Davis, Patricia H. 2001. Beyond Nice: The Spiritual Wisdom of Adolescent Girls. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Piedmont, R. L. 2001. "Spiritual Transcendence and the Scientific Study of Spirituality." Journal of Rehabilitationvol. 67, pp. 4-14.
Abstract: This study over-viewed the basic scientific issues pertaining to the measurement of spirituality. An empirical framework, based on the five-factor model of personality (FFM), was presented for use in the development and validation of spiritual constructs. The utility of the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS) as a psychometrically sound measure was evaluated. Using a sample of undergraduate students that included both self-report (N = 322) and observer data (N = 188), it was shown that the STS: (a) demonstrated its putative second-order factor structure; (b) was independent of measures of the FFM; (c) evidenced good cross-observer convergence; and (d) predicted a wide range of psychologically salient outcomes, even after controlling for the predictive effects of personality. It was argued that spiritual constructs can be most efficacious when incorporated as part of a multidimensional assessment battery that includes other personality domains. [Source: CI]

Rabey, Steve. 2001. In Search of Authentic Faith: How Emerging Generations Are Transforming the Church. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Waterbrook Press.

Dean, Kenda Creasy. 2000. "X-Files and Unknown Gods: The Search for Truth with Postmodern Adolescents." American Baptist Quarterly vol. 19, pp. 3-21.

Healy, Mark. 2000. Spiritualized: A Look inside the Teenage Soul. New York: AlloyBooks.

Holder, David W., Robert H. Durant, Treniece L. Harris, Jessica Henderson Daniel, Dawn Obeidallah, and Elizabeth Goodman. 2000. "The Association between Adolescent Spirituality and Voluntary Sexual Activity."Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 26, pp. 295-302.
Abstract: Described the spectrum of adolescent spirituality and determined the association between dimensions of spirituality and voluntary sexual activity (VSA) in adolescents. Ss were 141 11-25 yr olds who completed a 153-item instrument assessing sociodemographics, psychosocial parameters, and 8 specific aspects of spirituality including: (1) religious attendance, (2) religious importance, (3) intrinsic and (4) extrinsic religious motivation, (5) belief in God, (6) belief in divine support, (7) existential aspects of spirituality, and (8) spiritual interconnectedness. Adolescents were also asked about VSA. Adolescent religious attendance was equally distributed across the categories from "none" to "weekly or greater" attendance. Over 90% felt religion was somewhat important in their lives. Over 85% reported belief in God. 56% percent of respondents reported a history of VSA. Greater importance of religion and higher spiritual interconnectedness with friends were inversely associated with VSA. A multiple logistic regression model including age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and specific denomination of religious faith, importance of religion, and spiritual interconnectedness found that spiritual interconnectedness with friends and age were independent predictors of VSA. [Source: PI]

Hutson, S. R. 2000. "The Rave: Spiritual Healing in Modern Western Subcultures." Anthropological Quarterlyvol. 73, pp. 35-49.
Abstract: At raves, young men and women dance to electronic music from dusk to dawn. Previous scholarship treats the rave as a hypertext of pleasure and disappearance. However, such a postmodern view does not attend to the poignant and meaningful spiritual experiences reported by those who go to raves. This article examines claims about altered states of consciousness at raves and the therapeutic results-"spiritual healing"-such states are said to bring. While physiological processes (exhaustive dancing, auditory driving) may contribute to altered states of consciousness, symbolic processes create appropriate frameworks for spiritual healing. Such therapeuticism can be more fully understood in the context of other modem western spiritual subcultures. Placing raves within the context of these other subcultures foregrounds questions for further research. [Source: SC]

Lindsey, Elizabeth W., P. David Kurtz, Sara Jarvis, Nancy R. Williams, and Larry Nackerud. 2000. "How Runaway and Homeless Youth Navigate Troubled Waters: Personal Strengths and Resources." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal vol. 17, pp. 115-140.
Abstract: Little attention has been paid to how runaway or homeless adolescents are able to make successful transitions into adulthood. This article reports on partial findings from an exploratory study of the research question, "How do former runaway and homeless adolescents navigate the troubled waters of leaving home, living in high-risk environments, and engaging in dangerous behaviors, to make successful developmental transitions into young adulthood?" This qualitative study involved interviews with 12 former runaway or homeless youth (aged 18-25 yrs). All youth had stayed in a youth shelter, group home, or other alternative living arrangements as an adolescent. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Findings related to the personal strengths and resources that enabled youth to make successful transitions: learning new attitudes and behaviors, personal attributes, and spirituality. Recommendations for program development and intervention with homeless or at-risk youth are discussed. [Source: PI]

