 mo later. [Source: PI]

Zimmerman, Marc A. and Kenneth I. Maton. 1992. "Life-Style and Substance Use among Male African-American Urban Adolescents: A Cluster Analytic Approach." American Journal of Community Psychology vol. 20, pp. 121-138.
Abstract: Cluster analyzed 4 variables (school attendance, employment, church attendance, and delinquency) to develop life-style profiles, using interview data from 218 African-American male adolescents (mean age 17 yrs). Five meaningful clusters were retained and subjected to criterion validity analyses using measures of spirituality, participation in a voluntary organization, self-esteem, and friend's substance use. The 5 clusters were then compared on cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use. Results suggest that a lifestyle that includes an adaptive compensatory behavior component may be more adaptive than a lifestyle that does not include compensatory behavior. For example, youths who left high school before graduation but were involved in church reported less alcohol and substance use than youths who left school and were not involved in any meaningful instrumental activity. [Source: PI]

Brownfield, David and Ann Marie Sorenson. 1991. "Religion and Drug Use among Adolescents: A Social Support Conceptualization and Interpretation." Deviant Behavior vol. 12, pp. 259-276.
Abstract: Data on a stratified random sample of 800 white male adolescents drawn from the U of Washington Seattle Youth Study, 1981, were analyzed to assess the validity & reliability of self-reported delinquent behavior. Bivariate relationships between adolescent drug use & 3 measures of religious affiliation & religiosity, 2 of parental communication, & 4 of peer association were determined; then, measures of religion & family communication were analyzed in a series of latent variable models to derive a measure of social support; finally the multivariate relationships among drug use, social support, & peer associations were determined. Consistent with prior research, it was found that adolescents who identified themselves as Catholic, Jewish, or Protestant were less likely to use drugs than adolescents with no religious affiliation. The measure of social support was found to be significantly correlated with drug use, & it is argued that the concept of social support may be incorporated into the social control theory of deviance. In future research, a longitudinal design & various refinements, including a focus on fundamentalist faiths, are suggested. [Source: SA]

Daily, Steven Gerald. 1991. "Adventist Adolescents and Addiction: Substance Use/Abuse in an Adventist Population and Its Relationship to Religion, Family, Self-Perception, and Deviant Behavior." Ph.D. Thesis, United States International University.
Abstract: The problem. This study was designed to measure the relative impact of four independent variables (religion, family, self-perception, and deviant behavior) on Seventh-day Adventist adolescent substance use/abusers. Also to analyze how the Adventist teaching of total abstinence impacts substance use patterns among the Church's adolescents, and to compare these findings with parallel research conducted with adolescents in six other Protestant denominations, and in the general population. Method. Thirteen thousand eight hundred and eighteen subjects were administered a 465 item questionnaire in carefully controlled group settings. This Valuegenesis Youth Questionnaire, designed by Search Institute contained several reliable scales used to measure adolescent substance use and abuse, religious orientation, family environment, self-perception and deviant behavior patterns. For testing of hypotheses, substance abusers were defined as those who: smoked tobacco, or drank alcohol more than once a day (items 177, 178), used illegal drugs more than once a week (item 182), used any of these substances 40 or more times in the last twelve months (items 404, 405, 406), or who engaged in binge drinking (item 409). Results. As predicted, Adventist adolescents scored significantly lower on reported rates of substance use, and to a lesser degree on substance abuse, than adolescents in other Protestant churches. Deviant behavior, religious orientation, family environment, and self-perception all proved to have strong correlations with Adventist adolescent substance use, with religion being even stronger than predicted, and self-perception being weaker than predicted. Contrary to prediction, Hispanic ethnicity was linked to higher reported rates of Adventist adolescent substance use, and geographical location did prove to be a significant factor correlating with varying levels of substance use. Also, contrary to prediction, abstainers scored significantly better than experimenters or moderate users on measures of religion, family, self- perception and deviance. And the Endorsement of SDA Standards Scale proved to have a much stronger influence on Adventist adolescent substance use/abuse than either the Vertical Faith Scale or the Adventist Orthodoxy Scale. [Source: DA]

Harrington, Keith A. 1991. "Spiritual Resources to Chemically Dependent Adolescents." D.Min. Thesis, Drew University, Madison.
Abstract: This study conducted over a seventy-day period examines the spiritual growth of adolescents in a residential chemical dependency treatment facility at Conifer Park, Scotia, New York. The project involves a total of forty-eight adolescent patients and a representative sample of twelve from the original forty-eight patient participants, are used to assess their spiritual understanding at the onset and closure of treatment. A theme this author developed is that one can be addicted to anything which alienates a person from his/her spiritual self. This writer states addiction is a spiritual disease that includes all parts of oneself physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, etc. based on the work conducted by John A. Martin, a Roman Catholic priest, and a consultant in the field of chemical dependency. This writer begins this study with a personal context which discusses his own spiritual disease of addiction to alcohol and overeating. Chapter One also consists of the methodology and phases of research and development for the completion of this project. Chapter Two is a review of the literature which explores biblical sources related to the use of alcoholic beverages, Erik Erikson's states of human development, Martin's spiritual process of addiction and a brief review of the first three steps of the Twelve Step program. Chapter Three demonstrates the pilot project developed with adolescents on spiritual growth using the first three steps of the Twelve Step program of Alcoholics Anonymous. This chapter also reviews a summary of six out of thirty Step sessions of interactions with adolescent patients led by this author in the seventy-day pilot period. The Step sessions use the first three steps of the Twelve Step program of Alcoholics Anonymous to assess the patients spiritual growth. An age appropriate manual centered on spiritual growth using the first three steps of the Twelve Step Program of Alcoholics Anonymous was developed by this author for use in each Step session. The final chapters, Four and Five examine the results of the spiritual assessment survey and various evaluations. In addition, theological and psychological considerations are discussed which relate to the disease of addiction. [Source: DA]

Johnson, Timothy S. 1991. "Designing and Implementing a Program of Parenting Skills for Parents of Pre-Adolescent Children in Hyde Park Baptist Church of Denison Tx." Thesis, Christian Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The author attempts to integrate the strategic family therapy approach and the pastoral care model with adolescent drug abusers and their families, and presents a literature review and a case study to demonstrate such integration. The author also explains some unifying concepts between strategic family therapy relationships, the adolescent's religious needs and alienation syndrome, as well as an overview of drug abuse in the West Bank. The integration of strategic family therapy and pastoral care is an answer to adolescent drug abuse. [Source: RI]

Malaret, Dennis Rosado. 1991. "Patterns of Illicit Drug Use among American High School Youth: An Examination for the Years 1976 and 1986." M.A. Thesis, Western Michigan University.
Abstract: Previous studies have noted the importance of structural and demographic variables for the study of drug use among high school students. The present study focuses on the pattern and extent of legal and illegal drug use by high school seniors, by variables such as gender, race, religion, and academic achievement, among others. The data used for this study were taken from Monitoring the Future (Bachman, O'Malley, & Johnston, 1980, 1987) for 1976 and 1986. Each data collection phase included a sample of over 15,000 students from approximately 125 to 135 public and private high schools, selected to provide an accurate cross section of high school seniors throughout the contiguous United States. The degree to which high school seniors were involved with drug use was related to the student's level of social bonds, level of education of parents, gender, and race. Cross tabulations were utilized in the analysis of data. The findings in this study tend to support Hirschi's (1969) social control theory. [Source: DA]

Mirzaee, Elaheh, Paul M. Kingery, B. E. Pruitt, Greg Heuberger, and R. S. Hurley. 1991. "Sources of Drug Information among Adolescent Students." Journal of Drug Education vol. 21, pp. 95-106.
Abstract: Assessed 1,023 8th and 10th graders to determine the amount of information they received from 10 sources about 6 categories of drugs. The amount of information males reported receiving about each drug category was significantly greater than what females reported, and the amount of information that 8th graders reported receiving about each drug category was significantly greater than what 10th graders reported. TV was the primary source of drug information for all categories of drugs except inhalants, for which friends and TV were equally important sources. Parents and printed media (magazines or newspapers) were of secondary importance, followed by friends and teachers. Ss were less likely to receive information from experience, siblings, church, doctors, and police. Findings have implications for mass media approaches to drug education. [Source: PI]

Scott, Stacy Leigh. 1991. "The Influence of Parents and Religion on Adolescent Problem Behavior." Ed.D. Thesis, School of Education, Harvard University.
Abstract: This study attempts to clarify the relative influence of parents, family and religiousness on two areas of adolescent problem behavior: precocious sexual activity and substance use. Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between adolesent problems and sources of emotional support such as religion, parents and family, without determining the relative strength of each. From an urban and a suburban high school, 433 students from grades nine through 12 completed questionnaires on problem behaviors, religion and family relationships. Religiousness was consistently inversely related to problem behaviors to a modest but dependable degree. The extent of problems with parents and lack of family cohesiveness were positively related to problem behavior. The relationship between religiousness and problem behaviors was stronger than the relationship between the influence of parents or family and problem behaviors. This was true except in the cases of cigarette and hard drug use where religiousness was not as closely related. While hard drug use (such as cocaine use) was not related to religiousness, lack of family cohesiveness was related to such drug use. Religiousness, positive relationships with parents and close family ties were also found to be inversely related to dating and sexual activity. [Source: DA]

Wallace, John M. and Jerald G. Bachman. 1991. "Explaining Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Background and Lifestyle."Social Problems vol. 38, pp. 333-357.
Abstract: Replicated earlier research (J. G. Bachman et al, 1981) by studying 77,500 high school seniors from 1985 to 1989 to explore whether racial/ethnic differences in cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use may be attributable to racial/ethnic differences in background and/or in important lifestyle factors. Results indicate that controlling for background alone did not account for most racial/ethnic differences in drug use. Black, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Asian youth smoked significantly less than White youth. Heavy alcohol use among native American and White Ss was similar, with the same pattern for marijuana; cocaine use among Mexican and Puerto Rican males was slightly higher than average. Several lifestyle factors, including educational values and behaviors, religious commitment, and time spent in peer-oriented activities, strongly relate to drug use and help to explain the subgroup differences. [Source: PI]

Wallace, John Mckee Jr. 1991. "Black-White Differences in Adolescents' Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use."Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: The present study uses large nationally representative samples and integrates existing sociological and social- psychological theoretical perspectives, (1) to test if known risk factors for increased drug use among White youth also relate to increased drug use among Black youth; and (2) to determine the extent to which Black- White differences in exposure and vulnerability to these risk factors account for Black-White differences in drug use. The findings indicate that although sociodemographic factors--(i.e., mother's education), number of parents in the home, urbanicity, region--do not consistently relate to drug use among Black youth, many of the other risk factors that past research has identified as significant correlates of drug use among White youth also significantly relate to drug use among Black youth. More specifically, Black seniors who get poor grades, who dislike school, who are frequently truant, who have low religious commitment, who enjoy risk taking, who spend a lot of evenings out for fun and recreation, who frequently ride around with friends, who often attend parties and concerts, and who have a lot of friends who use drugs, are likely to use drugs themselves. With regard to race differences, the results indicate that White seniors are more exposed than Black seniors to many of the risk factors for increased drug use and that controlling for Black and White seniors' differential exposure to the risk factors appreciably reduces the magnitude of the difference in their levels of use. The results of the study also indicate that net of differences in exposure, several of the risk factors, particularly perceived peer use and evenings out for fun and recreation, differentially impact Black and White seniors' drug use. Overall, the findings of this research suggest that in order to understand more fully the relationship between race and drug use, future research must either (1) move beyond simple additive models and include substantively important race related interactions, or (2) analyze data for Black and White youth separately. [Source: DA]

Winchell, Lois Marie. 1991. "Adolescent Drug Use: The Mediating Effects of Coping Skills and Peer Influence."Ph.D. Thesis, University of Denver.
Abstract: Because of the seriousness of and the personal and social impact of alcohol and other drug use is so great, it is imperative that we establish effective prevention and intervention programs for the adolescent and young adult population. In order to establish effective prevention and intervention programs to a wide variety of individuals, we need to know which factors of the individual and his/her environment influence drug use. A group of 1,112 adolescents in grades 7 through 12 from two school districts in Colorado served as the sample in this study. Two latent variable structural equations models were proposed that included several environmental and personal constructs that were hypothesized to relate to adolescent drug use. Both coping skills and peer influence were tested in regards to their mediating effects on the other variables as they affect drug use. The fit of the models to the sample data was tested using EQS, a structural equations program. Even though the models had comparative fit indexes of.91 and.92, both failed to produce paths that were all significant. By combining the two models into one, by placing both peer influence and coping skills as mediators of the other effects of drug use, a resulting model was proposed. This model adequately fit the sample data and produced significant paths. Both peer influence and coping skills were found to be significant predictors of and were directly related to adolescent drug use. The coping skills construct was found to be a stronger predictor of adolescent drug use than peer influence. Family influence, spirituality, positive expectations from drug use, and anger coping skills were found to be significant indirect predictors of adolescent drug use. [Source: DA]

Buchanan, David R. 1990. "How Teens Think About Drugs: Insights from Moral Reasoning and Social Bonding Theory." International Quarterly of Community Health Education vol. 11, pp. 315-332.
Abstract: Reported the results of a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews focusing on the relationship between moral reasoning (MOR) and the decision to initiate adolescent substance use. 95 8th graders divided among nonusers, experimental users, and experienced users were interviewed following an open-ended, semistructured protocol on issues pertaining to the psychological and sociological domains of MOR. Drawing on cognitive-developmental psychology and social bonding theory, the analysis revealed 3 patterns of thinking in Ss' decisions about whether or not to try drugs: (1) perceptions of harm, (2) perceptions of drug use as a matter of personal choice, and (3) perceived degree of institutional embeddedness (i.e., Ss see church, school, family, friends, work, and government as providing meaningful goals of which they can be a part). [Source: PI]

DiBlasio, Frederick A. and Brent B. Benda. 1990. "Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Multivariate Analysis of a Social Learning Model." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 5, pp. 449-466.
Abstract: To test a social-learning model for its ability to explain adolescent sexual intercourse from a multivariate approach, data were gathered via an anonymously administered sexual frequency scale from 1,610 private school students in grades 7-12. Findings indicated that all 8 theoretical variables considered were significantly correlated with sexual frequency in the bivariate analysis, & 5 of the 8 variables explained 40% of the variance in the multivariate analysis. Peer differential association was found to be the best predictor of adolescent sexual frequency. The other variables, in order of importance, were reinforcement balance, overall reinforcement, positive/negative definitions, law-abiding/law-violating behavior, modeling, parents' reaction, & techniques of neutralization. The following control variables also were significantly associated: drug use, religiosity, closeness to father, closeness to mother, academic performance, & gender. [Source: SA]

Faraco Hadlock, Greta G. 1990. "Adolescent Depression and Substance Abuse." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 9, pp. 64-71.
Abstract: Addresses the comorbidity of substance abuse and depression in adolescents. Diagnosis and assessment, etiological factors, and treatment and relapse prevention are discussed. The relevance of spirituality as an aspect of etiology and its role in treatment are noted. [Source: PI]

Kent, Ricky R. 1990. "The Religiosity and Parent/Child Socialization Connection with Adolescent Substance Abuse." Pp. 143-165 in Parent Adolescent Relationships, edited by Brian K. Barber and Boyd C. Rollins. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Abstract: (from the preface) empirically addresses the unique and joint effects of these two social systems [religion and the family] on adolescent behavior / the simultaneous analysis of family and religiosity represents important methodological and theoretical contributions to the literature on adolescent substance abuse. [Source: PI]

Thomas, Darwin L. and Craig Carver. 1990. "Religion and Adolescent Social Competence." Pp. 195-219 inDeveloping Social Competency in Adolescence. Advances in Adolescent Development, Vol. 3, edited by Thomas P. Gullotta and Gerald R. Adams. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Abstract: (from the chapter) assesses the relative influence of religious variables on adolescent prosocial development an attempt is made to situate the increasing interest in the study of religion and the social sciences with the renewed interest in charting the stages of religious growth and development along with adolescent growth and development the effect of religion in the life of the adolescent is developed by considering both theory and research as they contribute to our understanding of why and how the religion variables seem to lead to prosocial developments in the areas of self-esteem, academic and occupational achievement, sexual attitudes and behavior, and substance addiction and abuse as well as in the various belief and behavioral dimensions of religiosity per se attempts to derive central theoretical propositions by looking at the basic relationships that emerge in each of the above areas. [Source: PI]

Warrior, Robert Allen. 1990. "Indian Youth: Emerging into Identity: Sweatlodge or Aa, It's "One Day at a Time"." Christianity and Crisis vol. 50, pp. 82-86.

Benzel, Laura Ann. 1989. "Drug Use and Attitudes toward Drug Use among College Church Youth Group Members." M.A. Thesis, The University of Arizona.
Abstract: A study of data from 85 undergraduate and graduate students involved in church youth groups revealed a significant relationship between degree of religious belief and drug using behavior and attitudes. Highly religious subjects disapproved of drinking alcoholic beverages and used cigarettes and alcohol less than subjects professing lower religiosity. Protestant subjects had more negative attitudes and less personal use of tobacco and alcohol than Catholics. Similar findings pertaining to drug using behavior and attitudes were reported between groups for all other substances. [Source: DA]

Daly, Doris L. 1989. "The Relationship between High School Class, Grades, Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Concerns." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University.
Abstract: This research was conducted to increase knowledge of a population of adolescents by means of an assessment of their concerns. Research has demonstrated that environmental conditions impact on adolescent concerns, and therefore, a local survey provides knowledge relevant to each population. In addition to a survey of concerns, demographic variables--grade level, grade point average and participation in extracurricular activities were included to determine the mediating role of each variable on adolescent concerns. To add knowledge to the contemporary complex problems of adolescent suicide, alcoholism, and drug abuse, an analysis of specific items relating to these problems were included in this study. Comparative studies to determine if concerns are mediated by community differences and by time (zeitgeist) were also conducted. To assess concerns, the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) (Mooney & Gordon, 1950) was used. This instrument contains 330 items of concerns grouped into 11 distinct categories. A new category, "Drugs and Alcohol," was added by the researcher and contained 30 items relating to drug and alcohol concerns. The sample consisted of 356 students (grades 9-12) who attended a private male college-preparatory high school. These students responded to the MPCL, the new category, and a questionnaire including the demographic information. The data was analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed the top three ranking categories of concerns in this population were: "Adjustment to School Work," "Social/Psychological Relations," and "Morals and Religion." Multivariate discriminant analyses revealed groups differentiated by each demographic variable--grade level, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities were significantly different, with the exception of 11th and 12th grade groups. The tenth grade, low grade point average, and "no" activity groups had higher levels of total concerns with academic concerns the major category. In addition, t tests revealed respondents to each of the suicide, alcohol, and drug items of concern showed significantly higher levels of concerns in the majority of categories in comparison to nonrespondents. Finally, comparisons with earlier research demonstrated that students in this current study (1987) responded to a higher level of total concerns. [Source: DA]

Fadoir, Steven Joseph. 1989. "Adolescent Development and Substance Abuse." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cincinnati.
Abstract: National studies have shown that drug use has declined or leveled off, while alcohol use has remained stable at high rates. However, the level of substance use and abuse is still truly alarming, whether by historical standards or in comparison with other countries. The study of chemical use by adolescents and young adults is important because of possible deliterious impact on their physiological, psychological and social development. Some form of chemical use by adolescents is considered to be normative today and sometimes seen as a "rite of passage." Adolescent substance use has been linked with lower self-esteem; less psychological well-being; lower academic achievement; career indecision; less conventional beliefs; less religiosity; and more negative perception of parental environment. Each variable has been investigated in past research and has been associated with substance use. However, recent research has raised questions concerning the strength and direction of these associations. Major problems have existed in past research in the definitions of non-use, use, and abuse. Therefore, in this study subjects were classified in relation to their level, pattern and type of substance involvement, and chemical related negative events. Method. Subjects: 275 undergraduate subjects and 50 treatment subjects completed the survey questionnaire consisting of: the Mental Health Inventory (MHI); the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; the Family Environment Scale; the Radicalism-Conservatism Scale; the Religious Orientation and Involvement Scale; the Career Indecision Scale; an Alcohol and Drug Use Inventory; an Alcohol and Drug Experience Inventory; and sociodemographic information. Results. The results found that experimental and moderate use of alcohol and marijuana is normative within a college sample. The different levels and patterns of substance use within the profile groups did not significantly differ in their self-esteem, psychological functioning, and overall perceptions of family environment. Heavier substance using subjects were less religious, less traditional and more radical in their political beliefs, less disapproving of chemical use, and perceived their parents as using more alcohol, and being less disapproving of chemical use. The treatment sample used significantly higher levels of all chemicals, and had higher negative events, more psychological dysfunction, lower self-esteem, higher career indecision, and perceived their parents as using higher levels of chemicals, and as being less disapproving of chemical use. [Source: DA]

Fulbright, Pat H. 1989. Troubled Teens - Troubled Parents.Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers.

