Sexual Attitudes

Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege. 2001. "Family and Peer Influences on Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors in Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males." Dr.P.H. Thesis, Loma Linda University.
Abstract: In California, pregnancy is one of the most important social problems in adolescence. Although, the teenage pregnancy rate has been decreasing since 1991, the number of babies fathered by males younger than 20 years remains high due to frequent sexual involvement, particularly in Black and Hispanic youths. A total of 178 adolescent males, 88 Blacks and 90 Hispanics, aged 13 to 19 years were selected from a database of a 1996 Youth Survey conducted as part of the local needs assessment in neighborhoods with high rates of teen pregnancy in San Bernardino County, California. The purpose of this study was to assess the sexual attitudes and behaviors, and to investigate the relationships of family and peer factors and the dimensions of the expanded Health Belief Model with sexual involvement in the study population. Nearly 67% of the sample were sexually experienced. Of them, 71% were Blacks and 63% were Hispanics. Approximately, 36% of Blacks and 33% of Hispanics reported being sexually experienced by age 13 years. Almost 43% of Blacks and 40% of Hispanics reported that they had sexual intercourse during the month preceding the survey. Both Black and Hispanic adolescent males who had been sexually experienced reported a strong belief that sexual intercourse validates masculinity and increases a closeness to a girlfriend. Findings from the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that, as exposure to the family and peer risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of sexual involvement in both Black and Hispanic respondents. Black adolescent males were more likely to be influenced by having a father who had been a teen dad (OR = 2.8), whereas Hispanics were more likely to be influenced by having a sibling who had been a teen parent (OR = 9.8). Black and Hispanic respondents who perceived peer pressure as a reason to engage in sexual behaviors were twice as likely to engage in sexual behavior themselves, when compared with those who were not influenced by their peers. Two dimensions of the expanded Health Belief Model, perceived benefits of sexual intercourse and perceived self-efficacy of refusing sexual intercourse predicted sexual involvement in both ethnic groups. Results of this study can be used to design comprehensive health education and social programs that involve parents, youths, siblings, peers, church leaders, community groups, and school teachers. These programs should be culturally appropriate in order to help Black and Hispanic teens take control over their sexual behaviors. Recommendations include a longitudinal design to explore the factors that influence some adolescent males abstain from engaging in sexual behaviors until a later age. [Source: DA]

Belgrave, F. Z., B. Van Oss Marin, and D. B. Chambers. 2000. "Cultural, Contextual, and Intrapersonal Predictors of Risky Sexual Attitudes among Urban African American Girls in Early Adolescence." Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology vol. 6, pp. 309-322.
Abstract: The role of cultural factors in explaining sexual attitudes among African American urban girls, aged 10-13 years, was investigated in this study. The authors predicted that girls with higher school interest, family cohesion, religiosity, and behavioral self-esteem would endorse less risky sexual attitudes. Also, older girls were expected to have more risky sexual attitudes than younger girls, and girls from 1- rather than 2-parent households were expected to have more risky sexual attitudes. The authors hypothesized that ethnic identity and gender role orientations would contribute to explaining variability in sexual attitudes after controlling for contextual and intrapersonal variables. A questionnaire containing measures of the study constructs was administered to 214 girls who were participants in a substance abuse prevention program. Pretest data were used in analyses. A final regression model accounted for 23% of the variance in sexual attitudes. Age and behavioral self-esteem were significant predictors, with younger teens and teens with higher behavioral self-esteem having less risky sexual attitudes. Cultural variables contributed to explaining variation in sexual attitudes after other variables were controlled for. Higher levels of ethnic identity were associated with less risky sexual attitudes. A masculine gender role orientation was associated with more risky sexual attitudes. [Source: ML]

Boggess, S. and C. Bradner. 2000. "Trends in Adolescent Males' Abortion Attitudes, 1988-1995: Differences by Race and Ethnicity." Family Planning Perspectives vol. 32, pp. 118-123.
Abstract: Context: Studying how adolescent males view abortion and how their attitudes toward abortion have changed over time can improve our understanding of the sexual, contraceptive and abortion behavior of these males and their partners. Methods: Data from the 1988 and 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males are used to describe changes in young males' attitudes toward abortion over time, as well as differences in abortion attitudes by race and ethnicity Multivariate models are used to examine the relationship between religiosity and abortion attitudes. Results: Between 1988 and 1995, young males' approval of abortion decreased significantly In 1995. 24% of U.S. males aged 15-19 agreed that it was all right fora women to have an abortion "for any reason," down from 37% in 1988. This decrease was driven almost entirely by non-Hispanic white males; there was little change in the abortion attitudes of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. The decrease in white males' approval of abortion coincides with a significant increase in the self-reported importance of religion and in the proportion of whites who identified themselves as born-again Christians. The proportion of non-Hispanic white males indicating that religion was very important increased from 28% in 1988 to 34% in 1995, while the proportion identifying themselves as born- again increased from 18% to 24%. Multivariate analyses indicate that religiosity was more strongly related to the abortion attitudes of non-Hispanic whites than to those of Hispanics or non-Hispanic blacks. Conclusions: The large decrease in approval of abortion among white teenage males has closed the racial and ethnic gap in attitudes toward abortion that was evident in 1988, when such youth held significantly more liberal attitudes toward abortion than did either Hispanics or blacks. This trend toward more conservative abortion-related attitudes among whites coincides with increasingly conservative attitudes regarding premarital sex and greater religiosity among white male adolescents. [Source: SC]