MacDonald, D. A. 2000. "Spirituality: Description, Measurement, and Relation to the Five Factor Model of Personality." Journal of Personality vol. 68, pp. 153-197.
Abstract: The present article focused on the development and measurement of a factor model of the expressions of spirituality. Study 1 (N = 534) involved the use of factor analysis to examine the latent factor structure in a sample of 11 measures of spiritual constructs. Study 2 (N = 938) focused on the replication of Study 1 results and on the construction and initial validation of an instrument to operationalize the factor model of spirituality. Results indicate that at least 5 robust dimensions of spirituality underlie the spirituality test domain. These dimensions were labeled Cognitive Orientation Towards Spirituality (COS), Experiential/Phenomenological Dimension (EPD), Existential Well-Being (EW-B), Paranormal Beliefs (PAR), and Religiousness (REL). The measure developed, named the Expressions of Spirituality Inventory (ESI), takes the form of a 98-item instrument that generated scores demonstrating satisfactory reliability and adequate initial validity. Examination of the relation of spirituality to the Five Factor Model (FFM) as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised revealed that the dimensions of the FFM appear to differentially relate to the major elements of spirituality but are nevertheless conceptually unique, pointing to the possible existence of major aspects of personality not represented in the FFM. [Source: ML]

Pfund, R. 2000. "Nurturing a Child's Spirituality."Journal of Child Health Care vol. 4, pp. 143-148.
Abstract: Nurturing a child's spirituality should be an integral part of holistic care., The concept of spirituality is linked to the child's cognitive, social, psycho-sexual and moral development., Knowledge of childhood spirituality can help to support children coping with traumatic life-events., The expression of beliefs and feelings that encompass spirituality can be facilitated through literature and music and through other strategies. Educators need to empower professionals to have the awareness, emotional resources and skills to ensure that they can be spiritually supportive. [Source: CI]

Batten, Michelle and Kevin Ann Oltjenbruns. 1999. "Adolescent Sibling Bereavement as a Catalyst for Spiritual Development: A Model for Understanding."Death Studies vol. 23, pp. 529-546.
Abstract: Contends that while the understanding of adolescent bereavement has greatly expanded in recent years, 1 area yet to be clarified is the relationship between grief following a significant loss and spirituality. The authors present a conceptual model explaining how developmental changes in cognitive capacity during the adolescent life stage make it possible to challenge one's beliefs and search for new meaning. It is argued that the crisis of experiencing the death of a sibling during this period has the potential, then, of serving as a catalyst for enhanced spirituality (defined as a quest for new meaning). Interviews with 4 adolescents following the death of a sibling add a more detailed understanding of that quest for meaning. Quotations drawn from these interviews illustrate these young persons' shifting perspective of self, others, the sibling relationship, a higher power, death, and life. [Source: PI]

Massey, Steven Duane. 1999. "A Study of the Relationship between Resilience and Spirituality among High Risk Youth." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: This study explored the relationship between resilience and spirituality among at-risk students attending three urban alternative high schools. Resilience was defined according to three domains: academic competence, social competence, and behavioral competence. Three means of measurement were used to assess these resilience domains. The first was a set of two rating systems completed by students—The Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliott, 1990) and the Self- Perception Profile for Adolescents (Harter, 1988). The second was a set of teacher ratings of students on the same resilience domains using the same instruments. The third was students' attendance records and California Achievement Test scores for the purpose of measuring academic performance only. Spirituality was defined as a positive sense of life purpose, a sense of one's life meaning, and a sense of hope for one's future. Spirituality was measured by the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (Palautzian & Ellison, 1991) and the Purpose in Life scale (Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1964). One hundred and thirty-nine students participated in this study and provided self-report information regarding their exposure to or experience of at-risk variables. Additionally, teachers rated students on the same resilience domains using the teacher portion of the same at-risk survey instrument. Quantitative data analysis was used to analyze and study the relationship between resilience and spirituality. Students' perception of their academic, social, and behavioral competence was found to be associated with spirituality. No relationships were found between belonging to a religious community and spirituality, and only a minimal relationship was found between being religious and spirituality. African American students appeared to be more spiritual than White American students. The relationship between resilience and spirituality was evident in a regression analysis where the competence variables served as the dependent variable and spirituality served as the independent variable and in a regression analysis where spirituality served as the dependent variable and the competence variables served as the independent variable. This study is the first to quantify the link between resilience and spirituality. These findings have important implications related to teacher training and professional development, school organizational structure, and pedagogy. [Source: DA]