McGee, Linda. 1989. "Longitudinal Influence of Adolescent Sensation Seeking Needs on General Deviant Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southern California.
Abstract: Longitudinal structural modeling methods were used to examine the pattern of involvement in deviant behaviors (for example, licit and illicit drug use, criminal and delinquent activities) and attitudes (towards law abidance and religiosity) across-time during the critical developmental period from adolescence to young adulthood. The influence of adolescent Sensation Seeking needs on behaviors and attitudes during this transitional period was also explored. Latent variable methods were used to investigate the interrelationships between the latent constructs of General Deviant Behavior and Sensation Seeking and among the specific measured variables which reflected the latent constructs. From the existing literature the behaviors and attitudes examined in this study were hypothesized to covary and form a syndrome of problem behavior. Thus, they were grouped together to reflect a latent variable of General Deviant Behaviors. A latent variable was also hypothesized to represent the construct of Sensation Seeking, composed of the four observed measures of boredom susceptibility, disinhibition, experience seeking, and thrill and adventure seeking. These analyses are based on data from a community sample of 595 males and females. Three assessments were made during a five-year period. Two assessments were made one-year apart in late adolescence. The third assessment was conducted four years later when the subjects were young adults. Findings revealed that a majority of the subjects used licit drugs, while about one-half used illicit drugs, and substantial minority engaged in other delinquent or criminal activities, such as fighting, stealing, destroying property, and getting in trouble with authorities. In the longitudinal path models, Sensation Seeking did not predict increases in the latent factor of General Deviance over-time. The effects of Sensation Seeking on later behavior and attitudes were specific and indirect rather than general and direct. Clear support was found for the hypothesis that Sensation Seeking in adolescence generated increased young adult licit drug use. Several other important and significant predictions were found. For example, licit drug use during adolescence increased young adult General Deviance, disinhibition led to negative attitudes towards law abidance both one and five years later, and a negative attitude toward law abidance was a potent predictor of later engagement in criminal activities. [Source: DA]

Murstein, Bernard I., Michelle J. Chalpin, Kenneth V. Heard, and Stuart A. Vyse. 1989. "Sexual Behavior, Drugs, and Relationship Patterns on a College Campus over Thirteen Years." Adolescence vol. 24, pp. 125-139.
Abstract: 737 college students at a small liberal arts college received questionnaires regarding their sexual philosophies, behavior, relationship with most recent partner, self-perceived attractiveness, relationship with parents, use of drugs and alcohol, attitudes toward marriage and abortion, and other subjects in 1974, 1979, and 1986. Results show that sexual behavior increased dramatically from 1974 to 1979 and then decreased in 1986 to approximately where it was in 1974. It is suggested that data reflect an increase in individualism and a weakening of the influence of religion and parental relationship on sexual behavior. However, newly prominent diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), have pushed college youth toward more committed sexual relationships, although not to abstention. [Source: PI]

Shoemaker, Ruth Hieb. 1989. "Adolescent Chemical Dependency Treatment Outcome: The Relation of Pretreatment, Treatment, and Posttreatment Factors to Outcome." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Denver, Denver.
Abstract: Because of the serious consequences of adolescent chemical dependency and the extent of the problem in our country today it is important that we provide treatment which is successful in turning addicted adolescents into healthier and more productive members of our society. To provide successful treatment to a wide variety of individuals we need to know which factors of the individual, of the treatment program, and of the posttreatment experience that facilitate the recovery process. A group of 144 adolescents from 12 to 18 years of age, hospitalized for chemical dependency treatment in two large Colorado cities, served as the sample in this study. A latent variable structural equations model that included pretreatment, treatment, and posttreatment variables in relation to six outcome criteria was proposed. The fit of the model to the sample data was tested using EQS, a structural equations program. The model did not adequately fit the data. With the aid of post hoc regression analyses, revised models were proposed that adequately fit the sample data for the outcome criteria. The pretreatment, treatment, and posttreatment variables combined to explain 34-86% of the variance in the six outcome criteria. Posttreatment factors accounted for more of the explained variance than pretreatment or treatment factors. More positive posttreatment coping responses, lower family pathology (chemical dependency, physical and sexual abuse), higher posttreatment spirituality, more family involvement in treatment, more posttreatment therapy, and being female was significantly associated with abstinence 3 months after treatment. The self-reported abstinence rate 3 months posttreatment was 45% for 81% of the original sample that was contacted. [Source: DA]

Sorenson, Ann Marie and David Brownfield. 1989. "Patterns of Adolescent Drug Use: Inferences from Latent Structure Analysis." Social Science Research vol. 18, pp. 271-290.
Abstract: Latent structure analysis is applied to develop a measure of adolescent drug use based on 5 self-report items from the Seattle (Wash) Youth Study (N = 839 males). A series of exploratory models suggests that the 5 items reporting the use of alcohol, marijuana, hallucinogens, cocaine, & pills such as barbiturates are scalable as indicators of a single latent variable. Tests of external validity examining levels of association with independent variables - eg, attitudes toward the law, attachment to others, & religiosity - were conducted, comparing a latent class scale with an additive scale of drug use. Levels of association are increased moderately utilizing the latent class scale. In addition, confirmatory models were used to assess the pattern of progression of drug use from more commonly used drugs, eg, alcohol, to the less commonly used drugs, eg, cocaine & hallucinogens. A modified Guttman scale suggests progress through the following categories: (1) no drug use, or alcohol only; (2) alcohol & marijuana; (3) alcohol, marijuana, & the limited use of the more serious drugs; & (4) the most extensive use of drugs described by all 5 items. The use of latent structure techniques suggests further analysis & refinement in measures of drug use. At a minimum, the conformist category typically employed in studies of drug use should be reconsidered & reconceptualized. In the context of drug use, findings indicate that total abstainers are indistinguishable from those who indicate only the limited use of alcohol. [Source: SA]

Stanley, Gregory Amos. 1989. "The Impact of Peer, School, Family, and Religion Factors Upon Adolescent Drug Use." Ph.D. Thesis, University of North Texas, Denton.
Abstract: The contribution of this research is in the area of adolescent decision making. The specific decision examined is the decision to use or not use drugs. Several factors were expected to have significant impacts on this crucial adolescent decision. These factors included peer, school, family, and religion influences. The source of the data was a sample of ninth through twelfth grade students in a north Texas city. The students responded to a survey questionnaire in the spring semester of 1989. A total of 632 students responded to the questions about alcohol- and drug-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Four major hypotheses were tested, and each one was supported by the research findings. In the first hypothesis, it was expected that family drug use factors would have a positive effect on adolescent drug use. Family factors included the following: parental use of alcohol, problems for family members due to parental drinking, and problems for the respondent due to parental drinking. Family factors had a statistically significant effect on alcohol use and any drug use. According to the second hypothesis, school factors were expected to have a positive effect on adolescent drug use. School factors involved: grade average, course failure, and the TEAMS test failure. This index of school influences had a statistically significant effect on marijuana use and hard drug use. In the third hypothesis, religion factors were expected to have a negative effect on adolescent drug use. The importance of religion and attendance at religious services combined to form an index of religion influences. The data revealed a statistically significant relationship with four different dependent variables (alcohol, marijuana, hard drugs, and any drug use). The expectation of the fourth hypothesis was that peer factors would have a positive effect on adolescent drug use. Peer factors included the following: ridden with drug users, heavy drinking friends, and friends who use drugs. As expected, the findings indicated a statistically significant relationship with all four dependent variables. [Source: DA]

Barrett, Mark E., D. Dwayne Simpson, and Wayne E. K. Lehman. 1988. "Behavioral Changes of Adolescents in Drug Abuse Intervention Programs." Journal of Clinical Psychology vol. 44, pp. 461-473.
Abstract: Analysis of intake & during-program measures reveals that reduction of problem behaviors (drug & alcohol use, school problems, & legal involvement) by Mexican-American youth (N = 326) during their first 3 months in drug abuse intervention programs was related negatively to peer drug use during the program & was related positively to the amount of family support available during the program, participation in program activities, & a background of religious involvement. These findings support previous research that has shown the importance of peer influences & commitment to conventional structures of family & religion in relation to adolescent problem behaviors. Results suggest that adolescent drug abuse programs should stress the development of positive peer relations & family support while they encourage disassociation from deviant friends. [Source: SA]

Barrett, Mark Elliot. 1988. "Socialization Influences in Adolescent Drug Use: A Causal Modeling Study of Peer Cluster Theory." Ph.D. Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of socialization influences in adolescent drug use. The efficacy of the Peer Cluster Socialization Influence (PCSI) model of Oetting and Beauvais (1987) was tested using a sample of Mexican-American youth in drug abuse prevention/intervention programs throughout Texas. Methodological improvements were made by using latent variables, and by testing key relationships with a longitudinal subsample. Support was found for the PCSI model when tested with the cross-sectional sample ($N = 467$). As predicted by peer cluster theory, associations with peers that used drugs was the only direct influence on drug use. The findings suggest that the influences of family strength and sanctions, religious identification, and school adjustment are indirectly related to drug use by preventing associations with peers that use drugs. Also, the relatively strong influence of school adjustment to peer drug association suggests a possible revision of the PCSI model. The proposed changes involve positing family and religion as antecedent to school adjustment, leaving school adjustment as the only direct influence on peer drug associations. The hypothesis that peer drug associations would be associated with future drug use was only partially supported in the analysis using the longitudinal subsample ($N = 97$). However, drug use was found to be associated with increased associations with peers that used drugs at two future times. Recommendations for future research and for intervention were discussed. [Source: DA]

Heard, Elizabeth Dedman. 1988. "A Study of Selected Behavioral and Contextual Variables as Related to Peer Pressure and Adolescent Drug Use." Ph.D. Thesis, Georgia State University - College of Education.
Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine what factors, if any, were associated with use of cigarettes, beer, alcohol, and marijuana by adolescents at three developmental stages: Stage 1 (grades 7-8), Stage 2 (grades 9-10), and Stage 3 (grades 11-12). Cocaine was examined only for grades 11-12. More specifically, this study investigated the relationship of behavioral and contextual factors with self-reported frequency of drug use and perceived use of drugs by friends across the three developmental stages. Methods and procedure. The sample consisted of approximately 16,800 students from grades 7-12 in 10 predominantly southeastern states. Data were gathered using the PRIDE Drug Usage Prevalence Questionnaire (Gleaton & Adams, 1985). Data included information concerning frequency of use and perceived use by friends for the drug categories of cigarettes, beer, liquor, marijuana, and cocaine, and several behavioral and contextual variables across the three developmental stages. Results. Statistical tests revealed fairly high correlations between frequency of use of drugs and perceived use of drugs by friends for all drugs at all developmental stages. In predicting frequency of use for cigarettes, beer, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine (only for Stage 3), the contextual variables of availability and attitude tended to account for most of the variance in the model's response across all drugs for each developmental stage. In predicting frequency of use, the behavioral variables of dating and trouble at school and attending church tended to account for most of the variance in the model's response across all drugs for each developmental stage. Conclusions. On the basis of the data, it appears that self-reported use of drugs and perceived use of drugs by friends are fairly highly related. Therefore, it can be concluded that perceived use of drugs by friends is an indirect measure of frequency of use. Also, for both self-reported use and perceived use of drugs by friends, the same behavioral variables (trouble at school and dating) and contextual variables (availability and attitude) tended to be fairly good predictors of use of drugs. [Source: DA]

Levine, Murray and Simon I. Singer. 1988. "Delinquency, Substance Abuse, and Risk Taking in Middle-Class Adolescents." Behavioral Sciences and the Law vol. 6, pp. 385-400.
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that risk-taking attitudes are strong predictors of delinquency and substance abuse among male and female middle-class adolescents. 715 high school students completed a survey instrument, including self-reports of delinquent conduct and drug and alcohol use and measures of attachment to and involvement in family, school, church, and employment. Attitudes toward risk-taking, alone and in groups, were also measured. Data show that risk-taking measures make strong and independent contributions to predicting self-reported delinquency and drug and alcohol use, even taking into account bonding to family and school and attitudes toward religious faith and employment. A measure of involvement with delinquent peer groups also predicts delinquency and drug and alcohol use. [Source: PI]

Lorch, B. R. and R. H. Hughes. 1988. "Church, Youth, Alcohol and Drug-Education Programs and Youth Substance Use." Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education vol. 33, pp. 14-26.

Marcos, Anastasios C. and Stephen J. Bahr. 1988. "Control Theory and Adolescent Drug Use." Youth and Society vol. 19, pp. 395-425.
Abstract: An attempt is made to test & refine T. Hirschi's control theory (Causes of Delinquency, Berkeley: U of California Press, 1969) of adolescent drug use, specifically, of marijuana, amphetamines, & cocaine, using self-report questionnaire data from high school students (N = 2,626) in the southwestern US, 50 follow-up interviews, & test-retest data from 149 other students. Modifications of Hirschi's model result in five constructs: parental, educational, & religious attachment, inner contentment, & conventional values. Correlational & path analyses suggest that the revised model explains a larger % of the variance in drug use between adolescents, & indicate that inner contentment has the strongest, & conventional values more moderate, direct effects. Parental attachment is not in & of itself significant, but it does influence the development of other variables; the exact nature of these influences is unclear, however. It is concluded that social control theory partially explains the use of marijuana, but not that of other drugs; & should be combined with social learning theory for a more accurate analysis. [Source: SA]

Sarvela, Paul D. and E. J. McClendon. 1988. "Indicators of Rural Youth Drug Use." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 17, pp. 335-347.
Abstract: Examined the relationships between personal substance use, health beliefs, peer use, sex, and religion, using data collected from 265 7th graders in rural midwestern, US communities. A positive correlation between peer and personal drug use was established. A relationship was also found between health beliefs and personal substance use. In addition, a regression model was able to account for a significant amount of the variance of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use in the target population. Recommendations are made concerning future research, methods of improving health education program development, and possible target areas for psychotherapy. [Source: PI]

Dudley, Roger L., Patricia B. Mutch, and Robert J. Cruise. 1987. "Religious Factors and Drug Usage among Seventh-Day Adventist Youth in North America." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 26, pp. 218-233.
Abstract: A sample of 801 young people aged 12-24, chosen from 71 churches in North America, were administered a 121-item questionnaire in an attempt to identify factors that predict f of drug usage by youth within a conservative denomination. They were questioned on f of usage of 10 drug categories, reasons for not using drugs, a variety of religious attitudes & behaviors, & educational & membership practices. As reasons for not using drugs, "my commitment to Christ" was the strongest predictor, followed by "I want to be in control of my life" & "concern for my health." As to religious practices, regular participation in family worship was highly related to abstinence over all categories, with attendance at Sabbath school first for alcohol & personal prayer first for tobacco. Watching R-rated movies & listening to hard rock music (both strongly discouraged by the church) were both predictive of more frequent use. While membership status of youth, mother, or father, or years of parochial education had little effect on f of usage, joining the church at a younger age had a weak protective effect. [Source: SA]

Feigelman, W. 1987. "Day-Care Treatment for Multiple Drug Abusing Adolescents: Social Factors Linked with Completing Treatment." Journal of Psychoactive Drugs vol. 19, pp. 335-344.
Abstract: By identifying some of the social correlates linked with completing day-care drug abuse treatment, the present study has sought to broaden understanding of how drug rehabilitations are effected. As the findings have demonstrated, completing care is a result of a complex array of causes and their interaction. The disposition of the entering patient (i.e., their determination and other strengths) has a great bearing on treatment outcome. It is also a result of the patient's family, their motivations, resources and perseverance in enduring a long course of demanding therapeutic interventions. In addition, it is the product of meanings shared and transmitted between the patient's family and the treatment staff. Patients and their families project positive attitudes about the value of the therapeutic enterprise as well as a compliant demeanor. As staff recognize that patients and parents are acting cooperatively, then such perceptions tend to create self-fulfilling prophecies. The data has established that older adolescent patients are more likely to possess the motivational resources needed for program completion than younger patients. Apparently, self-referred patients are also more inclined to meet the demands of program requirements than those referred by the courts or other outside social agencies, although the differences fell short of the .05 level of statistical significance. Those completing the program are less likely to be diagnosed as depressed at intake. Parental characteristics comprise another group of variables that are related to treatment completion. Parents of higher occupational rank, who have had mental health care for themselves, and who are of Jewish ethnicity appear to possess useful strengths for meeting program challenges. The pattern of spouse mutuality in dealing with a child's needs as it exists preceding and during treatment seems to be another useful asset for successfully getting through this form of treatment. While parents with the above characteristics possess resources that help them to endure the rigors inherent in this form of care, these attributes help project positive images to professional staff about family and patient commitment to treatment. The results of the present study also suggest that certain familial structural arrangements either facilitate or impede program completion. Three particular types of family structures were linked with remaining in treatment longer or finishing: (1) children who were the only children in their families who were living at home; (2) children with siblings who had been in treatment at the program; and (3) children without older brothers. [Source: ML]

Kent, Ricky Ray. 1987. "The Religiosity and Parent/Child Socialization Connection with Adolescent Substance Abuse." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: The main purpose of the present research was to construct and empirically test a model based on the paradigm of family religiosity and family socialization factors as an explanation of adolescent substance abuse. In addition, the study concomitantly tested the independent and additive influence of religion and the family as predictors of adolescent substance abuse. The sample included data from 143 fathers, mothers, and adolescent children. Adolescent religious practice, mother's companionship with her children (from her own perception), teen's perception of father's coercive and/or inconsistent control attempts, and father's approval or disapproval of his children's use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and/or drugs (from his own perception), appear to be central factors in the interactional model, which accounts for up to 51 percent of the variance in adolescent substance abuse. Religious practice and family factors show strong independent affects, with some overlap. Clearly, the simultaneous analysis of religion and parent/child factors, from family data, gives a clearer picture of the substance abuse problem, than when they are treated separately, and from the single perception of the abuser. [Source: DA]

Koplin, Michael Dee. 1987. "Family, Religious, and Peer Influence on Adolescent Drug-Use." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: The main purpose of the present study was to construct and empirically test a model which specifies how family, religiosity, and peers influence adolescent drug-use. According to the model specific family variables (communication, monitoring, family activity, and living arrangement) and adolescent religiosity inhibit adolescent drug-use. Additionally it was hypothesized that family variables and adolescent religiosity influence the number of drug-using peers with whom the adolescent associates. Finally, it was expected that family variables and religiosity would affect the influence of drug-using peers on adolescent drug-use. The study was based on data collected from 2,626 students from five Phoenix, Arizona public high schools. Of the family variables, parental monitoring was found to be significant across all drug groups. However, each of the family variables and religiosity were found to show direct, indirect, or interactional effects on adolescent drug-use. Most importantly, the analysis clearly indicated that adolescent substance abuse can best be understood by considering the interaction of family and religious factors. [Source: DA]

Lorch, B. R. 1987. "Church Youth Alcohol and Drug-Education Programs." Journal of Religion and Health vol. 26, pp. 106-114.

Oetting, E. R. and Fred Beauvais. 1987. "Common Elements in Youth Drug Abuse: Peer Clusters and Other Psychosocial Factors." Journal of Drug Issues vol. 17, pp. 133-151.
Abstract: It is argued that psychosocial factors are the principle determinants of youth drug abuse. Among those factors, the most important direct influence on drug use is that of the peer cluster: "gangs," best friends, or couples. Other psychosocial characteristics, however, set the stage for this development with drug-using peer clusters. Social characteristics that influence drug use in this way include the community, SES, neighborhood environments, family, religion, & the school. Psychological characteristics tend to have only low correlations with drug use, but there is some influence on peer clusters from traits such as self-esteem, depression, anxiety, & introversion, particularly when these lead to anger. Implications for prevention & treatment are considered. [Source: SA]

Perkins, H. Wesley. 1987. "Parental Religion and Alcohol Use Problems as Intergenerational Predictors of Problem Drinking among College Youth." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 26, pp. 340-357.
Abstract: Surveyed 860 16-23 yr old college students to explore intergenerational linkages between religiosity and problem drinking. Results indicate that Ss were at greater risk for problem drinking if they were (1) from Gentile religious traditions as compared with Jews, (2) not strongly attached to a particular faith, or (3) the child of an alcohol abuser. In addition to presenting "at risk" categories for Ss, the intergenerational transmission of alcohol problems that can occur specifically through the influence of parental religion was analyzed. Parental religion was related to these "at risk" categories, suggesting that characteristics of parent's faith may have multiple paths of impact on the S's drinking experience. [Source: PI]

Shrider, Judith Lee Mercer. 1987. "Parents' Perceptions of Causes and Appropriate Treatment Options for Adolescent Substance Use Disorder." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati.
Abstract: The general purpose of this study was to clarify understanding of parents' responses to substance-abusing adolescents. The study focused on the relationship between parents' perceptions of the causes of adolescent substance abuse and parents' choice of treatment options. The strength of parents' belief that peers were the most important cause of the problem was also investigated. Other hypotheses tested relationships between sex of adolescent and perceived cause; between prior experience with a substance-abusing adolescent and treatment choices; and between frequency of church attendance and selection of church counseling services. Parents of children ages 10 to 21 were sought primarily in schools and churches and were asked to fill out questionnaires about problem adolescents. A questionnaire consisting of three vignettes, each describing a hypothetical adolescent with a problem (substance use disorder, schizoid personality disorder, and depression) was used. Participants were asked to attribute causes for each problem, then to make a selection from a list of treatment options, and to give reasons for their choices. A demographic data sheet elicited relevant information. Participants remained anonymous, and all were informed that they had no obligation to fill out the questionnaire. No financial compensation was offered to individuals for participation in the study. Results of the study yielded no statistically significant relationships between perceived causes and recommended treatment options; however, it was clear that this sample of 110 middle-class parents recognized that a serious problem existed, and would recommend treatment. Analyses for effects of sex of adolescent and for prior acquaintance with a substance-abusing adolescent yielded nonsignificant results. A positive relationship between frequency of attendance at religious services and preference for a pastoral or church counselor was found. [Source: DA]