Oetting, E. R. 1999. "Primary Socialization Theory. Developmental Stages, Spirituality, Government Institutions, Sensation Seeking, and Theoretical Implications. V." Substance Use & Misuse vol. 34, pp. 947-982.
Abstract: This fifth and final paper in the series on primary socialization theory includes discussion of issues raised by participants in a forum on the theory. The theory states that drug use and deviant behaviors occur as an outcome of bonding with primary socialization sources and the transmission of norms through those sources. Personal traits and secondary socialization sources influence drug use and deviance indirectly and! through their effects on the primary socialization process. Developmentally, the only primary socialization source for the preschool child is the family. In early grade school years, the primary socialization sources are the family and school. Peer clusters emerge as a primary socialization source later, with their greatest effect occurring during adolescence. Adults have varied primary socialization patterns. Levels of ego development among adults may alter the primary socialization process. Spirituality is defined, and its influence on drug use is discussed. Government institutions, such as the criminal justice system, welfare, and child protective services, are now included among secondary socialization sources; The fact that the general theory of primary socialization is not ethnocentric or temporocentric is discussed. Implications of the: theory for understanding existing or potential risk and protective factors for deviance, and for improving the effectiveness of prevention and treatment are discussed. [Source: SC]

Saunders, Gary Paul. 1999. "The Relationship of Spirituality to Adolescents' Responses to Loss." Thesis, Wisconsin School of Professional Psychology, Milwaukee.
Abstract: The relationship of spirituality to styles of reacting to major life events was explored. A total of 183 volunteer subjects ranging in age from 16 to 21 years old completed the Spiritual Orientation Inventory (SOI) and indicated their manner of reacting to major life losses as represented in achievement and affiliation scenarios on the Responses to Loss Questionnaire (RLQ). Factor analysis was used as a means of data reduction on the RLQ. A coefficient of correlation was calculated for composite scores for the Spiritual Orientation Inventory and each RLQ factor and unfactored items. Data were also analyzed by gender and the scenario themes of achievement and affiliation. Results suggested that adolescents who scored high in spirituality as measured by the SOI tended to be more likely to report healthy ways of coping with crisis situations by being proactive, hopeful, introspective, and undertaking mental, physical, and religious activity while not engaging in self-destructive behavior. Females who scored high in spirituality as measured by the SOI tended to report being proactive in their coping with crisis situations, particularly in achievement situations. Males who scored high in spirituality as measured by the SOI tended to report coping with affiliation crises through mental activity. [Source: PI]

Hackerman, Ann E. and Paul King. 1998. "Adolescent Spirituality: A Foundation for Recovery from Drug Dependency." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly vol. 16, p. 89.
Abstract: Examines the spiritual basis for the treatment of adolescents who are chemically dependent, while focusing on three concepts associate with the Alcoholics Anonymous Program as a recovery initiative. Evidence supporting spiritual decline; Characteristics of adolescents diagnosed with chemical abuse; Significance of spirituality in recovery; Effectiveness of the Alcoholics Anonymous Program. [Source: AS]

Horton, Darcy Ann. 1998. "Adolescent Daughters and the Impact and Meaning of the Loss of Their Mothers to Breast Cancer." Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, Palo Alto.
Abstract: This study explored the impact and meaning of the loss of one's mother to breast cancer as experienced by 8 ethnically diverse women, aged 28 to 53, who were 12- to 19- years-old when their mothers died. Multiple case study and feminist methodologies were used to investigate the impact on various areas of the participants' lives as well as any meaning they found in the experience. Findings indicated that maternal death is a profound event for adolescent daughters. Various patterns emerged in each of the areas studied. Regarding body, breasts, and sexuality, there was anxiety about developing breast cancer with either conscious awareness or latent presence. Regarding psychological development and functioning, there was premature autonomy and responsibility with either assumption of responsibility or acting out and struggle, and an underlying vulnerability or strength. Regarding spiritual and religious beliefs and practices, there was change in spiritual and religious orientation with disillusionment with God and organized religion and the development of personal spirituality. Regarding work, school, and career plans, choices in these areas were affected by mother's absence with choices as a way of identifying or pleasing mother and unfulfilled potential due to mother's absence. Regarding relationships with others, there was a lack of support for grieving within the immediate family with emotional and/or physical unavailability of the father, father's lack of communication with daughter about mother, deterioration of family as a unit, and grief support received from other females as well as heightened fear of loss of additional loved ones with fear of abandonment or intimacy and/or behavior that was overly controlling, protective or detached. Data on meaning revealed the unpredictable and transitory nature of life with awareness of the uncertainty and finiteness of life and the preciousness of each moment, plus a realignment of life's priorities with a focus on relationships and health. [Source: DA]