Tucker, Larry A. 1987. "Television, Teenagers, and Health." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 16, pp. 415-425.
Abstract: The effect of TV viewing on adolescents' health-related attitudes & practices & physical fitness level is investigated using data from questionnaires containing multiple assessment instruments completed by 406 white, Mc, high school Ms. Multiple discriminant analysis reveals that high levels of TV watching are significantly associated with poorer physical & emotional health, increased drug & alcohol use, & decreased church attendance, exercise, self-control, self-confidence, & Coll aspirations. Though the directionality of causality cannot be assumed, it is argued that since TV viewing is a passive pastime, the media has great power to shape attitudes & behaviors. At present, its messages largely promote antisocial norms & unhealthy lifestyles. Suggestions are proposed to help health professionals & other specialists develop & promote more healthy, constructive uses of TV. [Source: SA]

Weber, William J. 1987. "God Object Relations: Development in Drug and Alcohol Addicted Adolescents." Thesis, Christian Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The study investigated the formation of the God concept in drug and alcohol addicted adolescents. For adolescents from a variety of family backgrounds results indicated that both parent images contributed to the God concept. This God concept is consistent with the developmental stage functioning of the patient. The patient experiences communication with the God concept as simultaneous with the combination of communication with both parental images. Tillich's perspectives on judgment, acceptance and transformation as well as his concept of the God beyond God are brought to bear on the studies. Implications for further research are made. [Source: RI]

Amoateng, Acheampong Yaw and Stephen J. Bahr. 1986. "Religion, Family, and Adolescent Drug Use."Sociological Perspectives vol. 29, pp. 53-76.
Abstract: A study of the effect of parents' education, mother's employment status, number of parents in household, religiosity, religious affiliation, gender, & race on alcohol & marijuana use, based on data from the U of Michigan's 1982 Monitoring the Future Survey (N = a national sample of 17,000+ high school seniors). Contrary to some previous research, neither parental education nor employment status of mother was related to use of alcohol or marijuana. Adolescents who lived with both parents were less likely than adolescents in single-parent homes to use marijuana, although the differences were relatively small. Number of parents in household was not related to adolescent alcohol use. Level of religiosity had a significant association with alcohol & marijuana use among all religious denominations, although the magnitude of the relationship varied by denomination. Religious denomination, gender, & race were also related to drug use. [Source: SA]

Forliti, John E. and Peter L. Benson. 1986. "Young Adolescents: A National Study." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 199-224.
Abstract: Surveyed 8,165 5th-9th graders and 10,467 of their parents who belonged to 13 Protestant and Catholic youth-serving organizations about such topics as family life, school, the community, developmental processes, and the church. Results show that both parents and youth desired more communication with each other, particularly on the topic of moral values. Connections to church and religion were related to prosocial action, as were certain parenting practices (e.g., nurturance, democratic control). Sexual intercourse, drug use, and antisocial behavior among youth were related to less emphasis on religion and less nurturance and support from parents. The majority of youth saw religion as important, although it was less important to boys than to girls. A restrictive religious orientation was found to be tied to antisocial behavior, alcohol use, racism, and sexism. [Source: PI]

Hays, Ron D., Alan W. Stacy, Keith F. Widaman, M. Robin DiMatteo, and Ralph Downey. 1986. "Multistage Path Models of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use: A Reanalysis." Journal of Drug Issues vol. 16, pp. 357-369.
Abstract: Simplex & nonsimplex models containing personality & perceived environment variables as predictors of current use of alcohol, marijuana, & other drugs among adolescents are compared in a reanalysis of data reported by R. H. Potvin & C. Lee (see SA 30:5/82M6578). Contrary to the earlier results, it is found that a nonsimplex pattern of relations among different forms of drug use allows for a more adequate representation of the data than a simplex model for 2 of the 3 age groups of adolescents sampled. Conformity-commitment & religiousness had consistent negative effects on drug use in each sample; parental support-affection & parental approval of friends tended to have small negative effects on drug use; self-esteem & alienation were unrelated to drug use. In general, it appears that a nonsimplex model of current drug use provides a more adequate representation of the data than does a simplex model, & that religiousness & conformity-commitment are constraining influences on adolescent involvement with drugs. [Source: SA]

Marcos, Anastasios C., Stephen J. Bahr, and Richard E. Johnson. 1986. "Test of a Bonding/Association Theory of Adolescent Drug Use." Social Forces vol. 65, pp. 135-161.
Abstract: A theoretical model of adolescent drug use is developed that integrates propositions derived from social control & differential association theories. The path model includes parental attachment, religious attachment, educational attachment, conventional values, & drug-using friends as precursors of drug use. Using questionnaire data from a sample of 2,626 adolescents in the southwestern US, the model explains 34% of the variation in self-reported lifetime alcohol use, 27% in lifetime cigarette use, 42% in lifetime marijuana use, 26% in lifetime use of amphetamines & depressants, & 50% in overall lifetime drug use. The best single predictor of drug use is association with drug-using friends. The processes leading to involvement with drugs appear to be very similar across drug types. [Source: SA]

Scovil, James Stewart. 1986. "Training in Peer Counseling for the Prevention of High School Alcohol Abuse." D.Min. Thesis, Hartford Seminary, Hartford.
Abstract: Through a carefully designed educational program, ninth and tenth graders of the First Congregational Church of Litchfield were trained as peer counselors in the field of alcohol abuse prevention. Although plans to develop a formal and ongoing peer counseling support system proved to be too ambitious within the scope of this project, the young people responded well to the opportunity to share their own experiences with beverage alcohol. The twelve sessions demonstrated clearly that the young people were dealing with significant emotions of isolation, fear of rejection, and despair, all of which informed their decisions regarding beverage alcohol consumption. Christ's promise "to come to us" ministered to the young people as they shared their personal fears. Psychological assumptions addressed the difficulty of adolescence and asserted that the higher one's self-esteem, the lower one's tendency to abuse alcohol. Sociological assumptions stressed the reality of peer pressure among teenagers. Legal concerns focused on the issue of the church's promotion of responsible use of a substance illegal for teenagers to be consuming in the first place, except when provided by parents at home. Extensive research, coupled with a thorough evaluation of the program by both young people and their parents, led to the following conclusions: (1) the young people preferred programs based on relationship rather than knowledge; (2) members of the group were no better adjusted, nor did they have fewer problems, than the average high school student, despite their involvement in the church youth group; (3) a formal peer counseling program would require at least two years to establish; and (4) enormous quantities of research and related materials are available on this subject through alcohol information clearing-houses, as well as through state and national publications. [Source: DA]

Thompson, Kevin Mark. 1986. "Testing Strain and Control Theories of Delinquency and Substance Use in Various Religious Climates: Purposeful Rebellion or Weakened Barriers." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Arizona, Tucson.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is four-fold: (1) to test delinquency theories in social settings that vary by their degree of religiousness; (2) to determine whether delinquency causal processes vary according to the nature of religious ecology; (3) to assess whether variation exists in the rates and types of adolescent offenses committed in these settings; and (4) whether these offenses are a response to unique influences in each context. Religious ecology is measured by tapping a dimension of school religious characteristics, including a school's level of religiousness and a school's religious group composition. Adolescent boys who are exposed to the confines of schools that are predominantly irreligious or disproportionately low in orthodoxy are significantly more likely to engage in delinquency than boys from more moral or highly orthodox schools. Experiences in fundamentalist reference groups also protects youngsters against engaging in substance use episodes, including harmful drugs such as cocaine. These patterns are independent of demographic characteristics such as race, gender, socioeconomic status, family size and community size. To account for religious ecological differences in problem behavior, strain and control theories of delinquency are tested. These testing procedures reveal little support for processes advocated by strain theorists. Not only is structural and interactionist induced strain not correlated with delinquency and substance use, but discrepancies between cultural expectations and perceived realization of these goals do not lead to psychosocial frustration and tension, as implied in many strain models. Control models more aptly account for delinquency and substance use variation in various religious climates, but the strength of religious, school, and family effects varies with the type of offense and the measure of religious ecology. If we measure religious ecology by the nature of denominational composition, religiosity has a uniform effect on delinquency. However, religiosity's effect in settings that vary by religious level is to more strongly inhibit chronic offending in secular disorganized communities. Involvement in delinquency and substance use is probabilistically less likely in moral and highly orthodox settings because religion's social expression is stronger, the broken home phenomenon is weaker and potentially harmful school behaviors and attitudes are unrelated to delinquency in these settings. [Source: DA]

Trostle, Lawrence Charles. 1986. "The Stoners: Drugs, Demons and Delinquency. A Descriptive and Empirical Analysis of Delinquent Behavior." Ph.D. Thesis, Claremont Graduate School.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the demographic background and delinquent behavior of a youth gang known as Stoners. The Stoners are contrasted with traditional street gang members. Both groups reside in the unincorporated area of Los Angeles County commonly referred to as East Los Angeles. The Stoners are defined as adolescents who are involved in or profess a belief in the occult sciences and/or Satanism. They are also deeply involved in heavy metal rock music and street crime. To be included in the study, the minors from each group must have been arrested at least once in East Los Angeles and subsequently referred to the Los Angeles County Probation Department. This study is intended to be primarily descriptive in nature. It contains a brief historical review of the relevant criminological literature as it relates to the traditional street gang followed by a section addressing the effects of conventional religion on delinquent behavior. A chapter is included on the occult sciences and Satanism as well. A detailed chapter on the Stoners provides a comprehensive description of the Stoners based on non-structured interviews with many of them, as well as with criminal justice practitioners, educators, and members of the clergy and the community. A chapter on statistical findings reports on the Stoners' demographic backgrounds and delinquent behavior as compared to traditional gang members. The level of violent crimes committed by each group is a primary focus of the study. Conclusions. First, there appears to be little difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. However, the traditional gang members' families tend to have a slightly higher socioeconomic status, are less transitory, and have a more stable family environment. Second, the Stoners and the traditional gang members appear to be equally delinquent. The statistical comparison of specific offenses, however, revealed that the Stoners were more violent and assaultive than their counterparts. Recommendations. Since the Stoners are a relatively new phenomenon and have not been previously studied, there is a need to replicate this study, preferably in another geographical location with a more heterogeneous sample. Also, future research should consider the utilization of a non-criminal justice system data base as well as a self-reported delinquency measure. [Source: DA]

Adlaf, Edward M. and Reginald G. Smart. 1985. "Drug Use and Religious Affiliation, Feelings and Behaviour."British Journal of Addiction vol. 80, pp. 163-171.
Abstract: Investigated the relationship between religious affiliation, intensity of religious feelings, and frequency of church attendance on the one hand, and drug use on the other, among 2,066 (1,031 male and 1,035 female) 11-20 yr olds. Six drug-use measures were employed: alcohol use, cannabis use, nonmedical and medical drug use, hallucinogenic use, and polydrug use. Findings indicate that religious-affiliation of Ss was insignificantly related to drug use. The only exception to this rule was for alcohol use, in which case nonaffiliated Ss used alcohol less frequently than did Protestant or Roman Catholic Ss. Church attendance exhibited a stronger negative effect on drug use than did religiosity; however, the effect of the latter had greater impact among females than among males. Overall, the impact of both variables increased as the drug examined moved toward the upper end of the licit/illicit drug continuum. Many of the results varied according to Ss' gender and age. [Source: PI]

Lorch, Barbara R. and Robert H. Hughes. 1985. "Religion and Youth Substance Use." Journal of Religion and Health vol. 24, pp. 197-208.
Abstract: Surveyed 13,878 7th-22th graders about involvement in community activities, attitudes toward and experiences with drugs and alcohol, aspirations and achievements, and demographic information. Results indicate that religion was not by itself a very important predictor of youth substance use. It was, however, more strongly related to alcohol use than drug use. Also, fundamentalist religious groups had the lowest percentages of substance use in general, while the more liberal types of religious groups had the lowest percentages of heavy substance use. Of the 6 dimensions of religion used in the study to predict youth substance use, importance of religion to the S was the most important, with church membership second, and the fundamentalism-liberalism scale of religious groups third. Results suggest that controls on substance use represented internalized values and norms rather than church ideology or peer pressure within the religious group. [Source: PI]

Perkins, H. Wesley. 1985. "Religious Traditions, Parents, and Peers as Determinants of Alcohol and Drug Use among College Students." Review of Religious Research vol. 27, pp. 15-31.
Abstract: Relationships between religiosity and drinking or drug use among college students are examined in the context of family backgrounds and peer relations using data from a survey of an entire undergraduate college population (N=1514). With a large minority of Jewish students represented, a uniquely detailed exploration of distinctive Jewish patterns was possible. Initial findings on alcohol use conform to patterns found among previous generations of students: least drinking and negative consequences appeared among Jews with the most drinking and consequences among Catholics. Jewish students also report the fewest family problems with alcohol and the lowest consumption levels in social drinking by parents. Jewish restraint is substance specific, however; when other drug use was examined, no differences were found among religious groups. For both alcohol consumption and other drug use, friendship environments are the primary influences; parental attitudes play little part. A relatively strong faith commitment to a Judeo-Christian tradition remains as a significant moderating influence on alcohol and other drug use. [Source: RI]

Query, Joy N. 1985. "Comparative Admission and Follow-up Study of American Indians and Whites in a Youth Chemical Dependency Unit on the North Central Plains." International Journal of the Addictions vol. 20, pp. 489-502.
Abstract: Conducted a study of 96 10-23 yr old drug-abusers in North Dakota. Findings show that nonrural youth were more likely to be in a state treatment program than rural youth. Few etiological differences were found between White and Indian youth, although Indian youth were overrepresented tenfold. Generally, Ss were in trouble at school and with the law, were sexually involved, and were not involved with any religion at all. In a 6-mo follow-up study, positive outcome data were much stronger for White than Indian Ss, raising important questions about the effectiveness of such programs for the Indian patients. [Source: PI]

Selnow, Gary W. 1985. "Using a Stratified Approach in Substance Intervention and Prevention Programs among Adolescents: An Empirical Analysis." Journal of Drug Education vol. 15, pp. 327-341.
Abstract: The issue of whether there is a basis for treatment program stratification according to various adolescent subpopulation categories (eg, those of age, sex, & SES) is explored. Multiple regression analyses of survey responses of 3,759 adolescents (N = 1,952 Ms & 1,807 Fs in grades 6-12) reveal that while demographic features are generally important in predicting substance involvement, there is little evidence to support development of separate programs designed to affect adolescent users. Subgroup categories appear to discriminate little among the relative contributions of operational variables (eg, self-image, parental relations, group membership, & religiosity) toward explaining substance usage. [Source: SA]

Stiefbold, Marguerite Mary. 1985. "Psychosocial and Demographic Variables Related to Drug Use of Eighth-Grade Students." Ed.D. Thesis, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb.
Abstract: This study investigated whether there was a relationship between certain psychosocial and demographic variables and drug use of eighth-grade students. Four schools were chosen for this study: two public and two private Catholic schools, the sample consisting of 413 eighth graders. These students were administered the Survey of School Youth. The data for the three hypotheses were analyzed by chi- square analysis. Statistical significance was established at the .05 level. The results of the study revealed: (1) Specific personal variables are significantly related to the use of drugs by eighth-grade students. Those students who regularly used drugs attended church less frequently, had lower grade point averages and less serious attitudes about grades, and has less serious attitudes about the use of drugs. (2) Specific interpersonal variables are significantly related to the use of drugs by eighth-grade students. Those students who used drugs regularly often felt they couldn't talk to their parents, had less parental supervision, and had both close friends and parents who also used drugs. (3) Specific demographic variables are significantly related to the use of drugs by eighth-grade students. Males used beer and hard liquor more regularly than females. Whites used beer, hard liquor, and cigarettes more regularly than non-Whites. Private Catholic school students used beer, hard liquor, and inhalants more regularly than public school students. Students whose parents were not married and whose fathers were employed in less skilled jobs used marijuana and cigarettes more regularly than students whose parents were married and had more professional jobs. Students whose parents had less education used beer and inhalants more regularly than those whose parents had more education. Frequencies of drug use were lower for this particular eighth-grade population than those reported in other studies. [Source: DA]

Gruner, LeRoy. 1984. "Heroin, Hashish, and Hallelujah: The Search for Meaning." Review of Religious Research vol. 26, pp. 176-186.
Abstract: This article examines the concept of meaning, or purpose in life, as an operating variable in a religiously oriented drug rehabilitation program (Teen Challenge) in selected countries. This concept was operationalized by use of the Crumbaugh "Purpose-in-life test". Findings are based upon research conducted during the summer of 1975 in India, Holland, Germany, France, Guam, and Hawaii. Subjects perceived increased meaning or purpose in life as they progressed through this three-phase, one-year program. In all countries studied, this variable was low in subjects at the inception of the program, and increased significantly throughout the one-year period until it reached a high level in the third and final phase. [Source: RI]

Hadaway, C. Kirk, Kirk W. Elifson, and David M. Petersen. 1984. "Religious Involvement and Drug Use among Urban Adolescents." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 23, pp. 109-128.
Abstract: Drug use by adolescents is a widespread phenomenon in US society that has generated considerable research since 1960. Some of this research has found that religious involvement has a negative effect on the tendency to use alcohol, marijuana, & other illicit drugs, but the complexity of the relationship has been largely ignored. Interview data from 600 adolescents in Atlanta, Ga, are used to examine the relationship between religious involvement & drug/alcohol use, with multivariate analysis determining the role of religion against other mechanisms of social control. Findings indicate that, even when controlling for other important influences, religion still has a significant effect on drug use, but the significance varies according to the substance involved, reflecting the degree to which the church speaks alone against the activity or in concert with other sources of social control. [Source: SA]

Lloyd, Anthony F. 1984. "Angel Dust: A Religious Dilemma." AME Zion Quarterly Review pp. 6-18.
Abstract: This article examines the broad scope of "angel dust", which includes social, economic, psychological, and religious factors. The religious character plays a tremendous role in the user's emotional and complusive desires to consume an extremely harmful drug. The author approaches the subject of PCP in two basic sections. The first is a historical and social interpretation of angel dust in family and community contexts. The second is a scriptural and word discussion on the term "angel dust" as a way of understanding its prevailing social popularity. The best way of minimizing the spread of harmful drugs is to recognize the spiritual nature with other factors in attraction and enslavement to them. The process of treatment and rehabilitation of the drug abuser must include the user's religious outlook. [Source: RI]

Hughes, Stella P. and Richard A. Dodder. 1983. "Alcohol-Related Problems and Collegiate Drinking Patterns." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 12, pp. 65-76.
Abstract: Examined 462 university students for 6 types of collegiate problem drinking: (1) the total problem scale, (2) acting-out types of problems, (3) physical problems, (4) social problems, (5) loss of memory as a result of drinking, and (6) drinking while driving or driving after having several drinks. A conceptualized relationship among the variables of student religious commitment, parental attitude toward drinking, neutralization of drinking behavior, drinking before college, anticipated ethos of college life, social orientation in college, and quantity/frequency of alcohol consumption was used. Self-administered questionnaires were collected and analyzed by path analysis, which explained up to 47% of the variation in certain types of problem drinking. The strongest single predictor of problem drinking was quantity and frequency of consumption, but precollege drinking was also important. [Source: PI]

Sherman, David Scott. 1983. "Psychosocial Correlates of Adolescent Substance Ab/Use." Ph.D. Thesis, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles.
Abstract: Research on the psychosocial correlates of adolescent substance abuse was examined and inconsistencies within the research literature were noted. The majority of research studies supported the traditional view of the adolescent substance abuser as rebellious, lacking in self-esteem, having a low sense of psychological well-being, poor academic performance, low religiosity, a broken family, anxiety, alienation, and maladjustment. The administration of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (Fitts, 1964) and a substance abuse questionnaire, incorporating a life satisfaction inventory, to 495 high school students provided contemporaneous normative data by which to "test" the veracity of the adolescent substance abuser stereotype. 87% of the subjects had tried a licit substance and 67% had tried an illicit substance. In contrast only 8% of the subjects had never tried any substances at all. Over one third of the sample reported use of four or more substances. Only perceived parental and peer substance abuse, lower academic performance, and greater truancies were positively correlated with substance abuse. Self-esteem, parental divorce, number of persons living in the home, religiosity, psychopathology, maladjustment, age, and sex were all found to be unrelated to substance abuse. The data also indicated that drug-related arrests and drug-related counseling were ineffective in deterring substance abuse. Past users and low to moderate users were the most psychosocially healthy while non-users as well as heavy users were found to be the most disturbed and maladjusted. Substance abuse is conceptualized as a (statistically) "normal" phase in adolescence. Labelling theory accounts for the process by which "negative" psychosocial variables became correlated with substance abuse. The term "substance ab/use" is suggested to avoid pejorative labels and stigmatizaton of substance abusing adolescents. [Source: DA]

Hundleby, John D., Richard A. Carpenter, R. A. Ross, and G. William Mercer. 1982. "Adolescent Drug Use and Other Behaviors." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines vol. 23, pp. 61-68.
Abstract: Little systematic information is available concerning the association between adolescent drug usage and other forms of behavior. The present study addressed this issue. 231 9th graders completed questionnaires concerning their use of drugs (alcohol, tobacco, pain-killers, marijuana, and other drugs). Factor analysis of endorsements of a broad range of behaviors, followed by regression analysis, indicated that sexual behavior, general delinquency, school misbehavior, social behavior, and studying/reading were all related to drug use. School achievement and domestic behavior gave lower correlations. Religious behavior did not emerge as a clear correlate. [Source: PI]

Khavari, Khalil A. and Teresa M. Harmon. 1982. "The Relationship between the Degree of Professed Religious Belief and Use of Drugs." International Journal of the Addictions vol. 17, pp. 847-857.
Abstract: A systematic examination of data from 4,853 12-85 yr old respondents with various demographic characteristics revealed a powerful relationship between the degree of religious belief and consumption of alcohol and intake of psychotropics. In general, Ss who viewed themselves as "very religious" drank less and used less psychoactives when compared to Ss who considered themselves "not religious at all." Significantly elevated use of alcohol, tobacco products, marijuana, hashish, and amphetamines was associated with the "not religious at all" group. Results support the notion that religion militates against both alcohol and psychotropic use. [Source: PI]