1997. The Spirituality of Young People. London: The Way Publications.

Jagers, Robert J., Paula Smith, Lynne Owens Mock, and Ebony Dill. 1997. "An Afrocultural Social Ethos: Component Orientations and Some Social Implications." Journal of Black Psychology vol. 23, pp. 328-343.
Abstract: Discusses the results of two studies exploring the component orientations of spirituality, affect, & communalism in an Afrocultural social ethos & their connections with pyschosocial functioning in inner-city African-American youth. In both studies, positive endorsement & moderate positive correlations among the orientations are expressed. Study 1 questionnaire data (N = 84 students in grades 5-6) indicate that an Afrocultural social ethos is predictive of more cooperative & competitive academic attitudes & lower levels of Machiavellianism. Spirituality emerges as a positive predictor of two academic attitudes. Study 2 questionnaire data (N = 77 students in grades 6-7) indicate that an Afrocultural ethos is predictive of empathy & a more altruistic view of human nature. At the level of orientations, affect is a unique predictor of these variables. Gender, rather than cultural ethos or orientations, is predictive of peer-rated prosocial behaviors. Discussion focuses on implications for future research on culture & the social development of African-American youth. [Source: SA]

Myers, Barbara Kimes. 1997. "Young Children and Spirituality." Chicago Theological Seminary Register vol. 87, pp. 52-53.

Navarro, Jay, Stan Wilson, Lawrence R. Berger, and Timothy Taylor. 1997. "Substance Abuse and Spirituality: A Program for Native American Students."American Journal of Health Behavior vol. 21, pp. 3-11.
Abstract: An innovative program to prevent substance abuse among Native American students, implemented at the Instit for American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, NM, emphasized traditional values, history, & spirituality to enhance self-esteem. It involved readings, classroom discussions, Native American ceremonies, & student projects. Among the issues that surfaced were concerns about identifying "legitimate" elders for ceremonies, extensive diversity among Native American youth, relative neglect in the literature of women's importance in tribal life, & both common & conflicting religious themes among different tribes. The program was evaluated via final exam essays & class discussion among 35 students. [Source: SA]

Crawford, Marisa L. and Graham M. Rossiter. 1996. "The Secular Spirituality of Youth: Implications for Religious Education." British Journal of Religious Educationvol. 18, pp. 133-143.

Emile, Br. 1996. "Our Pilgrimage with Young People."Ecumenism vol. 124, pp. 10-15.

Garrett, Michael Tlanusta. 1996. ""Two People": An American Indian Narrative of Bicultural Identity."Journal of American Indian Education vol. 36, pp. 1-21.
Abstract: A narrative drawn from an interview with a tribal elder from the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in NC is used to examine culture & identity conflicts faced by American Indian youth during the process of acculturation & to illustrate a model of bicultural identity development. The influence of informal education provided by the traditional Cherokee approach is evidenced in the five stages of bicultural identity formation: (1) personal identity, (2) choice, (3) denial/confusion, (4) appreciation, & (5) integration. At issue are the developmental contributions to of naming, extended family relations, traditional approaches to health, life lessons, individual choices, & spirituality in mending the rupture between two cultures. [Source: SA]

Dorsa, Deanna. 1995. "The Importance of Ritual to Children." Thesis, California Inst of Integral Studies.
Abstract: This examines theory and purposes of ritual throughout the life cycle, but especially in childhood. The religious function is stressed, along with the psychological or expressive, ideological or cultural, and social. 'Religion,' 'religious' and 'spiritual' are broadly defined as the sacred in relationship to time and space, as well as symbol and myth. Magic, play and art, as well as etiquette, are discussed as part of healthy ritualization as distinguished from pathological ritualism. Creating rituals with children as active participants requires attention to individual differences and stages of development. Rites of passage or transition--birth, initiation, marriage, death--are discussed as the circle of life. Youth, adolescence, puberty, sexuality, and gender are mentioned--particularly in relationship to initiation. Calendrical or seasonal rituals--ranging from daily mealtimes and bedtimes to yearly festivals--put the individual in context of a larger whole. Homecoming, good-bye, thanks, and storytelling--along with some theory of children's literature--are included. The role of domestic ritual is a focus and attitudes toward the feminine are involved. The traditional elements of ritual--including architecture, costumes, gifts, light, candles, incense, flowers, theater, drama, music, dance, sports, games--are outlined. Special attention is given to food as an element of ritual--because of its symbolic importance in childhood and the prevalence of eating disorders in this culture. Meaningful rituals contribute to bonding of the individual with both the community and the cosmos. Benefits include reverence and respect for the interdependence of all including multicultural concerns and appreciation for nature and ecology. Likewise, many of the crises of modern societies are partly the result of secularization and deritualization. The foresight of ritual is compared to the hindsight of therapy. Other definitions include ceremony, celebration, worship, holiday, and li [Source: PI]

Mize, Anne Brownson. 1995. "Children's Spirituality and Nature: In Their Words." Thesis, The Union Institute, Cincinnati.
Abstract: The development of spirituality in children is positively impacted by their experiences of the natural world. Research is based on 68 interviews with children and adolescents, ages 7-18, all conducted in outdoor settings. Aspects of the children's spirituality commonly mentioned are play, beauty, freedom and interconnectedness. The interview material is divided into subject areas. These are: (1) children's spirituality as impacted by nature; (2) children's self-esteem as influenced by nature; (3) the affect of being outdoors on children's relationships. Within area (1), children's attitudes toward God and their experiences of God in nature are explored. There were marked differences in children's concepts of spirituality by age group. The younger ones, ages 7-10, described their experience of God (or gods, Earth mother, ghosts), but could not articulate concepts of spirituality. The middle group, ages 11-13, had ideas about spirituality but expressed them with difficulty. The adolescent group, ages 14-18, spoke easily about spirituality and their own spiritual lives. All groups reported their experiences of God and/or spirituality in nature. In area (2) all groups of respondents answered questions about nature's effect on their feelings about themselves. The majority of respondents of all ages reported they felt better about themselves while in nature. Some used the word healing to describe their experiences. Some felt no different about themselves in nature. In area (3) all groups answered questions on the effects being outdoors had on their relationships. A small majority of respondents of all ages said that their relationships were ped by being in nature together. Having deeper talks with their families, working out personal problems with their friends, sharing survival experiences were some of the positive aspects of sharing nature. For some, being outdoors with others was no different than being at home. Others said they preferred to be i [Source: PI]

Venable, Stephen F. 1995. "Mountain Cathedrals: An Exploratory Study of Spiritual Growth in Teen-Agers through Backpacking." Thesis, Asbury Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This dissertation examined spiritual growth of teens using a backpacking trip with a rite of passage. Eight youth--five males, three females--and four adults participated in a five-day trip. The spiritual well-being scale was given as a pre-test and four- and twelve-week post-test. Each teen kept a journal. Females grew more than males. Teens without a parent involved grew more than those with a parent participating. The Religious Well-Being means rose each testing. The Existential Well-Being means rose at four weeks, then fell below pre-test mean at twelve weeks. The rite of passage was rated as the greatest contributor to spiritual growth. [Source: RI]

Cervantes, Joseph M. and Oscar Ramirez. 1992. "Spirituality and Family Dynamics in Psychotherapy with Latino Children." Pp. 103-128 in Working with Culture: Psychotherapeutic Interventions with Ethnic Minority Children and Adolescents. The Jossey Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series, edited by Luis A. Vargas and Joan D. Koss-Chioino. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc, Publishers.
Abstract: (from the chapter) suggested . . . that spirituality can be used to form a strong therapeutic consciousness in the treatment of Mexican American families view family therapy as a natural method with which to integrate spirituality, given its theoretical roots of system balance, family focus, and familial intervention conceptual view of Mestizo spirituality and family therapy the role of the philosophy of curanderismo Presents case illustrations of three males aged 15, 12 and 10, a 17-year-old female and her parents, an 8-year-old male and his mother, and three siblings aged 12, 13, and 15 and their parents. [Source: PI]

Elliott, Karen. 1992. "Adolescent Spirituality: Razzle Dazzle or Rock Solid." Liturgical Ministry vol. 1, pp. 65-67.