Nelsen, Hart M. and James F. Rooney. 1982. "Fire and Brimstone, Lager and Pot: Religious Involvement and Substance Use." Sociological Analysis vol. 43, pp. 247-256.
Abstract: Data from nearly 5,000 high school seniors from six states in the northeastern region of the United States are analyzed using religious preference and attendance to predict substance use (hard liquor, beer, marijuana, amphetamines, barbiturates, heroin, LSD and cocaine). It was hypothesized that 1) denomination and attendance would be significantly related to the use of alcohol and that an interaction would occur between these two predictors, 2) church attendance should have special impact within proscriptive denominations, and 3) for harder drugs, church attendance would be inversely related with use. Analysis-of-variance and multiple classification analysis were employed. Weekly use and having ever employed the substance were used for alcohol and marijuana and having ever used the substance was used for hard drugs. The data support the hypotheses. [Source: RI]

Shortt, Sandra Small. 1982. "Alcohol Consumption, Wantedness, and Support of Pregnant Adolescents."Ed.D. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between pregnant teens' use of alcohol before and during pregnancy and several personal and social variables, including the wantedness of the pregnancy, support of the pregnancy by significant others, pregnant teens' reasons for drinking, the context of their drinking, and the use of alcohol by significant others. This information is needed to plan and evaluate effective prenatal education and intervention programs related to the use of alcohol during pregnancy. Such programs are important in light of increasing numbers of pregnant teens, the number of female adolescent drinkers, and findings about the effects of moderate and binge drinking on fetal development. Subjects consisted of 14 to 19 year old patients of the High-Risk Ob/Gyn Clinic at Roanoke Memorial Hospitals. These patients were predominantly low income urban and suburban teens, with some referrals from areas outside Roanoke City and County. Subjects responded anonymously to a written questionnaire. One-fourth of the subjects were classified as drinkers according to their binge drinking before and during pregnancy. Higher percentages of drinkers than abstainers were white, married, had been pregnant at least once in the past, and intended to become pregnant. Proportionately fewer drinkers indicated relgious preferences or attended church services on a regular basis. Drinkers were more likely to smoke and smoked more than abstainers. Personal effects reasons for drinking, consumption in settings where adults were not present, and weekly consumption by peers and boyfriends/husbands were reported by significantly higher percentages of drinkers than nondrinkers. Wantedness and support of significant others were significantly related. Knowledge of the potential harm that all types of alcoholic beverages pose to fetal development was reported by over 70% of the sample. Key sources of knowledge about alcohol and fetal risk were subjects' mothers, pamphlets or books, school health class, the RMH Clinic and television. Boyfriends were also a key source of information for drinkers. Implications of these findings for clinical and educational practice are discussed. [Source: DA]

Bowden, Barbara Ellen Morgan Cunningham. 1981. "The Establishment of an Instrument to Recognize the Potential Drug Abuser." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Alabama.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument based on value dimensions and pertinent demography to describe the potential drug abuser and the nonuser in relation to both type and degree of drug(s) abused. The study was actually a cross-validation of the instrument, which was developed through a pilot study. The study used both descriptive and correlational strategies, with the variables being the subjects' freely occurring responses to the values and demography items chosen from a five-category Likert rating scale. There were 1,135 adolescents in the 6th through the 12th grades and 46 subjects in drug treatment and rehabilitation centers who were involved in the study. The time element of the study was during the 1980-81 school year. The students involved in the study were from five designated community population areas, included a cross section of socioeconomic areas, both sexes, both Black and White races, and were academically heterogeneous. Drug abusers were identified by self-report, indicating both the type and degree of drug(s) abused. The criterion instrument was developed through a pilot study during the 1979-80 school year. A total of 574 students from four Alabama school systems was involved in creating the instrument. Analysis used in the development came from four sources: The Thurstone technique of equal-appearing intervals for experts' ratings of the initial 341-item questionnaire; administration and factor analysis of the 272 Likert items of the preliminary scale; factor analysis and items of the 134 items of the altered preliminary scale; and factor analysis and item analysis of the 68 items in the final revised scale. The final instrument contains 51 value statements using a five-category Likert rating scale. The statements are related to five identified value dimensions arbitrarily named Conformity, Courage, True Affection, Security, and Self-Concept. In addition to these value items, the Scale of Personal Values has 11 demographic items and four check items relating to the type and amount of drug(s) abused. The data concerning the study were analyzed using analysis of variance to determine if there were differences between the values and demography in the Scale of Personal Values of the self-admitted regular abuser in the school setting and the diagnosed abuser in an institutional setting. The results were not significant at the .05 level of significance. A stepwise discriminant analysis was used to determine if there were differences among nonusers and abusers according to type and degree of abuse. The results were significant at the .05 level. The analysis determined predictive validity for the instrument in that self-admitted regular abusers in the school setting and the diagnosed regular abusers in the treatment centers made similar value choices and their demographic data appeared to be insignificantly different. Known groups validity was determined through analysis which determined significant differences between antithetical groups of school nonusers and users in relation to type and degree of abused drug(s). Construct and content validity were a result of the analysis during the development of the instrument. Interim reliability was established with the coefficient alpha during the development of the Scale of Personal Values. Resultant value dimensions that appear to best distinguish the adolescent drug users from nonusers are Conformity and Courage. Demographic data that seem to be most pertinent in this delineation are age, race, importance of religion in the home, and average grades in school. [Source: DA]

Kloepper, Howard W., Wilbert M. Leonard, and Lucy J. Huang. 1981. "A Comparison of the "Only Child" and the Siblings' Perceptions of Parental Norms and Sanctions." Adolescence vol. 16, pp. 641-655.
Abstract: Used a 77-item questionnaire to examine the extent to which 1,474 college students from one-child or multiple-child families perceived that they had been regulated during their last 2 yrs of high school by their parents. Specifically studied were the following behavioral variables: academic achievement, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, dating practices, driving privileges, athletic participation, money-saving and spending habits, movie attendance, and religious worship attendance. Cross-sectional analyses provided only weak support for the hypothesis that only-children would be granted more autonomy and would be less severely sanctioned by their parents than Ss with siblings. Findings demonstrate that regardless of family size, the majority of Ss had been given a great deal of freedom in the substantive areas investigated and were rarely parentally sanctioned with physical punishment and/or withdrawal of financial support. [Source: PI]

McIntosh, Wm Alex, Starla D. Fitch, J. Branton Wilson, and Kenneth L. Nyberg. 1981. "The Effect of Mainstream Religious Social Controls on Adolescent Drug Use in Rural Areas." Review of Religious Research vol. 23, pp. 54-75.
Abstract: Religion has been described as one of several controls on deviance. To assess the controlling effects of several dimensions of commitment to mainstream religion on Ru adolescent drug use, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of both Ru (N = 1,058) & Ur (N = 300) adolescents in Tex. Findings suggest that while religious commitment is one of the more powerful forms of social control on drug use, the regulatory power of all social controls, including church involvement, declines as the seriousness of the drug use increases. Religious preference was found to have little significant impact on either Ru or Ur drug use. [Source: SA]

Aiken, Lisa A. 1980. "Relationship of Extroversion and Religion to Hierarchical Drug Use in Adolescents."Thesis, Loyola University, IL, Chicago.

Eckstein, Simon L. 1978. "Adolescent Drug Use: A Commentary." Ontario Psychologist vol. 10, pp. 11-14.
Abstract: Reviews the literature on drug abuse among Jewish youth, concluding that the rate of incidence is considerably higher than a generation ago and that it is inversely correlated with the degree of religious involvement of the youth. Peer pressure can be used to help youth stay away from drugs. Psychologists have a moral responsibility to take an active position on community problems such as drug and alcohol abuse. Present patterns of abuse are promoted by parental failure to set standards of behavior, and by the trend toward self-gratification. [Source: PI]

Friery, Rodney N. and Gerald O. Windham. 1978. "Drug Usage among High School Students in a Mississippi Community." Paper presented at Southwestern Sociological Association (SWSA).
Abstract: To identify patterns & trends of drug usage behavior, attention was focused on the identification & relationship between selected social & cultural factors & drug usage among high school students in a selected northeast Miss community. The deviant behavior perspective of social problems was utilized to examine & analyze adolescent drug usage. Sixteen hypotheses were developed & a questionnaire was constructed & pretested. The sample included 523 students in grades ten through twelve having a study hall on the day the survey was taken. This group was considered to be representative of the tenth through twelfth grade student population in this particular high school. Techniques used in data analysis included chi square, Pearson's contingency coefficient, Goodman & Kruskal's gamma, & Kendall's tau-b with the level of significance less than or equal to .05. The various dimensions of the dependent variable, drug usage, were: type of drug used, extent of usage, availability of the various drugs, & order of usage. The six major categories of drugs utilized were: marijuana, hallucinogens, depressants, stimulants, narcotics, & volatile solvents. The three extent of drug usage patterns developed were: nonusers, experimenters, & users. Marijuana was the most commonly used drug while only a small percent of the students had used narcotics or volatile solvents. Over 19% of the students were classified as experimenters & 15% as regular drug users. The various aspects under investigation as independent variables were: demographic factors, school factors, religious factors, social class, family behavior patterns, delinquent & deviant behavior, & alienation. The other behavior patterns investigated were students' use of alcohol, & tobacco, number of close friends who use drugs, mean age of close friends, & peer acceptance of drug behavior. Social class, delinquent & deviant behavior, & alienation were analyzed through the use of existing scales. [Source: SA]

Wilson, J. Branton, Starla D. Fitch, Kenneth L. Nyberg, and William Alex McIntosh. 1978. "Religion and Drug Use: An Alternative 'High'." Paper presented at Southwestern Sociological Association (SWSA).
Abstract: An examination of the impact of certain aspects of the religious experience (salience or importance of religious beliefs, & frequency of church attendance) on the use of drugs among rural & urban adolescents. A sample of 1,365 youths in grades seven through twelve was administered a questionnaire. Degree of religiosity, salience, & frequency of church attendance are inversely related to one's extent of involvement with the drug subculture (which is characterized by frequent use of various drugs, & often selling &/or sharing of drugs with friends), with the exception of the urban youth on the variable religiosity, which was not found to be significantly related. Among rural youth, being Catholic or Protestant has no effect on drug usage. However, in the urban sample, a slight difference is discerned, particularly in the nonuser & drug subculture member categories. [Source: SA]

Burkett, Steven R. 1977. "Religion, Parental Influence, and Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Use." Journal of Drug Issues vol. 7, pp. 263-273.
Abstract: Surveyed 837 White high school seniors in the Pacific Northwest by anonymous questionnaires to analyze the relationship between Ss' use of alcohol and marijuana, and their own and parents' religiosity. Results confirm negative correlation between Ss' church attendance and use of these substances. However, use was not a function of belief in the supernatural, but was strongly and negatively related to acceptance of worldly authority. Ss who participated in religious activities were more than twice as likely as nonparticipants to believe use is immoral, regardless of parents' religiosity, indicating that parental influence was less strong regarding the morality of personal asceticism. For Ss who did not attend church, the relationship between parents' attendance and Ss' use was strongly positive, supporting the hypothesis that use is associated with a pattern of withdrawal and alienation from parental influence and from religious influence. One implication is that attempts to control use of alcohol and marijuana through educational preaching about their evils may be rejected by its adolescent target population, since such use is already associated with rejection of the proposed values and beliefs. [Source: PI]

Rooney, James F. 1977. "Conflicting Standards of Use of Mood-Altering Substances among American Youth."Paper presented at Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP).
Abstract: A survey with a closed ended questionnaire of 4,942 M & F high school seniors in 30 schools selected from 6 states in the Northeast US tested the hypothesis regarding the effects of use standards upon problems subsequent to use of alcohol, marijuana, barbiturates, amphetamines, LSD, & cocaine. Utilizing standardized regression coefficients drawn from multiple regression analysis, the standards of the R's & of many of their reference groups were found to exert a substantial independent effect, often being more influential than the f of substance use. The standards of the R's themselves & of their close friends, as well as their interactions, consistently were the most important predictors of problems. The hypothesis that problems emerge from substance use under conditions of holding contrary personal standards & under conditions of conflicting standards from other reference sources was generally not substantiated. Rather, the holding of liberal standards on the part of R's & their close friends usually contributed to problems following use. The hypothesis received support only for amphetamine use when coupled with restrictive standards of the self & of close friends. The perceived standards of parents were not significantly related to alcohol & marijuana problems, but the interaction terms for the self & parents bore considerable relationship to barbiturate & amphetamine problems. The standards of religion had little independent effect upon any of the problems, but the interaction terms for self & religious standards were related to problems resulting from use of marijuana, barbiturates, amphetamines, & LSD. [Source: SA]

Rathus, Spencer A., Larry J. Siegel, and Lois A. Rathus. 1976. "Attitudes of Middle-Class Heroin Abusers Towards Representatives of the Educational System."Adolescence vol. 11, pp. 1-6.
Abstract: Surveyed 296 14-18 yr old randomly selected male adolescents (88% White, 61% Protestant) on selected demographic variables and correlations of heroin abuse, many related to the educational system. Results show that fewer than 7% of the Ss had used heroin in the past year. No differences were found in the racial, religious, or family structures of heroin abusers, but the abusers did entertain more arrests and convictions. Among representatives of the educational system, guidance counselors were the only group viewed less favorably by heroin users. It is suggested that guidance counselors may not have appeared honest and fair in their efforts to counsel heroin users in school and their related behavioral problems. [Source: PI]

Westermeyer, Joseph and Virginia Walzer. 1975. "Drug Usage: An Alternative to Religion?" Diseases of the Nervous System vol. 36, pp. 492-495.
Abstract: Studied 62 consecutive admissions (aged 17-25 yrs) to a psychiatric hospital to determine whether church attendance and drug usage are inversely correlated. As an assessment of contemporary church attendance, each S was asked whether he or she had attended church at any time in the 4 wks prior to admission. Ss were also questioned regarding their use of cannabis, other hallucinogens, amphetamines, sedatives and minor tranquilizers, narcotics, alcohol, over-the-counter drugs, hydrocarbons, and prescribed drugs. Usage patterns were determined for the following time intervals prior to admission: 1 day, 1 wk, 1 mo, 1 yr, and prior to 1 yr. The proportion of these patients reporting quite heavy drug usage exceeded that reported in surveys of high school, college, graduate and professional students, and service inductees. Use of hydrocarbons, narcotics, or prescription drugs was limited to heavy users. Heavy drug usage among these patients occurred frequently among females. It is suggested that drugs may be used by certain young people because they facilitate personal and social benefits formerly achieved by religious practice. [Source: PI]

Parfrey, P. S. 1974. "Factors Associated with Undergraduate Alcohol Use." British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine vol. 28, pp. 252-257.
Abstract: Conducted a survey of 265 male and 179 female undergraduates to examine the extent and prevalence of intoxicant use and the various factors associated with their use. 20% of males and 36% of females reported that they did not drink, whereas 52% of males and 17% of females were social drinkers or occasional drunks. Student patterns of drinking behavior were significantly associated with sociocultural factors, such as leisure money available, belief in a God, and frequency of attendance at religious services. Current cigarette use, experience of marijuana, and attitude to future marijuana use, to the opposite sex drinking, and to the misdemeanor considered most serious also had significant associations with alcohol-related behavior. It appears that peer group pressures, as illustrated by the proportion of close friends drinking and sibling drinking, had a greater influence on student drinking behavior than family-related factors such as parental drinking and parental knowledge of drinking. The effect of ambivalent attitudes towards alcohol use, demonstrated by the age at introduction and the place of introduction to alcohol, may suggest that a more relaxed attitude to alcohol should be adopted. [Source: PI]

Streit, Fred. 1974. "The Importance of Significant Others in Youth's Decision Making About Drug Use and Other Deviant Acts." Journal of Drug Education vol. 4, pp. 409-419.
Abstract: Conducted interviews with and surveys of 898 7-12th graders about positive and negative behaviors (e.g., dropping out of school or helping a drug abuser), the extent of influence that significant others (e.g., parents, peers, or teachers) had on these behaviors, and the actions taken in response to the behaviors by these significant others. A nonstatistical analysis of the findings suggests that (a) most community-related offenses are committed by males; (b) the critical ages for prevention of delinquent activities appear to be 15 or under for girls and 13 or under for boys; (c) the closer the family is perceived, the less likely it is that a deviant act will be committed; (d) teachers and clergy are the least effective inhibitors of delinquency; and (e) youth centers and similar agencies are preferred as sources of help over traditional agencies (e.g., church groups). The need for more recreational facilities and more youth-oriented counseling programs is indicated. [Source: PI]

Fejer, Dianne and Reginald G. Smart. 1972. "Drug Use, Anxiety and Psychological Problems among Adolescents." Ontario Psychologist vol. 4, pp. 10-21.
Abstract: Reports the incidence of drug usage in 3 Ontario areas of varying demographic characteristics. Results indicated: (a) illicit drug use increased with population density; (b) males used drugs more than females, except for tranquilizers, barbiturates, and glue; (c) Ss indicating no religion were overrepresented among users; (d) Ss with nonprofessional parents used less drugs; (e) users had received far more psychological treatment than nonusers, the reasons for treatment varying with the type of drug used; and (f) users had much higher Taylor Manifest Anxiety scores than nonusers. Opiate and amphetamine users were found to have the highest levels of anxiety and to report being depressed significantly more often. [Source: PI]

Robbins, Thomas and Dick Anthony. 1972. "Getting Straight with Meher Baba: A Study of Mysticism, Drug Rehabilitation and Postadolescent Role Conflict." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 11, pp. 122-140.

Smart, R. G. and Diane Fejer. 1971. "Recent Trends in Illicit Drug Use among Adolescents." Canada's Mental Health Supplement; p. 12.
Abstract: Compared results of questionnaires on the prevalence and frequency of drug use from 6,447 7-13th graders in 1968 and 8,865 6-13th graders in 1970. The use of barbiturates, tranquilizers, and stimulants remained relatively stable, while that of alcohol, marijuana, the opiates, LSD, and other hallucinogens increased. More Ss used drugs in 1970 and used them more heavily, especially illicit drugs. Although more males than females used drugs, this ratio was reduced in 1970. Ss most likely to use drugs (a) came from Jewish or no religious backgrounds, (b) were from middle- or upper-class families, (c) had brothers or sisters who used drugs, (d) tended to do poorly in school, and (e) did not participate in school activities. Conflicting norms and overall alienation scores correlated positively with the use of all drugs. Social isolation was positively correlated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, glue, other solvents, barbiturates, and tranquilizers. Powerlessness was related to all drug use except the opiates, speed, and LSD. Parents, especially mothers, who were heavy users of psychoactive drugs were more likely to have children who used drugs. Some aspects of prevention of drug abuse in adolescents are considered. [Source: PI]

Zaehner, Robert Charles. 1971. "Theology, Drugs and Zen." Theology vol. 74, pp. 291-296.

Burke, Edward L. 1970. "Patient Values on an Adolescent Drug Unit." American Journal of Psychotherapy vol. 24, pp. 400-410.
Abstract: Reviews observations of a clinician in a drug therapy unit. Although none of the teen-aged patients would openly discuss a value system, the therapist inferred that such implicitly existed. Noninterference was the basic premise to this value system. It was seen as a direct reaction to the paternalism that each patient seemed to have experienced. All patients seemed to exhibit ambivalence about the pleasure, yet destructiveness of a situation. "Thou shalt not fink" was put forth as a 2nd moral tenet. These patients were observed to exhibit inhibitative rather than promiscuous sexual behavior. The patients' attitudes toward religion, jobs, money, private property, and the meaning of love were all assessed. Critical self-examination was not only a negative aspect of therapy; for some it was an impossibility. It is concluded that this inability for self-appraisal may be a crucial reason for turning to drug use. [Source: PI]

Whitehead, Paul C. 1970. "Religious Affiliation and Use of Drugs among Adolescent Students." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 9, pp. 152-154.
Abstract: A study of the relationship between religious affiliation & the use of 10 types of drugs. S's were 1,606 students in the Halifax Sch system, & the instrument used was a slightly modified version of the self-report questionnaire used by the Addiction Res Foundation, Toronto. The validity of self-report in this sample is discussed. It was found that Catholics & Protestants report signif'ly more drug use than Jews & nonaffiliates. There is little diff in the rates of drug use between Catholics & Protestants, nor between Jews & nonaffiliates. The religious groups do not show diff patterns of preferences among the drugs. The rank order r's of drug preferences among religious groups are all signif. E. Weiman [Source: SA]

Globetti, Gerald. 1967. "A Comparative Study of White and Negro Teenage Drinking in Two Mississippi Communities." Phylon vol. 28, pp. 131-138.
Abstract: Questionnaire responsese anonymously supplied by 314 White and 214 Negro high school students indicated a pervasive normative pattern concerning the use of intoxicants by adolescents, both subgroups were influenced similarly by community of residence, sex, school grade, socioeconomic status, and religious behavior. However, adult Negroes exerted a greater control than whites over the drinking behavior of their youth. This sample does not fit the stereotype of lower class Negro drinking habits. Further study is required for the middle class Negro. [Source: PI]

Substance use - alcohol

Mason, W. A. and M. Windle. 2001. "Family, Religious, School and Peer Influences on Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Study." Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 62, pp. 44-53.
Abstract: Objective: In this study, the cross-temporal relationship between family social support and adolescent alcohol use was examined. A primary aim was to investigate the mechanisms through which family social support affects drinking among youth. Another aim was to examine reciprocal relationships among the study variables. Method: Four-wave (with 6-month intervals) panel survey data collected From 840 middle adolescent boys (n = 443) and girls (n = 397) attending a suburban school district in western New York were analyzed using structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation, Results: Analyses revealed that family social support was indirectly associated with decreased alcohol consumption among the respondents, primarily through variables measuring religiosity, school grades and peer alcohol use. In addition, adolescent alcohol use was directly associated with subsequent increases in peer alcohol use and later decreases in school performance. Results also showed that receiving good grades in school predicted moderate increases in family social support. Conclusions: The findings of this study are discussed in terms of the interrelationships that exist among multiple socializing influences and alcohol use among adolescents. [Source: SC]

Hillman, S. B. and J. M. Haskin. 2000. "Personality and Drug Abstention in Adolescents." Psychological Reportsvol. 87, pp. 1023-1026.
Abstract: Personality and drug abstention in adolescents were investigated in a sample of 292 high school seniors. A significant difference was found between abstention and low scores for novelty-seeking behavior based on responses to the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Those who reported abstaining from alcohol had significantly higher grade point averages. attended religious scn ices significantly more frequently, and considered religion significantly more important than those who reported drug use and abuse. [Source: SC]

Hishinuma, E. S., S. T. Nishimura, R. H. Miyamoto, and R. C. Johnson. 2000. "Alcohol Use in Hawaii." Hawaii Medical Journal vol. 59, pp. 329-335.
Abstract: This article provides a review of the existing literature on alcohol use in Hawaii (i.e., epidemiology, reasons for use, associated problems, and intervention) and offers clinical implications of the findings and suggestions for further areas of research. In general, Caucasians, Hawaiians, younger Filipinos, males, adolescents, young adults, and those with lower educational attainment were found to be at higher risk. Overall, Hawaii's rates were either comparable or lower than those for the entire United States. Factors associated with different rates of alcohol use included accessibility, ability to resist offers, parent use and sanctions, peer influence and use, attitudes and beliefs (e.g., perceived normal drinking, dangerousness), religious affiliation, social occasions, and school intervention. Variable rates and trends in help-seeking behaviors, treatment admissions, and treatment utilization reflected the socio-cultural diversity in Hawaii. Perceived effectiveness of different treatments were generally consistent across ethnic groups, but did not necessarily represent actual efficacy. There is a clear need for additional prevention, screening, and intervention programs in Hawaii, including socio-culturally appropriate ones, as well as a need for further research. [Source: ML]

Bryant, Shanta M. 1999. "Poking a Hole in the Myths: Northern European United Methodists Examine Ways to Prevent Teenage Drinking and Drug Abuse." Christian Social Action vol. 12, pp. 10-12.

Heath, A. C., P. A. Madden, J. D. Grant, T. L. McLaughlin, A. A. Todorov, and K. K. Bucholz. 1999. "Resiliency Factors Protecting against Teenage Alcohol Use and Smoking: Influences of Religion, Religious Involvement and Values, and Ethnicity in the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study." Twin Research vol. 2, pp. 145-155.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of ethnicity (African-American vs European/other ancestry), family religious affiliation, religious involvement, and religious values, to risk of alcohol and cigarette use in adolescent girls; and to estimate genetic and shared environmental effects on religious involvement and values. Telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of female like-sex twin pairs, aged 13-20 (n = 1687 pairs, including 220 minority pairs), as well as with one or both parents of twins aged 11-20 (n = 2111 families). These data, together with one-year follow-up twin questionnaire data, and two-year follow-up parent interview data, were used to compare ethnic differences. Proportional hazards regression models and genetic variance component models were fitted to the data. Despite higher levels of exposure to family, school and neighborhood environmental adversities, African-American adolescents were less likely to become teenage drinkers or smokers. They showed greater religious involvement (frequency of attendance at religious services) and stronger religious values (eg belief in relying upon their religious beliefs to guide day-to-day living). Controlling for religious affiliation, involvement and values removed the ethnic difference in alcohol use, but had no effect on the difference in rates of smoking. Religious involvement and values exhibited high heritability in African-Americans, but only modest heritability in EOAs. The strong protective effect of adolescent religious involvement and values, and its contribution to lower rates of African-American alcohol use, was confirmed. We speculate about the possible association between high heritability of African-American religious behavior and an accelerated maturation of religious values during adolescence. [Source: ML]

Maes, H. H., C. E. Woodard, L. Murrelle, J. M. Meyer, J. L. Silberg, J. K. Hewitt, M. Rutter, E. Simonoff, A. Pickles, R. Carbonneau, M. C. Neale, and L. J. Eaves. 1999. "Tobacco, Alcohol and Drug Use in Eight- to Sixteen-Year-Old Twins: The Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development." Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 60, pp. 293-305.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study reports prevalences of lifetime and current alcohol, tobacco and drug use in adolescents; examines associations between substance use and a number of putative risk factors; and estimates the contribution of genetic, shared and unique environmental influences on substance use. METHOD: Substance use data were collected using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment on a population sample of 1,412 male and female monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, aged 8 through 16, from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. RESULTS: Heritabilities were estimated to be 84% and 82% for liability to lifetime and current tobacco use, respectively. For alcohol use the role of genes and environment varied according to the context of reporting. Liability to lifetime alcohol use was estimated to be under environmental control, with 71% of the variation shared by members of a twin pair and 29% unique to individual twins. Lifetime alcohol use without the permission of a parent or guardian and current use of alcohol were predominantly explained by genetic factors (h2 = 72% and 74%). The role of genetic factors increased and that of unique environmental factors decreased with increasing severity of alcohol use. Lifetime use of any drug showed a heritability of 45%, with the shared environment accounting for 47% of the variation. Shared environmental factors explained most of the variation in marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic factors explained a significant proportion of the variation in the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Shared environmental factors contributed significantly to lifetime alcohol use and other drug use. [Source: ML]

O'Malley, P. M. and L. D. Johnston. 1999. "Drinking and Driving among Us High School Seniors, 1984-1997."American Journal of Public Health vol. 89, pp. 678-684.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This article reports the prevalence of, and trends in, driving after drinking and riding in a car with a driver who has been drinking among American high school seniors, based on data from more than a decade (1984-1997) of annual national surveys. METHODS: Logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of demographic factors (gender, region of country, population density, parental education, and race/ethnicity) and selected "lifestyle" factors (religious commitment, high school grades, truancy, illicit drug use, evenings out per week, and miles driven per week). RESULTS: Rates of adolescent driving after drinking and riding with a driver who had been drinking declined significantly from the mid-1980s to the early or mid-1990s, but the declines have not continued in recent years. Rates of driving or riding after drinking were higher among high school seniors who are male. White, living in the western and northeastern regions of the United States, and living in rural areas. Truancy, number of evenings out, and illicit drug use all related significantly positively with the dependent variables, whereas grade point average and religious commitment had a negative relationship. Miles driven per week related positively to driving after drinking. [Source: CI]

Rodell, Daniel E. and Brent B. Benda. 1999. "Alcohol and Crime among Religious Youth." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly vol. 17, pp. 53-66.
Abstract: Examined the relationship between alcohol and crime among religious youth by studying 528 adolescents (aged 12-18 yrs) who regularly attend churches affiliated with primary Protestant denominations in a Midwestern state. The purpose of this study was to determine if the delinquency syndrome argument has more validity in a religious sample than noted in the general population of youth. Different scales were used to measure the following concepts: attachment, parental supervision, beliefs, self-esteem, parental abuse, religiosity, peer association, modeling, rewards, excuses, crime, and alcohol use. The authors conclude that all theoretical factors investigated were correlated significantly with both alcohol use and criminal activity, however, differences in correlations between theoretical factors and alcohol use or crime show that beliefs, parental abuse, and peer association are more highly correlated with crime. The findings support the delinquency syndrome argument in this sample of religious youth, and show that religiosity is relevant to alcohol use and not to crime. [Source: PI]

Henson, Loretta Pearle. 1998. "Variables Influencing Adolescent Experiences with Alcohol and the Church."Thesis, Walden University.
Abstract: This study utilized phenomenological interviewing, researcher observation, and a questionnaire to better understand the experience of alcohol abuse and church experience among substance abusing adolescents. A review of literature reflects that alcohol abuse is a serious and common problem among adolescents. Literature also reflects a possible correlation between alcohol abuse and the adolescent's experience with a church and spirituality. This researcher sought to understand alcohol abuse and how it relates to active church involvement and spirituality. A sample of 10 recovering alcoholics (7 males and 3 females) were drawn from a small, Midwestern town. The data from interviews, observations, and a questionnaire yielded 6 meaningful clusters, revealing a continuous reciprocal interactive process. These clusters consisted of (a) expectation, (b) parental instructions, (c) peers, (d) consequences, (e) church experiences, and (f) religious shame. A continuous reciprocal interaction found among the clusters was juxtaposed against the alcohol abuse theories. This study reveals the complexity of the variables in adolescent experiences with alcohol abuse and organized church, and the disparities between spirituality and religion. Spirituality was viewed as a missing component in the prevention of alcohol abuse. These findings indicate a need for organized churches to consider a multivariate interactive-expectancies approach when developing adolescent alcohol abuse prevention programs. As a result of this study's findings, prevention strategies for the church are outlined in the framework of a multivariate interactive-expectancies approach. [Source: PI]

Park, H., L. Ashton, T. Causey, and S. S. Moon. 1998. "The Impact of Religious Proscriptiveness on Alcohol Use among High School Students." Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education vol. 44, pp. 34-46.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between religious proscriptiveness and alcohol use among high school students. Religious proscriptiveness refers to the predominant values reserved by a particular religious group regarding alcohol use. A sample of high school seniors (n=7,692) was drawn using the data of the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) second follow-up. One-way Analysis of Variance and post hoc analysis using the Scheffe procedure were employed to determine the impact of religious proscriptiveness on alcohol use. To consider other variables frequently studied in previous research, a stepwise multiple regression was utilized. Religious proscriptiveness was measured through three types of faith groups-proscriptive group (i.e., Baptist, Pentecostal, and Mormon), moderate group (i.e., Methodist and Presbyterian), and nonproscriptive group (i.e., Lutheran, Episcopal, Jewish, Eastern Orthodox, and Roman Catholic). A significant (p<.00l) difference of religious proscriptiveness was found on alcohol use of high school students. Specifically, the proscriptive groups reported lower rates of alcohol use, while the nonproscriptive groups showed higher rates of alcohol use. Unlike previous findings, the impact of religious proscriptiveness was not significant on binge drinking. In addition, peer pressure was determined as the strongest predictor of adolescent alcohol use in the stepwise multiple regression. Suggestions for future research are ofered. [Source: CI]

Vicary, J. R., E. Smith, L. Caldwell, and J. D. Swisher. 1998. "Relationship of Changes in Adolescents' Leisure Activities to Alcohol Use." American Journal of Health Behavior vol. 22, pp. 276-282.
Abstract: Objective: To determine if a decrease in involvement in positive leisure activities preceded the transition to monthly-or-more often use of alcohol. Methods: 460 rural students were surveyed annually for 5 years regarding their participation in health and leisure behaviors. Results: Although gender and grade differences were found, increases in social activities (parties, dating, being with a crowd) most often occurred prior to increased alcohol use; decreases in sports, hobbies and crafts, and church involvement also preceded females' increased alcohol use. Conclusion: Leisure activities should be carefully selected and monitored in efforts to limit adolescent involvement with problem behaviors including alcohol abuse. [Source: CI]

Wichstrom, L. 1998. "Alcohol Intoxication and School Dropout." Drug and Alcohol Review vol. 17, pp. 413-421.
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate if alcohol intoxications predict dropout from senior high school over and beyond the effect of alcohol consumption and to seek out potential confounding or mediating mechanisms in the form of a longitudinal cohort-sequential survey. The participants were a nationally representative sample of Norwegian junior and senior high school students (n = 5308). Measures used were of alcohol consumption, number of intoxications, school dropout, conduct problems, drug use, friends' problem behaviour, truancy, attitude to school, educational aspirations, grades, homework, youth centrism, leisure time activities, religiosity, depression, academic self-concept, attachment to parents. Intoxications did override the effect of alcohol consumption and predicted dropout. This effect was confounded by parental attachment, whereas truancy and associating with peers high in problem behaviour mediated the effect of intoxications. Frequent alcohol intoxications increase the risk for school dropout by means of increased truancy and differential association with counternormative peers. [Source: SC]

Yarnold, Barbara M. 1998. "The Use of Alcohol by Miami's Adolescent Public School Students 1992: Peers, Risk-Taking, and Availability as Central Forces." Journal of Drug Education vol. 28, pp. 211-233.
Abstract: Survey data are drawn on to examine the use of alcohol by 535 junior & senior public high school students in Dade County, FL, in 1992. Statistically significant factors that tend to increase the probability of alcohol use by this population include the fact that their friends drink, their awareness of the risks associated with the use of alcohol, & their ease in obtaining alcohol. Hence, the typical adolescent who uses alcohol seems to be a risk taker who may enjoy the dangers involved with alcohol use; friends are also users of alcohol. Not significantly related to alcohol use are a number of other variables, including family-related variables (eg, whom the adolescents live with & whether someone in the family has a problem with drugs or alcohol). Similarly, early cigarette smoking does not serve as a gateway to later alcohol use. Religion, gender, race, academic performance, & extracurricular school activities are all unrelated to alcohol use. Although the typical adolescent who consumes alcohol is older (in grades 9-12), this is not a significant variable. [Source: SA]

Slicker, E. K. 1997. "University Students' Reasons for Not Drinking: Relationship to Alcohol Consumption Level." Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education vol. 42, pp. 83-102.
Abstract: The present study investigated the reasons university students have for not drinking on those occasions when they choose not to drink and whether those reasons differ with students' differing levels of alcohol consumption. Volunteer participants for the study were students (158 males, 245 females) from a mid-South stare university. These students anonymously answered questions about the quantity and frequency of their alcohol consumption, and on this basis, four alcohol consumption level groups were formed (80.4% of the sample) in addition to abstainers (19.6% of the sample). Each student also responded to the question, ''On those occasions when you DO NOT drink (or drink very little), what is the MAIN reason you make that decision? ''A chi- square test of independence indicated that reason for not drinking was significantly related to alcohol consumption level group, and separate chi-square tests for goodness-of-fit revealed distinctly different reasons given for not drinking depending on the group's alcohol consumption level. Light drinkers endorsed religious-moral reasons significantly More often that the other groups, moderate drinkers chose safety reasons, while heavy drinkers indicated expense as their main reason for not drinking. The results of this unique study inform social and legislative policies for alcohol abuse prevention and intervention by indicating strategies that target the beliefs of she various alcohol consumption levels. [Source: SC]

Foshee, Vangie A. and Bryan R. Hollinger. 1996. "Maternal Religiosity, Adolescent Social Bonding, and Adolescent Alcohol Use." Journal of Early Adolescence vol. 16, pp. 451-468.
Abstract: This study tested two hypotheses: (a) that maternal religiosity would predict adolescent alcohol use and (b) that the relation between maternal religiosity and adolescent alcohol use would be mediated by the three Hirschi control theory elements (attachment, belief in conventional rules, and commitment to conventional activities). Panel data were used from a probability sample of 1,553 adolescents who were 12 through 14 years of age. Maternal religiosity was predictive negatively of alcohol use by adolescents. Maternal religious attendance was more predictive than was maternal religious importance. The association between maternal religiosity and adolescent alcohol use was not explained by race, gender, or age of the adolescent; maternal education, maternal religious denomination, or maternal cigarette smoking status; family structure; or the number of friends who smoke cigarettes; or by the elements of the Hirschi control theory. It appears that maternal religiosity had an effect on adolescent alcohol use through mechanisms other than those tested in the study. [Source: PI]

McGue, Matt, Anu Sharma, and Peter Benson. 1996. "Parent and Sibling Influences on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Misuse: Evidence from a U.S. Adoption Cohort." Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 57, pp. 8-18.
Abstract: An examination of genetic & environmental influences on adolescent alcohol abuse. Data were gathered from records in a random sample of 45 public & private adoption agencies in 4 states (CO, IL, MN, & WI), for 653 families with an adoptive adolescent who then completed a mail questionnaire regarding family functioning, adoption dynamics, adolescent functioning, & drinking behavior. Data revealed that when parents had drinking problems, biological offspring were 30% more likely than their adoptive counterparts to develop similar problems. This was also true of family functioning, where an environment in which parents were uneducated, not religious, undemocratic, or uncohesive was likely to generate drinking in biological offspring, (39%), & only moderately likely to do so in adoptees (16%). There was some correlation between nonbiologically related sibling's abuse (25%), which became more significant (45%) when paired for demographic similarity (same sex or similar age). It is concluded that family environment & parental problem drinking do not substantially contribute to adolescent alcohol abuse, though sibling behavior does. [Source: SA]

Owen, Jill Deanna. 1995. "Rural and Urban Youth Drinking and Driving Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors." Ph.D. Thesis, Southern Illinois University At Carbondale.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if there were significant differences between urban and rural adolescents when comparing the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of alcohol use and drinking and driving and the following selected demographics: age, sex, race, grade level, religion, and with whom the adolescent had lived with in the past year. A cross-sectional survey research design was used in this study. A total of 1,555 students in grades 7 through 12 in rural and urban Illinois were surveyed using the Adolescent Alcohol Use and Drinking and Driving Questionnaire developed by the researcher. Data were collected in 1992. Several conclusions were derived based on the information obtained in this study. The urban students scored significantly higher on the knowledge test than the rural students, indicating that the urban students are more aware of alcohol and its effects on driving. The urban students had more positive attitudes about drinking and driving than the rural students. The rural students felt that drinking and driving was "not as bad" as what the urban students felt. There was no significant difference found between the rural and urban adolescents when comparing alcohol use behaviors, driving a car while intoxicated, deciding not to drive a motor vehicle because of being drunk, riding in a car with an intoxicated adolescent driver, or refusing a ride from an intoxicated adolescent driver. A significant difference was found between the rural and urban students concerning being arrested for drunk driving with more urban students being arrested than rural. A significant relationship was found between grade level and the four dependent variables: knowledge, alcohol use behaviors, drinking and driving, and riding with an intoxicated adolescent driver. The higher the grade level, the higher the behavior. Age group, grade level, sex, and religion were the leading four predictors for adolescent alcohol use. Grade level and sex were the top predictors for adolescent drunk driving, and age group, religion, and community size were the three leading determinants for riding with an intoxicated adolescent driver. Recommendations were made based upon the findings of this study. Classroom and public education developed for adolescents needs to be reviewed regarding the curriculum and materials utilized in teaching all students about drinking and driving so that it will not only increase an adolescent's knowledge, but improve attitudes, and decrease drinking and driving behaviors. More education needs to be done at the junior high level or earlier, especially in the rural schools. Tougher law enforcement needs to be provided, especially in the rural areas. Environments need to be created in which drinking and driving of adolescents is lessened. [Source: DA]

Benda, Brent B. 1994. "Testing Competing Theoretical Concepts: Adolescent Alcohol Consumption." Deviant Behavior vol. 15, pp. 375-396.
Abstract: Examines alcohol consumption among 1,093 students attending high schools in Baltimore, MD, & Little Rock, AR, or rural high schools in AR & OK, using survey questionnaire data. Hierarchical regression procedures were used to test competing factors from social control & social learning theories. The significant predictors, in order of importance, were: (1) interaction between age & neutralizing definitions, (2) interaction between age & beliefs, (3) interaction between age & peer association, (4) religiosity, & (5) perception that the rewards of deviant acts outweighed the costs. [Source: SA]

Bliss, S. K. and C. L. Crown. 1994. "Concern for Appropriateness, Religiosity, and Gender as Predictors of Alcohol and Marijuana Use." Social Behavior and Personality vol. 22, pp. 227-238.
Abstract: The validity of the Concern for Appropriateness Scale (CAS) as a direct or indirect predictor of alcohol and marijuana use in college students was investigated in this study. Specifically, the study examined whether the CAS, by itself, predicted self- reported alcohol and marijuana and whether it interacted with gender and/or religiosity to predict alcohol and marijuana use. The Ss were 143 undergraduate students, and it was found that the CAS directly predicted marijuana use and also interacted with religiosity in the prediction of marijuana use. The results also indicated that the CAS did not directly predict alcohol use, but the CAS interacted with gender and religiosity in the prediction of alcohol use. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for validity of the CAS as an index of social anxiety. [Source: SC]

Turner, N. H., G. Y. Ramirez, J. C. Higginbotham, K. Markides, A. C. Wygant, and S. Black. 1994. "Triethnic Alcohol-Use and Religion, Family, and Gender." Journal of Religion & Health vol. 33, pp. 341-352.
Abstract: Nine different behavioral responses to alcohol by over two hundred ninth-graders in Austin, Texas, were examined in a survey designed to identify the relationship between adolescents' alcohol use, religious affiliation, religiosity, and gender. The relationship between alcohol use and family adaptability was also examined. While religious affiliation was found to be mildly predictive of use, religiosity determined only specific behavior. Gender differences in alcohol use appeared to be narrowing. Family adaptability was the most predictive variable, showing a relationship with six of the nine kinds of alcohol behavior. Future studies of family influences on adolescents' alcohol behavior and alcohol use among females are recommended. [Source: SC]