O'Malley, W. J. 1992. "The Grail Quest: Male Spirituality." America vol. 5, p. 402.
Abstract: Looks at masculine and feminine differences and suggests ways in which the church could function as a rite of passage to manhood for adolescent boys. What the Catholic ministry can do to save the Christian male's spirituality from atrophy; Male and female aspects of God and the church. [Source: AS]

Rodriguez Rasmussen, Olga. 1992. "A Salesian High School Curriculum Using Groome's Shared Praxis."Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The theses of this project were to develop a high school curriculum to preserve Salesian spirituality, and that Thomas Groome's method of shared praxis is an appropriate pedagogy for teaching youth and engaging them in dialogue with Salesian spirituality. Volume 1 is a narrative description of the project, volume 2 the curriculum. A high school curriculum was developed using Groome's method of shared Christian praxis to pass on the spirituality of the Order of Visitation. The curriculum was field-tested by two Visitation schools and deemed successful. It is the first phase of a long-range project dedicated to preserving Salesian spirituality. [Source: RI]

Lealman, Brenda. 1991. "Young People, Spirituality, and the Future." Religious Education vol. 86, pp. 265-274.

Lamport, Mark A. 1990. "Adolescent Spirituality: Age of Conversion and Factors of Development." Christian Education Journal pp. 17-30.

Cohen, Erik, Nachman Ben Yehuda, and Janet Aviad. 1987. "Recentering the World: The Quest for 'Elective' Centers in a Secularized Universe." Sociological Reviewvol. 35, pp. 320-346.
Abstract: The various quests for meaning of contemporary Western youths are interpreted as so many attempts to "recenter the world" around new "elective centers." Rather than being centers of the contemporary world into which the individual is born, such centers are located outside it, & freely chosen by the seekers. Four such elective centers are discussed: (1) traditional religious conversion, (2) the occult, (3) science fiction, & (4) tourism. Each of these elective centers is briefly described & then analyzed in a comparative framework, focused on six principal issues: (A) the social & cultural conditions that engender the contemporary quest for a center; (B) the nature of elective centers; (C) mechanisms of election & rejection of alternative elective centers; (D) extent of involvement with elective centers; (E) elective centers & the wider social framework; & (F) the institution-building potential of the elective centers. [Source: SA]

Fulton, Robert and Greg Owen. 1987. "Death and Society in Twentieth Century America." Omega: Journal of Death and Dying vol. 18, pp. 379-395.
Abstract: Suggests that American attitudes toward death have changed markedly during this century. This transformation is illustrated through an examination of 2 age groups: those born prior to the advent of the atomic bomb and those born into the nuclear age. Each cohort contended with different patterns of environment and sociohistorical experiences and had differential life expectancies. It is suggested that images of death have changed significantly over this time span partially because of the pervasive influence of TV and overall growth in the importance of media. It is within this context that America's youth express their fears and frustrations in music, drugs, violence, and vicarious death experiences. Rising interest in spirituality and the increase in suicide among adolescents should be regarded as symptoms of despair in an impersonal and threatened world. [Source: PI]

Dienelt, Karl. 1984. "The Quest for Meaning among Today's Youth." International Forum for Logotherapy vol. 7, pp. 89-95.
Abstract: Contends that the present age is one of existential frustration--the unfulfilled claim to a meaningful life. Meaning must be discovered; it cannot be arbitrarily given. In logotherapy, religion is a phenomenon seen as an all-embracing faith in meaning. Cults, drugs, and alternative lifestyles (including those based on political solutions) may be embraced by youth because they find meanings given. It is suggested that youth need tasks to discover meaning and models who have discovered meaning. The present author argues with V. Frankl (1972-1981) that the mass media and political and religious circles must address this extreme spiritual distress and change it to active optimism. [Source: PI]

McCarthy, Edward Joseph. 1979. "Youth Spirituality: An Exploratory Model." D.Min. Thesis, School of Theology At Claremont.

Pittenger, William Norman. 1972. "Return to "Spirituality"?" Religion in Life pp. 311-316.

Keary, Dermot M. 1968. "Adolescent Spirituality."Religious Education vol. 63, pp. 376-383.