Burkett, Steven R. 1993. "Perceived Parents' Religiosity, Friends' Drinking, and Hellfire: A Panel Study of Adolescent Drinking." Review of Religious Research vol. 35, pp. 134-154.
Abstract: Three-wave panel data are used to examine the alternative hypotheses that the influence of parents' religiosity, as perceived by respondents, on adolescent drinking behavior is: (1) direct, presumably through exertion of greater controls on youthful behavior consistent with the religious practices & orientations of parents; (2) indirect, through the individual adolescent's religious commitment & beliefs; or (3) indirect, through the selection of friends who either use or do not use alcohol. The findings provide qualified support for hypotheses 2 & 3. The results also show that parental religious influence diminishes over time, especially among male adolescents. The findings do not support the contention of some that the relationship between the religious factor & deviance among adolescents is confounded by measures of religiosity that reflect simple conformity to parental wishes. [Source: SA]

Chandy, Joseph M., Linda Harris, Robert Wm Blum, and Michael D. Resnick. 1993. "Children of Alcohol Misusers and School Performance Outcomes." Children and Youth Services Review vol. 15, pp. 507-519.
Abstract: Examines the impact of parental alcohol misuse on the school performance of children, based on 1986/87 survey data from 838 teenagers with alcohol-misusing parents in MN. These teenagers had significantly poorer performance in all 6 measurements of school performance used. A few protective factors were identified: those who did well in school perceived that their parents had high expectations of them, rated themselves as generally healthy, & assessed themselves to be religious. [Source: SA]

Cochran, John K. 1993. "The Variable Effects of Religiosity and Denomination on Adolescent Self-Reported Alcohol Use by Beverage Type." Journal of Drug Issues vol. 23, pp. 479-491.
Abstract: Examined the effects of personal religiosity and religious denomination on alcohol use and beverage type, using questionnaires completed by 3,065 male and female students (Grades 7-22). Results show that the effects of religiosity on alcohol consumption vary in at least 2 theoretically important ways. First, the effects of religiosity vary across faith groups. Where official doctrine proscribes use, the effects are strongest; where doctrine stands mute with regard to use, the effects of personal religiosity are attenuated. Secondly, the effects of religiosity on use vary by beverage type. For beverages such as beer and liquor, the effects are strongest; for wine, used for functional and ceremonial purposes, the effects of personal religiosity are less evident. [Source: PI]

Lo, Celia Chun Nui. 1993. "What Does Social Learning During the High School Senior Year Contribute to Collegiate Drinking Patterns?" Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: A two-wave quasi-longitudinal method is employed to: (1) specify the effects on collegiate drinking patterns of social learning variables & drinking patterns as high school seniors; & (2) examine whether differential reinforcement is a crucial variable in collegiate drinking behavior, as described by Akers. It is demonstrated that differential peer associations in high school, which determine students' definitions of alcohol use & expectations of the consequences of drinking, directly affect drinking patterns during high school, but not during college. College students' drinking patterns are directly determined by their earlier drinking patterns, definitions of alcohol use, & parents' reaction to their using alcohol in high school. Supporting earlier studies, role models & religious norms show no significant impact on high school or collegiate alcohol use, when all other variables are controlled, & the important impact on college drinking of the differential reinforcement variables measured for high school is partially supported. However, that impact is not totally consistent with social learning theory precepts; further studies are needed to improve the conceptualization & measurement of social learning variables. [Source: SA]

Cochran, John K. and Ronald L. Akers. 1989. "Beyond Hellfire: An Exploration of the Variable Effects of Religiosity on Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use."Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency vol. 26, pp. 198-225.
Abstract: After describing Travis Hirschi's & Rodney Stark's "Hellfire hypothesis" of the link between religiosity & delinquency (see SA 19:1-2/71E7824), several of its subsequent revisions - eg, the antiasceticism, norm qualities, & moral communities hypotheses - are tested using questionnaire data on adolescent substance use & delinquent behavior (N = 3,065 seventh-twelfth graders in 3 midwestern US states who were part of the original Boys Town study by Ronald L. Akers et al (eg, see SA 28:2/80K6604). After controlling for age, race, gender, & socioeconomic status, regression analysis reveals only moderate support for the link between religiosity & deviance, in contrast to previous studies. Only when secular norms & values are ambiguous, & religious standards condemn a particular act, does religiosity have a definite deterrent impact, supporting the antiasceticism hypothesis. Additional research is needed to specify the social contexts that modify the effects of religion on delinquency. [Source: SA]

Garfinkle, Martin I. 1989. "The Relationship between Reported Alcohol Abuse and Self-Perceived Jewishness among Adolescents." D.S.W. Thesis, Adelphi University School of Social Work.
Abstract: This study explores the relationship between alcohol abuse among Jewish adolescents and three related factors that comprise the trait we define as "Jewishness": (1) Jewish ethnic identity, (2) religious affiliation (synagogue attendance), and (3) religiosity. Instruments were developed to measure the strength of Jewish ethnic identity and religiosity, the frequency of synagogue attendance (affiliation), and the extent of alcohol abusing behavior. The results indicated that Jewish adolescents who are ethnically identified tend to abuse alcohol less frequently than Jews who do not have a strong sense of ethnic identity. The same inverse relationship was true for religiosity. However, the combined effects of ethnic identity and religiosity were not additive, thus indicating no interactive influence in the prediction of alcohol abusing behavior. Other findings from the study indicated that friends' use of alcohol was a strong predictor of alcohol abusing behavior in the Jewish adolescent. It appears that past discrepancies in findings with regard to the Jew and alcohol abuse relate to the dependent measure in those studies. The implications of the findings suggest that social workers should encourage the enhancement of ethnic identity in their clients when possible and where appropriate since this may retard alcohol abuse. Another implication for social workers, educators, and other professionals is the promotion of programs that discuss the vulnerability of adolescents to peer influences. [Source: DA]

Mangham, Colin Richard. 1989. "Adolescent Abstainers from Alcohol: Longitudinal Follow-up and Cross-Sectional Comparisons." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Oregon.
Abstract: Although much has been done to understand the factors in adolescent drinking, relatively little research has focused on adolescents who abstain from alcohol. Likewise, the preponderance of studies of factors in teenage drinking have been correlational and have not sought teens' own perceptions of influences to drink. This study explored the drinking patterns, factors in abstinence and influences felt to drink among 355 grade 12 Canadian adolescents. Ninety of the subjects who were abstainers had received the measures on reasons for abstinence/influences to drink in grade 9, allowing longitudinal comparisons. Subjects rated the importance of reasons for abstinence and the frequency and extent of pressures to drink on Likert-type scales. Subjects who were abstainers in grade 9 were interviewed regarding their abstinence, onset of drinking, the role of alcohol in friendship/popularity and their leisure and academic pursuits. Three alcohol use groups emerged in the study: subjects still abstaining in grade 12 (n = 27), subjects beginning to drink since grade 9 (n = 63), and subjects already drinking by grade 9 (n = 265). Oriental and East Indian subjects were more likely to be abstainers or late onset drinkers than Caucasians. Analysis of variance revealed that abstainers were stronger in personal controls against drinking, and experienced direct pressure to drink less frequently and less strongly than the other groups. Subjects starting to drink since grade 9 experienced a sharper increase in frequency and extent of pressure to drink than abstainers. However, all three groups reported surprisingly little influence to drink, especially from the media. Ethnicity and attitudes were the best predictors of alcohol use category, using discriminant analysis. Religiosity was also important to many abstainers interviewed, who tended to have very few drinking friends. Late onset drinkers tended to drink lightly, supporting the relationship between age of drinking onset and risk of alcohol problems. Several recommendations are made, relating to sensitivity toward ethnicity and alcohol use category in prevention programs. A closer analysis of the role of peer and media influence to drink is also encouraged, given the findings. [Source: DA]

Neal, Albert Aiken. 1988. "Religious Involvement and Practices Concerning the Use of Alcohol among Black Adolescents." Ed.D. Thesis, University of South Carolina.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the Black male adolescent's use of alcohol and (1) his own church involvement, and (2) the church involvement of important others (father, mother, and best friend). The subjects of the investigation were 139 Black male adolescents age 12-15 in a southeastern state. All came from families meeting Federal guidelines for low income, and all claimed membership in or affiliation with the Baptist denomination. More than half the subjects (60.5%) reported attending church once a week or more, and 63.3% reported that they never drank alcohol beverages. The instrument used was a self-report questionnaire (Neal's Alcohol Attitudes Questionnaire) administered to the subjects. Items were designed to measure the adolescent's alcohol use, father's church attendance, mother church attendance, best friend's church attendance, attitude toward religion, attitude toward father, attitude toward mother, attitude toward alcohol, and the adolescent's use of alcohol. The findings were discussed in the light of previous research, including Fishbein's model of behavioral intentions, and were found to be in general agreement. Support was found for the importance of the father versus the mother as a role model for adolescent sons in Black families. The findings also indicate that the adolescent's own church attendance influences his decision on alcohol use more than the church attendance of parents or best friends. [Source: DA]

Watson, Charles G., Teresa Kucala, Victor Manifold, and Mark Juba, et al. 1988. "The Relationship of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder to Adolescent Illegal Activities, Drinking, and Employment." Journal of Clinical Psychology vol. 44, pp. 592-598.
Abstract: Compared the self-reported incidences of adolescent legal problems, drinking, employment, and church attendance in 116 male psychiatric patients with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in 28 normal controls. Data raise doubts about the validity of the theory that PTSD is at least partially a result of pretraumatic personality maladjustment. [Source: PI]

Hawks, Ricky D. 1987. "An Analysis of Alcohol Use Patterns among Adolescent Members of the Lds Church." Ed.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: The purposes of the study were twofold. First, to analyze the alcohol use patterns among LDS adolescents in Utah during 1981-1982. Second, to determine differences between alcohol use patterns in Utah among LDS and Non-LDS adolescents. Results indicated that a higher percentage of LDS than non-LDS adolescents reported themselves as abstaining from alcohol during 1981-1982. LDS alcohol users tend to initiate the first use of alcohol at a later age than Non-LDS alcohol users. In general, when LDS adolescents do use alcohol they tend to consume less "frequently" but an equal "quantity" of alcohol as do Non-LDS adolescents. LDS adolescents are not as likely as Non-LDS adolescents to obtain their alcohol from "parents" or "brother or sister" but, LDS adolescents are more likely than Non-LDS to obtain their alcohol from "friends." LDS adolescents are not as likely as Non-LDS adolescents to consume their alcohol at "home." On the other hand, LDS adolescents are more likely than Non-LDS to consume their alcohol in nontraditional locations. [Source: DA]

Robles, Juan A. 1987. "Alcohol-Related Behaviors and Attitudes Towards the Use of Alcohol of Seventh and Eighth Grade Students in Rural South Carolina." Dr.P.H. Thesis, University of South Carolina.
Abstract: The purpose of this statewide study was to ascertain the prevalence of alcohol use among rural seventh and eighth grade public school students in towns of 4,000 people or less in South Carolina and its relationship to selected psycho-socio-cultural factors. A multistage stratified random sample technique was used. The sample was 1,247 students. The data was analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical procedures. The results showed that of those surveyed 62 percent had experienced at least one drink (not just a sip or a taste). Of those who drank, 63 percent were infrequent users, 13 percent drank every weekend, and 11 percent everyday, 71 percent were "light drinkers", 14 percent "moderate" and 15 percent were "heavy" drinkers. The logistic regression and discriminant analyses demonstrated that the following psycho-socio-cultural factors are significantly related to the use or non-use of alcohol by these rural teenagers: age, gender, race, religion and religious involvement, living arrangements, mother educational level, the parents and influential person(s) drinking behaviors, source of learning about alcohol, person(s) to whom the respondent felt emotionally the closest and their alcohol-related behaviors. A Likert-type scale was used to measure responsible and irresponsible attitudes towards alcohol use. The results of the logistic analysis of drinkers versus abstainers regressed on the scale showed that these attitudes were significantly related to the dependent variable: attitudes related to intoxication, to alcohol and having fun, to using alcohol on special occasions, to alcohol and sexual activity, and to the lowering of the legal age for drinking. In summary, the prediction model developed in this study is consistent with previous research findings in which it has been established that the likelihood of an adolescent being a drinker as opposed to an abstainer are greater when: (1) the age increases; (2) the adolescent is not involved with organized religion and does not consider religiosity important; (3) the teenager is a White male, from a broken home; (4) the mother educational level is below high school; (5) the parents use alcohol; (6) the person who influences them the most uses alcohol; and (7) the parents are not the ones who talk with them about alcohol and its effects. [Source: DA]

Gibbons, Stephen, Mary Lou Wylie, Lennis Echterling, and Joan French. 1986. "Patterns of Alcohol Use among Rural and Small-Town Adolescents." Adolescence vol. 21, pp. 887-900.
Abstract: Most research findings on alcohol use by youth have been obtained in Ur settings. The effects of several factors identified in this research are examined in a Ru setting. Questionnaires were administered to 650 students in required classes in grades 7-12 at schools in a nonmetropolitan county of a mid-Atlantic state. Factors influencing age at first drink, f of drinking, amount usually drunk, & heavy drinking were identified through regression analysis. The prevalence of alcohol use was quite high, & both sex & grade level were significant predictors for all four dependent variables. Time spent in social activities predicts all but age at first drink. Surprisingly, neither religiosity nor SES consistently influences drinking behavior. [Source: SA]

Kemp, Kristen Johnson. 1986. "Adolescent Involvement with Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Study."Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Akron.
Abstract: Ambiguity surrounds the phenomenon of teenage drinking. Although adult alcohol use is the norm, drinking by adolescents rarely is condoned. However, no consensus has been reached on the determinants of teenage drinking nor the appropriate focus for prevention and counseling approaches. The purpose of this study was to clarify some of the issues related to adolescent involvement with alcohol. The problem under investigation was threefold: first, to examine selected psychosocial variables in such a way as to test interactional models of teenage drinking; second, to predict adolescent involvement with alcohol with selected psychosocial variables; and third, to compare determinants of adolescent drinking behavior across grade levels. The selected variables included self-esteem, tolerance of deviance, independence/achievement value discrepancy, importance of religion, parent modeling of drinking behavior, parent approval of drinking, peer modeling of drinking, family cohesiveness, school performance and general deviant behavior. A sample of 729 students from grades 7, 9, and 12 was used. The research design was ex post facto. The principal-components method of factor analysis was used to identify factors among the independent variables. Kaiser's factor matching was used to compare these constructs to theoretical models. Multiple linear regression was used to determine variance accounted for by each psychosocial variable in the prediction of the criterion. The underlying constructs measured in this study did not match the three systems used to explain teenage drinking in the theoretical models. It appears that the instrument measured the three constructs of nonconventionality, personal satisfaction, and parental influences rather than personality, perceived environment and behavior. Factor structures remained fairly consistent across grade levels. Three variables associated with nonconventionality were significant predictors of adolescent involvement with alcohol: tolerance of deviance, peer modeling, and general deviant behavior. No interaction effects were found between grade level and the psychosocial variables in the prediction of the criterion. It was concluded that a unidimensional structure of nonconventionality predicted the degree of involvement with alcohol for this sample. Therefore, adolescent involvement with alcohol should be conceptualized as part of a broader syndrome of nonconventionality rather than a symptom of maladjustment. [Source: DA]

Wolfe, R., L. Welch, and R. Lennox. 1985. "Concern for Appropriateness as a Moderator Variable in the Statistical Explanation of Self-Reported Use of Alcohol and Marijuana." Journal of Personality vol. 53, pp. 1-16.

Forney, Mary Ann, Paul D. Forney, Harry Davis, John Van Hoose, Thomas Cafferty, and Harvey Allen. 1984. "A Discriminant Analysis of Adolescent Problem Drinking." Journal of Drug Education vol. 14, pp. 347-355.
Abstract: Questionnaire data obtained from 1,715 6th and 8th graders were used to determine the effects of grade, race, SES, residence, religion, family composition, and parental drinking patterns on Ss' drinking behavior. The sample was composed of 54.1% females; 55.1% of the Ss were White, 41.9% were Black. Results show that Ss who were light or frequent drinkers had fathers who were light or frequent drinkers, while Ss who did not drink or who drank infrequently had mothers who did not drink or drank infrequently. Whites generally drank more than Blacks, and males drank more than females. 45% of the frequent and heavy drinkers were from rural areas. There was not a significantly larger number of frequent and heavy drinkers from broken homes. Findings suggest the need to examine multiple variables influencing students' drinking behavior. Examination of single variables tends to yield contradictory results due to the failure to control for the interactions with other variables. Targeting high-risk students for special counseling regarding alcohol could result in a better use of counseling resources than to provide counseling to all students. [Source: PI]

Medora, Nilufer Phiroze. 1983. "Variables Affecting Loneliness among Individuals Undergoing Treatment in Alcohol Rehabilitation Centers." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
Abstract: This study assessed loneliness of alcoholic subjects in relation to age, sex, education, socio-economic status, adequacy of income, religiosity, marital status, state of health, number of close friends, ease in making friends, frequency of participating in social activities, employment status, job satisfaction, self-esteem, housing situation, history of alcoholism in family, number of years alcohol has been consumed and feeling of happiness during the past year. The study also examined the mean differences in the extent of loneliness encountered by the alcoholic subjects and subjects from 11 other populations studied at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Questionnaires were distributed to 152 individuals undergoing treatment at alcohol rehabilitation centers in Lincoln-Nebraska. The sample consisted of 92 males and 60 females between the age of 19-75 years. Statistical differences were found to exist for these variables: age, sex, marital satisfaction, history of alcoholism in the family and happiness during past year. Younger subjects were found to be more lonely. Females had significantly higher loneliness scores. Respondents who had a high level of marital satisfaction were significantly less lonely. Individuals who indicated a history of alcoholism in their families had significantly higher loneliness scores and subjects who stated that they had been happy during the past year were found to be less lonely. A significant negative relationship existed between loneliness scores and these variables: health, job satisfaction, self-esteem and years of alcohol consumption. Conversely, a significant positive relationship was found between loneliness scores and ease in making friends. No statistical significant differences were found for the following variables: education, socio-economic status, adequacy of income, religiosity, marital status, number of close friends, employment status, and housing situation. The alcoholic subjects were found to be one of the most lonely samples studied when compared to the 11 other populations. Only one population, i.e., the low-income single adolescent mothers had higher mean loneliness scores when compared to the alcoholic sample. [Source: DA]

Singer, Mark Ian. 1983. "A Bi-Racial Comparison of Adolescent Alcohol Use." Ph.D. Thesis, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland.
Abstract: The present research effort used a survey design to implement an exploratory study comparing the drinking patterns of lower socioeconomic status, Black and White adolescents. Two public senior high schools within the City of Cleveland were selected as research sites. At both schools, questionnaires were administered to all students within all grade levels (10th-12th grades). Of the 1,547 students present in the schools during the time of study, 1,096 satisfactorily completed their questionnaires. Over 25 percent of students reported experiencing their first drink by age eleven or younger, with 15 percent drinking at nine years or younger. When mean ages of first drink were compared between Black and White students, White respondents tended to have their initial drinking experiences almost a year earlier than their Black counterparts. Blacks of both sexes exhibited the highest percentages of non-drinkers. The percentage of Black female non-drinkers was almost twice that of non-drinking White males. White males drank most frequently, with 42 percent reporting drinking at least once a week. This frequency was followed by White females (27.1%), Black males (26.2%), and Black females (14.6%). When presented with six reasons for drinking, students chose relaxation as their most popular reason. Clear differences were noted between Black and White youth with respect to two statements: "Drinking helps me be friendly" and "Drinking helps me be friends with others who drink." In both instances, White students more often than Black students were in agreement with these reasons. Conviviality therefore appeared to be a more important reason to drink for White respondents than for their Black counterparts. Clear patterns were seen between parental alcohol use and juvenile drinking. Teenagers who asserted that a parent drank too much, tended to report higher instances of drunkenness for themselves. This finding held true for both races and sexes; however, correlational procedures revealed that Black alcohol misuse was more strongly influenced by maternal drinking than was misuse among Whites. A larger percentage of Blacks than Whites felt that religion was important or very important in their lives. A racial difference was also found in the association between religiosity and times drunk. [Source: DA]

Zucker, Robert A. and Thomas C. Harford. 1983. "National Study of the Demography of Adolescent Drinking Practices in 1980." Journal of Studies on Alcoholvol. 44, pp. 974-985.
Abstract: Data obtained from 1,003 teenagers interviewed by telephone in private households as part of the Gallup Youth Survey in Apr 1980 are compared to findings from other recent surveys on US adolescent drinking patterns. Analysis of religious, racial, occupational, educational, & sex patterns reveals that drinking behavior has remained fairly stable over the last 5 years. Drinking continues to be an age- & sex-graded phenomenon; by the time adolescents are age 16-18, 73% of girls & 92% of boys are drinking, though rarely to the point of drunkenness. [Source: SA]

Rooney, James F. 1982. "Perceived Differences of Standards for Alcohol Use among American Youth."Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 43, pp. 1069-1083.
Abstract: A self-report questionnaire was administered to 4,941 high school seniors to determine the extent to which differences in standards for beer use between Ss and their major reference sources (peers, parents, community, and religion) are related to the incidence of alcohol problems. Findings indicate that young people experience problems only in relation to the perceived norms of their close friends. The emergence of psychological autonomy is indicated by the strong relationship of self-standards to problem behavior. [Source: PI]

Borrelli, Flor. 1980. "The Differential Factors Salient to Alcohol Abuse in Rural and Urban Adolescent Females."Paper presented at Southwestern Sociological Association (SWSA).
Abstract: A review of the literature on alcoholism & women reveals most studies have been conducted in Ur areas & that the samples have been limited to those persons who have already been diagnosed as alcoholics & thus seek help from MDs or clinical institutions. Dealt with is the relationship between alcoholic consumption & variables that have been found to play a role in its etiology (ie, peer group influence, parental influence, religious affiliation & degree of religiosity, age of first experience, SES, region of residence, etc) controlling for gender. The sample utilized a stratified-cluster design. It includes 723 Ms, 635 Fs, 405 black Americans, 862 Caucasians, & 71 Mexican-Americans. Ages of Rs ranged from 12 to 19 years & the research was conducted in the 7 counties comprising the Brazos Valley area of Tex. The character of the sample is overwhelmingly Ru & is comprised entirely of youth. [Source: SA]

Burkett, Steven R. 1980. "Religiosity, Beliefs, Normative Standards and Adolescent Drinking." Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 41, pp. 662-671.
Abstract: Scaled questionnaires were administered to M ninth-grade students (N = 135, from 4 Pacific Northwest junior high schools) to determine relationships between religious perceptions & affiliations, beliefs about drinking, & self-reported drinking behavior. Disapproval of & abstinence from drinking were found more likely among Protestants than Catholics, religious students than the nonreligious, & those who identified drinking as a sin rather than those who did not. Differences in disapproval levels & normative standards among different Protestant sects are also noted & recommended for further study. [Source: SA]

Schlegel, R. P. and M. D. Sanborn. 1979. "Religious Affiliation and Adolescent Drinking." Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 40, pp. 693-703.
Abstract: Of high-school students who attend church, fundamental Protestants are less likely to drink than are liberal Protestants and Roman Catholics; nonattenders are more likely than churchgoers to be heavy drinkers. [Source: ML]

Stout, Robert J. 1978. "Teen-Age Alcoholism: An Alarming Trend." Christian Century vol. 95, pp. 1048-1050.

Globetti, Gerald, Majeed Alsikafi, and Richard J. Morse. 1977. "Alcohol Use among Black Youth in a Rural Community." Drug and Alcohol Dependence vol. 2, pp. 255-260.
Abstract: Based on a study of 364 Black students in Grades 7-12, it is concluded that the circumstances which surround the act of drinking among Black students in an abstinence setting are somewhat different from those recorded elsewhere. Although fewer students drank, the drinking styles revealed several dimensions frequently associated with alcohol abuse. As a rule, users did not have parental permission to drink, and for the most part they identified with churches that condemned alcohol on moral grounds. Because many of the youth procured their beverages from illegal sources or in an illegal way, they tended to drink in a surrepetitious manner. This suggested that less drinking can be expected in abstinence settings but, among those young people who drink, problems may be more frequent. Drinking under these conditions may actually be an expression of a general test of the limits of the adult world or a symbol of rejection of adult standards. Subsequently, the abuse of alcohol may decrease with maturity. Regardless of their meaning, however, the findings do point to a need for education about alcohol at the school level. [Source: PI]

Jessor, R. and S. L. Jessor. 1975. "Adolescent Development and the Onset of Drinking. A Longitudinal Study." Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 36, pp. 27-51.
Abstract: Junior and senior high-school students were studied over a 4-year period. The likelihood of drinking was directly related to the degree of transition- or problem-proneness, and a developmental relationship between onset of drinking and other socipsychological attributes was found. It is concluded that becoming a drinker is an integral aspect of the process of adolscent development. [Source: ML]

Globetti, Gerald. 1972. "Problem and Non-Problem Drinking among High School Students in Abstinence Communities." International Journal of the Addictions vol. 7, pp. 511-523.
Abstract: Interviewed 639 9th-12th graders from 2 small communities with an abstinence culture concerning their drinking habits. Ss were classified as nonusers (68%), non-problem users (15%), and problem users (17%). While alcohol use was related to the same social factors noted in previous studies, the abstinence tradition and rural character of the communities created differences. Unlike adolescent drinkers in urban areas, Ss did not have parental permission for drinking, had to acquire alcohol through illegal channels, and were identified with religions condemning alcohol on moral grounds. Problem users were distinguished from non-problem users as being higher in deviance, as measured by participation in mild forms of deviant behavior, and as lacking in identification with middle-class values. Problem drinkers also seemed to be estranged from their families, church, and community. Data indicate that these Ss were not only problem drinkers but also problem teenagers. [Source: PI]

Kane, Robert L. and Elizabeth Patterson. 1972. "Drinking Attitudes and Behavior of High-School Students in Kentucky." Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 33, pp. 635-646.
Abstract: Of the 21,264 students in grades 7 to 12 of Sch's in 7 northern KY counties, 19,929 completed a questionnaire. The Md age of the students was 15.5; 53% were girls; 97% were white; 47% were Protestant, 31% Catholic, 2% Jewish, & 17% of other denominations (mostly Protestant); 33% lived in towns of less than 500 people. Almost half (45%) of the students were nondrinkers; 27% drank once or twice a yr (infrequent drinkers), 18% once or twice a month; 8% drank every week-end, 3% several times a week (heavy drinkers). Of the drinkers, 46% had their first drink before age 13, 42% at ages 14 & 15; 50% generally drank beer, 34% wine, 16% distilled spirits. When they drank, 46% usually drank less than 2 drinks, 20% up to 6 drinks, & 34% drank more. Of all the students, 6% had drunk nonbeverage alcohol, such as Sterno, paint thinner & hair tonic; 3% had drunk an alcoholic beverage before or instead of breakfast; 3% reported that drinking had occasionally interfered with their Sch work; 8% had been in a fight or destroyed property as a result of drinking, & in 4% drinking had resulted in an accident, injury or arrest, or had brought them before Sch officials. Restricting drinking of alcohol to adults was favored by 41% of all students; 30% opposed all drinking; 70% believed that teen-agers are more likely to drink if purchasing alcohol is illegal; 79% felt that teen-agers should have the opportunity to learn more about alcoholic beverages. 77% of the heavy drinkers & 40% of the nondrinkers were boys; 41 & 16% were Catholics, 32 & 57% Protestants; 16 & 2% attended church regularly; 34 & 19% had failed 1 or more grades at Sch; 30 & 4% reported that almost all the students in their grade were drinkers; 50 & 3% reported that almost all their friends were drinkers. 49% of the heavy drinkers usually drank beer, 42% distilled spirits & 9% wine; among the infrequent drinkers the proportions were 39, 31 & 31%; 32% of the heavy drinkers & 68% of the infrequent drinkers usually obtained alcohol from their parents; 41 & 28% reported that their usual drinking companions were friends of their own age; 10 & 7% reported drinking alone; the parents of 15 & 2% approved of their drinking; drinking had frequently interfered with the Sch work of 13 & 2%; 45 & 4% reported fighting or destruction of property while drinking, 28 & 2% injury or arrest because of drinking; 22 & 8% had drunk nonbeverage alcohol; 17 & 9% were worried about their drinking. The results are compared with those of other studies of teen-age drinking in the US. [Source: SA]

Preston, James D. 1969. "Religiosity and Adolescent Drinking Behavior." Sociological Quarterly vol. 10, pp. 372-383.

Imre, Paul D. 1963. "Drinking Habits of Church-Affiliated Teen-Agers." Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 24, p. 320.

Foster, Virgil E. (ed.). 1961. "Teen-Agers and Drinking." International Journal of Religious Education vol. 38, pp. 20-25.
Abstract: "Am I going to drink," by E A Powers. Needed: a temperate approach to temperance education, by W Sheffield. Alcohol and the responsible Christian, by R D Russell. [Source: RI]

Heath, R. W., M. H. Maier, and H. H. Remmers. 1958. "Youth's Attitudes toward Various Aspects of Their Lives." Purdue Opinion Panel Poll Report p. 24.
Abstract: The majority of teenagers appear to be absorbing the values of the culture and reflect pretty much the attitudes of the culture toward drinking, dating, divorce, religion, and juvenile delinquency. [Source: PI]

Substance Use - Marijuana

Kandel, D. B. and K. Chen. 2000. "Types of Marijuana Users by Longitudinal Course." Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 61, pp. 367-378.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Taxonomies of alcoholism and antisocial behaviors based on developmental course converge on two-group classifications that emphasize early and late onset. Typologies for users of illicit drugs remain to be developed. This article proposes a developmental taxonomy of marijuana users. METHOD: Cluster analysis was applied to a representative community sample of 708 (364 male, 344 female) marijuana users followed from adolescence to age 34-35. The Ward method, followed by relocation, was used to classify marijuana users into different types based on age of onset, chronicity of heavy use and persistence of use. ANOVA and logit analyses were utilized to describe the cluster solution and examine the correlates of cluster membership. RESULTS: Four marijuana use clusters were identified: early onset-heavy use, early onset-light use, mid onset-heavy use and late onset-light use. The groups differed from each other in degree of involvement in marijuana and other drugs, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. The majority of those with early onset did not become heavily involved in marijuana. Unique factors were associated with membership in each group. Factors differentiating early from mid-onset heavy use included association with marijuana-using peers and having had a mental disorder. Peer delinquency was an additional factor differentiating early initiators who became heavy users from those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: A simple two-type classification fails to take into account the heterogeneity of early and late onset groups. By itself, early onset into marijuana will not lead to problematic use or rapid progression into the use of other drugs. Motivation underlying use and dysfunctional behaviors are associated with the development of problematic drug use and dependence. [Source: ML]

Youniss, James, Jeffrey A. McLellan, Yang Su, and Miranda Yates. 1999. "The Role of Community Service in Identity Development: Normative, Unconventional, and Deviant Orientations." Journal of Adolescent Researchvol. 14, pp. 248-261.
Abstract: Responses from a nationally representative sample of 13,000 high school seniors were analyzed to identify predictors of normative, unconventional, and deviant orientations among youth. Normative orientation was indexed using indicators of conventional political involvement (e.g., voting), religious attendance, and importance of religion. Unconventional orientation was indexed with unconventional political involvement (e.g., boycotting). Deviance was measured through marijuana use. Frequency of community service substantially increased predictability of these variables over and above background characteristics and part-time work involvement. Involvement in most types of school-based extracurricular activities was positively associated with doing service, as was moderate part-time work. Background characteristics of attending Catholic school, being female, having high socioeconomic status, and coming from an intact family also predicted service involvement. Results are discussed in terms of a theory of social-historical identity development, suggesting that community service affords youth a developmental opportunity to partake of traditions that transcend the material moment and existential present. [Source: PI]

Youniss, James, Miranda Yates, and Yang Su. 1997. "Social Integration: Community Service and Marijuana Use in High School Seniors." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 12, pp. 245-262.
Abstract: Monitoring the Future survey data gathered 1990-1992 from 3,119 high school seniors in the US were factor-analyzed into dimensions that signified integration into school-based, adult-endorsed norms, or engagement in peer fun activities that excluded adults. School-oriented & those considered all-around seniors were distinguishably high in community service, religion, & politics. Party-oriented & all-around seniors used marijuana more than did school-oriented seniors. Results indicated important variations in senior integration (connection) into the part of peer culture that coincides with adult normative society. It appears that connection may be associated with regulation but also may be superseded by agency-autonomy, as was manifested in the all-around group. [Source: SA]

Bliss, S. K. and C. L. Crown. 1994. "Concern for Appropriateness, Religiosity, and Gender as Predictors of Alcohol and Marijuana Use." Social Behavior and Personality vol. 22, pp. 227-238.
Abstract: The validity of the Concern for Appropriateness Scale (CAS) as a direct or indirect predictor of alcohol and marijuana use in college students was investigated in this study. Specifically, the study examined whether the CAS, by itself, predicted self- reported alcohol and marijuana and whether it interacted with gender and/or religiosity to predict alcohol and marijuana use. The Ss were 143 undergraduate students, and it was found that the CAS directly predicted marijuana use and also interacted with religiosity in the prediction of marijuana use. The results also indicated that the CAS did not directly predict alcohol use, but the CAS interacted with gender and religiosity in the prediction of alcohol use. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for validity of the CAS as an index of social anxiety. [Source: SC]

Parker, James Terry. 1990. "Marijuana Use by Adolescents in a Rural Texas Community: A Psychosocial Perspective." Ph.D. Thesis, Texas Woman's University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to collect and examine baseline data concerning the extent of usage as well as the psychosocial roles of parental, peer, and school influence, religious affiliation, and religiosity on marijuana use by adolescents in a rural Texas community. This study identified marijuana use as a common adolescent health behavior. An adolescent population of 250 ninth and tenth grade students, randomly selected from health education classes, was surveyed. The instrument used was the Adolescent Drug Use Inventory. A Spearman rank correlation was employed to determine the relationship between parental, peer, and school influence, as well as religiosity. The Phi coefficient determined relationships between marijuana usage and gender, race, with whom the adolescent lived, parental relationship, birth order, number of people residing in home, and religious affiliation. None of the Spearman rank correlations was significant at the.05 level. Phi correlations ranged from low to moderate (0.97 to.663). The variables measured by the survey instrument were not related to marijuana use as defined by lifetime frequency usage. [Source: DA]

Cochran, John K. and Ronald L. Akers. 1989. "Beyond Hellfire: An Exploration of the Variable Effects of Religiosity on Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use."Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency vol. 26, pp. 198-225.
Abstract: After describing Travis Hirschi's & Rodney Stark's "Hellfire hypothesis" of the link between religiosity & delinquency (see SA 19:1-2/71E7824), several of its subsequent revisions - eg, the antiasceticism, norm qualities, & moral communities hypotheses - are tested using questionnaire data on adolescent substance use & delinquent behavior (N = 3,065 seventh-twelfth graders in 3 midwestern US states who were part of the original Boys Town study by Ronald L. Akers et al (eg, see SA 28:2/80K6604). After controlling for age, race, gender, & socioeconomic status, regression analysis reveals only moderate support for the link between religiosity & deviance, in contrast to previous studies. Only when secular norms & values are ambiguous, & religious standards condemn a particular act, does religiosity have a definite deterrent impact, supporting the antiasceticism hypothesis. Additional research is needed to specify the social contexts that modify the effects of religion on delinquency. [Source: SA]

Harrison, Lana Debra. 1988. "The Marijuana Movement: A Study of a Cohort on the Cutting Edge." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: Over the past twenty five years, marijuana smoking has evolved from a deviant, isolated behavior to an "institutionalized, normative" behavior among youth. There has been a dearth of empirical research addressing why and how this phenomenon occurred. Most empirical research has focused on the correlates of marijuana use, casting marijuana use as part of a deviance syndrome, most closely related to delinquent behavior. This study finds that in the early years of the marijuana movement, it was not only the delinquent who participated in the popularization of marijuana, but those in the counter culture, typified by their opposition to the Vietnam war. This research traces the history of marijuana use leading to the "marijuana movement." The research combines theory with an empirical analysis (using the Lisrel computer program) of the rise in marijuana use among a nationally representative cohort of males in their sophomore year of high school in 1966, through 1974 when they were an average of 23 years of age--the Youth in Transition (YIT) project. Although YIT was limited to a single cohort, it was a study of a cohort on the cutting edge of the marijuana movement. Taking a social structure and personality approach, the research emphasizes that major structural changes in our society facilitated the marijuana movement--primarily the amount of political turmoil in the 1960's augmented by the entry into adulthood of the leading edge of the baby boom. To the politically alienated, marijuana use symbolized societal rejection, a symbolization based on its historical legacy to other groups of young adults that rejected societal norms less out of deviance and more from a belief that they were "morally superior." On the other hand, to the delinquent, marijuana use simply represented another variant of their deviant behavior. Other major structural variables that directly impacted on marijuana use were region, urbanicity, marital status, and college education, none of which impacted on delinquency. Religiosity, however, buffered young men from participation in either group. Overall it appears that macro-structural phenomena did account for much of the marijuana movement. [Source: DA]

Burkett, Steven R. and Bruce O. Warren. 1987. "Religiosity, Peer Associations, and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Panel Study of Underlying Causal Structures." Criminology vol. 25, pp. 109-131.

Hoge, Dean R., Jann L. Hoge, and Janet Wittenberg. 1987. "The Return of the Fifties: Trends in College Students' Values between 1952 and 1984." Sociological Forum vol. 2, pp. 500-519.
Abstract: An analysis of value trends during the 1950s-1980s using questionnaire data obtained in (1) a 1952 survey of M students (N not provided) at 11 US Colls & Us, & (2) replication studies conducted in 1968/69, 1974, 1979, & 1984 at Dartmouth Coll, NH (N = 360, 366, 316, & 334, respectively), & the U of Michigan (N = 400, 348, 331, & 364, respectively). In most value domains the trends are U-shaped, reversing from the 1950s direction in the 1960s & 1970s; by 1984, attitudes were similar to those of the 1950s or moving in that direction. Domains examined include: traditional religion; career choice; faith in government & the military; advocacy of social constraints on deviant social groups; attitudes about free enterprise, government, & economics; sexual morality; marijuana use; & personal obligations. Two attitude areas do not show a return to 1950s values: (1) other-direction was high in 1952, then dropped in the 1960s & did not rise; & (2) the level of politicization rose greatly from 1952 to the 1960s, then dropped again only slightly. [Source: SA]

Wolfe, R., L. Welch, and R. Lennox. 1985. "Concern for Appropriateness as a Moderator Variable in the Statistical Explanation of Self-Reported Use of Alcohol and Marijuana." Journal of Personality vol. 53, pp. 1-16.

Yamaguchi, Kazuo and Denise B. Kandel. 1985. "Dynamic Relationships between Premarital Cohabitation and Illicit Drug Use: An Event-History Analysis of Role Selection and Role Socialization."American Sociological Review vol. 50, pp. 530-546.
Abstract: Findings from the present study, based on interviews with 619 males and 706 females (mean age 24.7 yrs) who had participated in an earlier high school survey, reveal that the use of marijuana and other illicit drugs increased probability of cohabitation for males and females (role selection), while cohabitation reduced the use of marijuana among females (role socialization). Premarital cohabitation was more likely to end in separation than in marriage to the partner, especially among users of illicit drugs other than marijuana and among Blacks and students; marriage to the partner was more likely to occur among females who were highly religious in adolescence. Premarital cohabitation did not lead to the postponement of marriage but predicted earlier marriage for males in general and for females highly religious as adolescents. Although the direct effect of marijuana use on entering cohabitation seemed to result from unobserved factors common to both states, marijuana use indirectly affected the number of premarital cohabitants by postponing marriage and thereby lengthening the risk period for premarital cohabitation. It is concluded that both illicit drug use and cohabitation reflect common lifestyle antecedents and weakened norms regarding commitment to traditional roles, with historical changes in these lifestyles reflected in parallel trends in the prevalence of these behaviors in the general population. [Source: PI]

Penning, M. and G. E. Barnes. 1982. "Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Review." International Journal of the Addictions vol. 17, pp. 749-791.
Abstract: The adolescent marijuana literature is reviewed. Studies show that the prevalence of marijuana use is generally quite low in elementary schools. In junior and senior high samples, findings vary greatly from place to place. The prevalence of use increased dramatically during the 1970s although the use patterns may have peaked already in some areas. The use of marijuana increases with age, but some evidence suggests that a slight drop-off in use occurs near the end of high school. Female use seems to be increasing more than male use. Use seems to be somewhat more prevalent in middle- and upper-middle-class homes and in broken homes. Mixed support has been found for the hypothesis that marijuana users have parents that are more permissive. Parents of marijuana users are generally characterized as being less warm and supportive, and more inclined toward the use of drugs themselves. Peer and sibling use of marijuana seem to be particularly important predictors of adolescent marijuana use. Findings on personality characteristics of marijuana users are not extensive and are somewhat contradictory. There is some evidence that users tend to be somewhat alienated, external in their locus of control, and possibly higher on anxiety. Users are also characterized by a higher value on independence vs achievement and more positive attitudes toward marijuana use. Behavioral correlates of marijuana use include greater use of alcohol and other drugs, and poorer school performance. [Source: ML]

Kandel, D. 1973. "Adolescent Marijuana Use: Role of Parents and Peers." Science vol. 181, pp. 1067-1070.

Victor, Hope R., Jan C. Grossman, and Russell Eisenman. 1973. "Openness to Experience and Marijuana Use in High School Students." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology vol. 41, pp. 78-85.
Abstract: Investigated marijuana use and its relationship to personality in 984 8-12th graders. Increasing frequency of marijuana use was significantly related to increased creativity, adventuresomeness, internal sensation, novelty seeking and impulsivity, and decreased authoritarianism. No differences were noted in manifest anxiety among user groups, but heavier marijuana users earned lower grades in school. Catholics used marijuana the most, Jews were slightly above the mean in usage, and Protestants were lowest. More frequent marijuana use was associated with increased experimentation with other drugs. Multiple-drug users demonstrated increased manifest anxiety and lower grades. College vs non-college-oriented differences are discussed as well as the personality profile of the marijuana user. [Source: PI]

Blumenfield, Michael, Albert E. Riester, Alberto C. Serrano, and Russell L. Adams. 1972. "Marijuana Use in High School Students." Diseases of the Nervous Systemvol. 33, pp. 603-610.
Abstract: Administered a survey questionnaire dealing with psychological and sociological factors, as well as the use of drugs, to 264 high school students. 21% had abused some kind of drug at least once. 21% had used marijuana at least once. No significant differences were found in the academic performance of regular marijuana users, occasional marijuana users, and nonusers. Users tended (a) to show significantly less devoutness to religion and more atheism; (b) to describe themselves as being less close to their families; (c) to describe their mothers as more permissive and their fathers as more strict; (d) to show a greater amount of treatment for emotional problems; (e) to believe that the "system" has unjust laws; and (f) to have violated the law, had trouble in school, and had sexual experiences. Reasons for using marijuana, situations in which it was used, and effects of it as observed by the regular and occasional users are described. It is noted that some users seemed to be involved with drugs in an attempt to deal with emotional difficulties. [Source: PI]

Mauss, Armand L. 1969. "Anticipatory Socialization toward College as a Factor in Adolescent Marijuana Use." Social Problems pp. 357-364.
Abstract: Attempts to help explain why such a flagrant and heavily penalized form of deviance as marijuana use should occur among otherwise conforming middle-class youth. Finding most theories of deviance inappropriate to this particular phenomenon, the study employs the anticipatory socialization theory and tests the hypothesis that college-oriented high school students, perceiving marijuana use as part of a collegiate style of life, will be more likely to have used marijuana then will high school students not expecting to go to college. A Scale of Anticipatory Socialization Toward College was found to be strongly predictive of marijuana use for boys of upper socioeconomic status and for students claiming no formal religious affiliation; it was mildly predictive for the religiously affiliated and for those from middle socioeconomic status; but it had no predictive power for girls or for students from blue-collar socioeconomic status. [Source: PI]

Substance Use - Tobacco

Hestick, H., S. C. Perrino, W. A. Rhodes, and K. D. Sydnor. 2001. "Trial and Lifetime Smoking Risks among African American College Students." Journal of American College Health vol. 49, pp. 213-219.
Abstract: The authors surveyed 614 African American university students to determine the magnitude of cigarette use, identify risk factors, and develop models to predict smoking. More than half (58.3%) of the participants had smoked at least once, and 9.3% of that group were lifetime smokers. Among the lifetime smokers, 71.3% had smoked during the 30 days preceding the survey. More women (66.8%) than men (56.1%) had tried smoking and were classed as lifetime smokers. Residence, parental, and peer smoking (current and childhood) were associated with trying smoking; age, race/ethnicity, and marital status were additional factors for becoming a lifetime smoker. The risk of being a lifetime smoker was reduced when neither friends nor parents of the student smoked and the student viewed spirituality as important. The results of this study add to the growing understanding of health risk behaviors among African Americans and can be useful in reducing smoking. [Source: ML]

Kurtz, M. E., J. C. Kurtz, S. M. Johnson, and W. Cooper. 2001. "Sources of Information on the Health Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke among African-American Children and Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 28, pp. 458-464.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine the common sources of information regarding the effects of smoking on health and their relationship to knowledge, attitudes, and preventative efforts regarding exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among urban African-American children and adolescents. METHODS: All students who were enrolled in Grades 5-12 in an urban public school district located in the greater metropolitan area of Detroit, Michigan were surveyed using a structured, written questionnaire that assessed sources of information on the health effects of smoking, as well as knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts with respect to exposure to ETS. The primary analytic procedures utilized in the study were correlation analysis and analysis of variance. RESULTS: The African-American students surveyed in this study received information regarding the health effects of smoking from many sources, most notably television, family, and teachers. Second, students who received information on the effects of smoking on health from family and external sources (teacher, parent's friend, and religious leader) had higher overall knowledge, attitude, and preventive efforts scores than students who received information from other sources (friends, electronic media, and printed media). Finally, family influence was greater when parents were not smokers, and influenced elementary students more than middle school or high school students. CONCLUSIONS: The active involvement of teachers, religious leaders, parents, and other influential adults should be elicited in tobacco education and prevention efforts to maximize their effectiveness. [Source: ML]

Spangler, J. G., R. Michielutte, R. A. Bell, S. Knick, M. B. Dignan, and J. H. Summerson. 2001. "Dual Tobacco Use among Native American Adults in Southeastern North Carolina." Preventive Medicine vol. 32, pp. 521-528.
Abstract: Objective. While patterns of smokeless tobacco (ST) use and cigarette smoking are well documented, the epidemiology of simultaneous use of both tobacco products is less well studied, particularly among Native American populations. This study examines correlates of dual tobacco use among Lumbee Indian adults in southeastern North Carolina. Methods. A telephone survey among 400 adult Lumbee Indians in Pembroke, North Carolina, collected information on demographics, current tobacco use, amounts of tobacco used, and tobacco related attitudes. Results. A total of 241 (60.3%) individuals did not currently use tobacco, 104 (26%) currently smoked, 74 (18.5%) currently used ST, and 19 (4.8%) used both products, Thus, 19 of 104 (18.3%) current smokers and 19 of 74 (25.7%) current ST users reported dual tobacco use. Compared to exclusive users of either tobacco product, dual tobacco users were intermediate in age and frequency of church attendance, had lower levels of education, and were the highest proportion of subjects reporting no friends and few close relatives. There was no difference by gender or marital status by tobacco use categories. While exclusive cigarette smokers reported smoking more cigarettes per day than dual tobacco users, overall, dual tobacco users had higher estimated daily nicotine exposure levels. Logistic regression analysis showed that younger age and infrequent church attendance predicted exclusive cigarette smoking, while older age and less education predicted exclusive ST use. Dual tobacco use was predicted only by less education. Conclusions. Simultaneous use of ST and cigarettes is comparatively more common among Lumbee Indian adults than the general population and has an epidemiology distinct from either exclusive cigarette smoking or ST use, These data are the first to explore social support as well as tobacco-related attitudes among dual tobacco users in a Native American population. Recognition of these patterns of dual tobacco use would be important in any future tobacco intervention among Lumbee Indian adults. [Source: SC]

Albrecht, S. A., L. W. Higgins, and C. Stone. 1999. "Factors Relating to Pregnant Adolescents' Decisions to Complete a Smoking Cessation Intervention." Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children & Families vol. 14, pp. 322-328.
Abstract: Adolescence is a time when young people are confronted with critical health-related decision-making responsibilities. Choices associated with smoking behavior and cessation represent one specific family of relevant adolescent decision tasks. This study examined differences between pregnant girls who decided to complete a smoking cessation intervention and those who decided not to complete the program. The comparison was made across variables representing intrapersonal, familial, and peer domains. The sample consisted of 53 pregnant teenagers. Measures included a demographic questionnaire, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and selected items from a smoking history questionnaire and the Health Behavior Questionnaire: High School Form. Significant group differences were found for age (P = .01), race (P = .05), duration of smoking (P = .02), type of smoker (P = .01), and parents' approval of teenage smoking (P = .01). A trend in differences between the two groups was evident for religious attitudes (P = .09). [Source: CI]

An, L. C., P. M. O'Malley, J. E. Schulenberg, J. G. Bachman, and L. D. Johnston. 1999. "Changes at the High End of Risk in Cigarette Smoking among Us High School Seniors, 1976-1995." American Journal of Public Health vol. 89, pp. 699-705.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study identified high school seniors at low, moderate and high risk for cigarette use to examine changes in the prevalence of daily smoking within risk groups from 1976 to 1995. METHODS: Data were taken from the Monitoring the Future Projects national surveys of high school seniors. Risk classification was based on grade point average, truancy, nights out per week, and religious commitment. Logistic regression models were used to estimate trends for all seniors and separately for White (n = 244,221), African American (n = 41,005), and Hispanic (n = 18,457) made and female subgroups. RESULTS: Risk group distribution (low = 45%, moderate = 30%, high = 25%) changed little over time. Between 1976 and 1990, greater absolute declines in smoking occurred among high-risk students (17 percentage points) than among low-risk students (6 percentage points). Particularly large declines occurred among high-risk African Americans and Hispanics. Smoking increased in all risk groups in the 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: Among high school seniors, a large part of the overall change in smoking occurred among high-risk youth. Policies and programs to reduce smoking among youth must have broad appeal, especially to those at the higher end of the risk spectrum. [Source: ML]

Bilicic, Marisa. 1999. "America's Kids Battle Tobacco: "Kick Butts" Campaign Targets Church Youth to Help Snuff out the Industry's Efforts to Lure Them into Addiction." Christian Social Action vol. 12, pp. 21-22.

Epstein, J. A., C. Williams, G. J. Botvin, T. Diaz, and M. Ifill-Williams. 1999. "Psychosocial Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents Living in Public Housing Developments." Tobacco Control vol. 8, pp. 45-52.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adolescents residing in low-income public housing developments in inner-city regions may be particularly vulnerable to a variety of risk factors associated with cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the aetiology of cigarette smoking among adolescents living in public housing developments. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: We examined predictors of smoking from four domains: background characteristics, social influences, behavioural control, and psychosocial characteristics using a sample of seventh graders (mean age 12.9 years) who reside in public housing developments in New York City (n = 624). The addresses of participants in a larger investigation of the aetiology and prevention of smoking were checked to determine if they lived in one of 335 public housing developments in New York City. All participants living in public housing developments were included in the current study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: African-American and Hispanic students completed questionnaires about their cigarette use, social pressures to smoke, smoking attitudes, smoking knowledge, and smoking resistance skills. Students also provided information on demographic and behavioural control (such as church and school attendance). RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses indicated that social influences from friends and family members predicted smoking. Psychosocial characteristics such as advertising resistance skills, anti-smoking attitudes, and refusal skills lowered the odds of smoking. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that smoking prevention approaches targeted at these young people should increase their awareness of social pressures to smoke, correct misperceptions about the prevalence of smoking among friends, and teach relevant psychosocial skills. [Source: ML]

Heath, A. C., P. A. Madden, J. D. Grant, T. L. McLaughlin, A. A. Todorov, and K. K. Bucholz. 1999. "Resiliency Factors Protecting against Teenage Alcohol Use and Smoking: Influences of Religion, Religious Involvement and Values, and Ethnicity in the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study." Twin Research vol. 2, pp. 145-155.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of ethnicity (African-American vs European/other ancestry), family religious affiliation, religious involvement, and religious values, to risk of alcohol and cigarette use in adolescent girls; and to estimate genetic and shared environmental effects on religious involvement and values. Telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of female like-sex twin pairs, aged 13-20 (n = 1687 pairs, including 220 minority pairs), as well as with one or both parents of twins aged 11-20 (n = 2111 families). These data, together with one-year follow-up twin questionnaire data, and two-year follow-up parent interview data, were used to compare ethnic differences. Proportional hazards regression models and genetic variance component models were fitted to the data. Despite higher levels of exposure to family, school and neighborhood environmental adversities, African-American adolescents were less likely to become teenage drinkers or smokers. They showed greater religious involvement (frequency of attendance at religious services) and stronger religious values (eg belief in relying upon their religious beliefs to guide day-to-day living). Controlling for religious affiliation, involvement and values removed the ethnic difference in alcohol use, but had no effect on the difference in rates of smoking. Religious involvement and values exhibited high heritability in African-Americans, but only modest heritability in EOAs. The strong protective effect of adolescent religious involvement and values, and its contribution to lower rates of African-American alcohol use, was confirmed. We speculate about the possible association between high heritability of African-American religious behavior and an accelerated maturation of religious values during adolescence. [Source: ML]

Maes, H. H., C. E. Woodard, L. Murrelle, J. M. Meyer, J. L. Silberg, J. K. Hewitt, M. Rutter, E. Simonoff, A. Pickles, R. Carbonneau, M. C. Neale, and L. J. Eaves. 1999. "Tobacco, Alcohol and Drug Use in Eight- to Sixteen-Year-Old Twins: The Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development." Journal of Studies on Alcohol vol. 60, pp. 293-305.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study reports prevalences of lifetime and current alcohol, tobacco and drug use in adolescents; examines associations between substance use and a number of putative risk factors; and estimates the contribution of genetic, shared and unique environmental influences on substance use. METHOD: Substance use data were collected using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment on a population sample of 1,412 male and female monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, aged 8 through 16, from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. RESULTS: Heritabilities were estimated to be 84% and 82% for liability to lifetime and current tobacco use, respectively. For alcohol use the role of genes and environment varied according to the context of reporting. Liability to lifetime alcohol use was estimated to be under environmental control, with 71% of the variation shared by members of a twin pair and 29% unique to individual twins. Lifetime alcohol use without the permission of a parent or guardian and current use of alcohol were predominantly explained by genetic factors (h2 = 72% and 74%). The role of genetic factors increased and that of unique environmental factors decreased with increasing severity of alcohol use. Lifetime use of any drug showed a heritability of 45%, with the shared environment accounting for 47% of the variation. Shared environmental factors explained most of the variation in marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic factors explained a significant proportion of the variation in the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Shared environmental factors contributed significantly to lifetime alcohol use and other drug use. [Source: ML]

Wynn, Sheri Renee. 1999. "Parental and Contextual Effects on Adolescent's Conventionality and Cigarette Use." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of adolescent cigarette use by examining both the interpersonal influence of parenting behaviors and the intrapersonal influence of individual youth characteristics. In addition, this research also examined whether parenting influences would operate through youth characteristics to prevent or reduce cigarette use among adolescents in different social contexts. Thus, both the direct and indirect influences of parenting behaviors on adolescent drug use were examined, while considering subgroup differences, including age, SES, ethnicity, and gender. The relationships in this study were examined using nationally representative samples of adolescents from the Monitoring the Future Study. The total sample for the current study consisted of approximately 5700 students at the 8th and 10th grades who were surveyed using in-school questionnaires during 1992 and 1993. Competing cross-sectional and longitudinal models were developed a priori and tested using structural equation modeling (EQS). In the accepted 8th and 10th grade models, parental involvement had a significant direct effect on smoking as well an indirect effect via risk- taking, religiosity, delinquency, and grade point average. Parental supervision impacted smoking indirectly via the same mediators, but had no direct effect on smoking. These models suggested that parental involvement is a more powerful deterrent of adolescent smoking than is parental monitoring. The models held across grade level, suggesting developmental continuity. The models also generally held across parental education and ethnicity, and with some important exceptions, across gender. In the longitudinal findings, parental involvement affected grade point average and risk-taking at the 8th grade and, in turn, these mediators contributed to decreased adolescent cigarette smoking between the 8th and 10th grade. Results suggest that parental involvement exerts both direct and indirect effects on current and future cigarette smoking. Grade point average and risk-taking are especially important mediators by which parental involvement indirectly impacts adolescent smoking. [Source: DA]

Griesler, P. C. and D. B. Kandel. 1998. "Ethnic Differences in Correlates of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 23, pp. 167-180.
Abstract: Purpose: To examine the correlates of cigarette smoking among African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents in a cross- sectional national sample. Methods: A total of 1795 mother-child dyads from the 1992 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were selected for analyses. Measures of adolescents cigarette smoking and family, individual, peer, and sociodemographic risk factors were analyzed. Results: White youths reported the highest rates of lifetime, current, and persistent smoking, and initiated smoking at a significantly earlier age than African- Americans and Hispanics. Except for maternal cigarette smoking and substance use, African-Americans and Hispanics experienced a disproportionately larger number of purported risk factors than Whites. Multivariate analyses revealed common and ethnic-specific correlates of adolescent lifetime and current smoking, with many more significant associations among Whites than minorities. Common correlates included youth's age across all three ethnic groups, problem behaviors and delinquency among Whites and African-Americans, and perceived peer pressure to smoke among Whites and Hispanics. Ethnic-specific correlates included maternal smoking, maternal cocaine use, low maternal religiosity, and negative scholastic attitudes, which increased smoking for Whites; and positive parenting, which reduced smoking for African-Americans. Conclusions: The lack of effects of maternal smoking and perceived peer pressure to smoke on African-American adolescents compared with Whites suggests that role modeling and interpersonal influence may be more important determinants of smoking for White than African-American adolescents. The differential impact of family and peer factors on the smoking of adolescents of different ethnicity warrants further investigation. [Source: SC]

Pesa, J. A. 1998. "The Association between Smoking and Unhealthy Behaviors among a National Sample of Mexican-American Adolescents." Journal of School Healthvol. 68, pp. 376-380.
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between smoking and participation in unhealthy behaviors among Mexican-American adolescents through a secondary analysts of national data. Mexican-American adolescents (N=580), ages 10 through 18 years who were interviewed as part of the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey (TAPS II), were selected for analysis. Data collected included smoking status of the adolescent and participation in certain unhealthy behaviors. Among girls in the study, smokers were more likely to not wear a seat belt, be involved in physical fighting, not be involved in organized sports, perform poorly in school, say they like to do risky things, and ride in a car with a drunk or high driver. For boys, smoking was significantly associated with liking to do risky things, fighting, not attending church, and poor academic performance. These results suggest that Mexican-American adolescents who smoke may be at higher risk for engaging in behaviors that could compromise their health and safety and for not being involved in activities chat may exert a protective influence. [Source: SC]

Swaim, Randall C., E. R. Oetting, and J. Manuel Casas. 1996. "Cigarette Use among Migrant and Nonmigrant Mexican American Youth: A Socialization Latent-Variable Model." Health Psychology vol. 15, pp. 269-281.
Abstract: A self-report survey of cigarette use among 10th- and 12th-grade Mexican American students found no differences in rates of use by migrant status. Male students reported higher levels of lifetime, experimental, and daily smoking than female students, and 12th-grade students reported higher levels of daily smoking than 10th-grade students. A socialization model of cigarette use based on peer cluster theory was evaluated using structural equation methods, examining the effects of family strength, family tobacco use, school adjustment, religious identification, and peer tobacco associations. The basic latent-structure socialization model was supported in all groups, but final models including specific effects identified both unique and common relationships by gender and migrant status. Common patterns across groups suggest that completely different prevention programs may not be necessary for these youth. However, program elements based on subtle group differences may serve to tailor prevention efforts and make them more effective. [Source: PI]

Alberg, Anthony John. 1994. "Structured Social Involvement and Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.
Abstract: Structured Social Involvement refers to youths' participation in organized groups such as clubs, sports teams, and religion. A role for Structured Social Involvement in the etiology of adolescent cigarette smoking seems plausible because group participation may develop healthy norms and values and provide a positive peer group. A longitudinal, school-based study was conducted among a racially diverse population of 2,888 New York City adolescents to evaluate the potential role of Structured Social Involvement in the etiology of adolescent cigarette smoking. Youths who had never smoked when they entered the study were followed-up to examine the relationship of Structured Social Involvement to the incidence of smoking. Other factors considered when evaluating this relationship included demographic characteristics, family and peer smoking, and susceptibility factors (e.g., low grades in school, truancy, single-parent household). Compared to those whose overall Structured Social Involvement was low, results of longitudinal analyses showed those with high participation were more likely to try smoking (Relative Risk = 1.2; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.0 to 1.3), to smoke experimentally (Relative Risk = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.9), and to become regular smokers (Relative Risk = 1.3; 95% CI = 0.9 to 2.0) during the follow-up. The risk of experimental smoking increased incrementally with increased Structured Social Involvement (P$sb{rm trend}$ =.03), but no meaningful trend was evident for the other smoking stages. When adjusted for other characteristics in multiple regression analyses, these associations were slightly attenuated but the tenor of the results was not appreciably different from the univariate analyses. When considered singly, neither participation in sports, extracurricular school activities, or religion were associated with reduced risk of smoking. Regardless of other possible benefits that may result from participation in structured social groups, this study provides no evidence that Structured Social Involvement deters cigarette smoking. To the contrary, Structured Social Involvement was associated with an increased risk of smoking. The understanding of adolescent cigarette smoking will be furthered by future research that considers how youths' overall use of time, both in structured and non-structured activities, may relate to the onset of smoking. [Source: DA]

Defronzo, J. and R. Pawlak. 1994. "Gender Differences in the Determinants of Smoking." Journal of Drug Issuesvol. 24, pp. 507-516.
Abstract: The authors analyzed factors affecting tobacco smoking in a national sample. Interaction tests revealed that the social bond of commitment inhibited only male smoking, while the bond of religiousity deterred only female smoking- Age negatively affected smoking only among women. while having been the victim of childhood violence promoted smoking only among men. The findings suggest that anti-smoking campaigns might be more effective if tailored to gender-specific determinants of smoking. [Source: SC]

Pawlak, R. and J. Defronzo. 1993. "Social Bonds, Early Trauma and Smoking - Evidence of the Group-Specific Relevance of Control Theory." Journal of Drug Educationvol. 23, pp. 201-214.
Abstract: This study analyzes data from a national sample of 595 adults to simultaneously evaluate the potential effects of social bonds and childhood trauma on tobacco smoking. Although both control factors and childhood experiences were found to affect smoking, religious belief and belief in the importance of conforming to moral and social norms had more important and robust negative relationships to smoking than commitment, attachment, or involvement social bonds. But, whereas childhood trauma appeared to promote smoking among both college educated and less educated persons, control factors significantly inhibited smoking only among the less educated. Implications for future drug research as well as anti-smoking campaigns and other anti-drug programs are discussed. [Source: SC]

Dusenbury, Linda and Jon F. Kerner. 1992. "Predictors of Smoking Prevalence among New York Latino Youth."American Journal of Public Health vol. 82, p. 55.
Abstract: Examines the prevalence rates and risk factors for smoking among Latino adolescents in New York City public and Catholic schools. Current smoking of older and younger students; Prevalence of smoking for female and male Puerto Rican students; Prosmoking social-influence variables; Predictors of smoking; Interventions that may prevent smoking. [Source: AS]

Waldron, Ingrid, Diane Lye, and Anastasia Brandon. 1991. "Gender Differences in Teenage Smoking."Women and Health vol. 17, pp. 65-90.
Abstract: Analyzed the patterns and correlates of gender differences in cigarette smoking in a national sample of White high school seniors (6,158 females and 5,689 males) in 1985. More females than males were smokers. Females were more likely to have tried smoking at least once and, among those who had tried smoking, females were more likely to have smoked more than once or twice. Gender differences in smoking varied, depending on the students' characteristics. For example, the female excess in the early stages of smoking adoption was small or absent among rural students or very religious students. The contributions of gender differences in students' characteristics to gender differences in smoking adoption were examined. For example, males' involvement in sports may contribute to their lower rates of smoking adoption. [Source: PI]