Kopacz, Joseph Richard. 2000. "Impact of a Catholic Human Development Curriculum on the Sexual Intentions of Early Adolescents: An Application and Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior." Ph.D. Thesis, Marywood University.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of a Catholic Human Development curriculum on intention toward sexual abstinence of female and male 8th-grade students in eight Catholic schools in the Diocese of Scranton in Northeastern PA. A Mixed Model ANOVA investigated the difference in intention toward sexual abstinence between those in the treatment group (N = 85) and those in the control group (N = 91), along with the effect of gender on sexual intention. In addition, an application and extension of Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior provided the framework for investigating the relationships among the predictor variables of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and an added religiosity variable, upon intention toward sexual abstinence, the criterion variable. A Multiple Regression was utilized to examine these relationships in the combined treatment and control groups (N = 178). Data were gathered at pretest prior to the onset of the curriculum and at posttest at its conclusion from subscale scores of the Youth Survey Instrument of the Institute for Research and Evaluation in Salt Lake City. Results of the study indicated that there was not a significant difference on sexual intention between students in the control and treatment groups, but there was a significant gender effect. In addition, there was a significant multiple correlation upon sexual intention, and the addition of the religiosity variable to the Theory of Planned Behavior significantly increased the proportion of the variance on intention beyond that accounted for by the theory's original variables. [Source: DA]

Smith, Tamie L. 2000. "Pre-Teen and Early Adolescent African American Girls' Attitudes toward Teen Sexual Behavior and Pregnancy." Ph.D. Thesis, Howard University.
Abstract: Within the body of literature on the attitudes and perceptions of teenage sexual behavior and pregnancy, there is a paucity of empirical data on pre-teen and early adolescent African American girls from high risk communities. This study contributed to closing the gap by providing both quantitative and qualitative data on a sample of girls' sexual attitudes and perceptions as they relate to a variety of factors. A survey method was used for the quantitative portion of the study which consisted of 197 pre-teenaged African American girls from a socially and economically disadvantaged community in Washington, D.C. Step-wise regression analyses were used to build a model from four variables, family closeness, degree of peer pressure and peer intimacy, and frequency of church attendance in order to predict the age the girls perceived acceptable for becoming sexually active and the age perceived acceptable for bearing a child. Partial support of the hypothesized model was found. The outcome variables frequency of church attendance, and peer intimacy in an inverse direction, were the only variables that predicted the age the girls' perceived acceptable for becoming sexually active. Peer intimacy alone inversely predicted the age perceived acceptable to have a baby. A logistic regression analysis was applied to the four predictor variables to determine their relationship to persons whom girls would involve in determining their readiness to become sexually active. Family closeness was unexpectedly found to predict the boyfriend as the person who would be involved in the determination of the girls' sexual readiness. Frequency data were reported from other single item questions that elicited the girls' attitudes and opinions on a variety of issues related to teen sexual behavior and pregnancy. The qualitative data were collected from interviews of a sample of 23 girls who participated in the quantitative study. The interviews elicited the girls' attitudes, beliefs and perceptions about a variety of topics and themes related to teenage sexual dynamics, pregnancy and contraception. Related topics were reported including the quality of life in the girls' communities, their attitudes toward school, the nature and quality of family and peer relationships, and the role of religion in their lives. Three theoretical frameworks were utilized in this study: (1) family systems, (2) the relational model of female development, and (3) Erikson's (1963) theory of psychosocial development. Implications for professional practice and education are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered. [Source: DA]

Donnelly, J., C. Eadie, G. Denny, and E. S. Goldfarb. 1999. "Abstinence Attitudes and Behaviors in Peer Educators: Risk and Protective Factors." International Electronic Journal of Health Education vol. 2, pp. 138-143.
Abstract: The following article describes an examination of data produced by Project H. O. P. E., a New Jersey based state-wide peer counseling group, that examined the correlation among attitude toward sexual abstinence, intent to remain abstinent, and sexual activity and a number of variables including gender, attendance of religious services, self-esteem, age, communication with family about sexual activity, and knowledge regarding sexuality. The state wide sample (n=316) of peer counselors ranged in age from thirteen to eighteen. Significant findings at p<0.01 were that attitude towards abstinence correlated with gender, self-esteem, and religious attendance. Intent to remain abstinent was correlated with gender, grade level, self-esteem, and religious attendance. Sexual activity was correlated with grade level and religious attendance. These findings reflect the attitudes, behaviors and perceptions of a group of self-selected peer educators. [Source: CI]

Donnelly, Joseph, David F. Duncan, Eva Goldfarb, and Carolyn Eadie. 1999. "Sexuality Attitudes and Behaviors of Self-Described Very Religious Urban Students in Middle School." Psychological Reports vol. 85, pp. 607-610.
Abstract: Data from a survey of 869 students aged 11-15 yrs and attending 6 urban middle schools were analyzed to identify differences in sex attitudes and behaviors between self-reported very religious students and their less religious peers. The two groups were demographically similar. They differed on only two attitude items, one suggesting that intercourse was a normal part of teenage dating and the other suggesting intercourse was alright if the two people were in love. The groups did not differ in their estimation of their peers' sexual activity or attitude or in terms of their own intercourse behavior or future intentions. Results do not support the view that the problem of excess teenage pregnancies is the result of loss of religious faith, or that religious instruction is a means to promote sexual abstinence and prevent teen pregnancies. [Source: PI]

Spear, Hila J. 1998. "Teenage Pregnancy: The Experiences of Adolescent Females Who Attend an Alternative School." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
Abstract: Teenage pregnancy is considered to be a major social and community health problem. One out of ten adolescent girls in the United States experiences pregnancy (Trussel 1990; Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1994). During adolescence, pregnancy impacts the physiological, psychological, and sociological health status of females. Moreover, pregnancy can have long-term physical, psychological, educational, and occupational effects on female adolescents as they move toward adulthood (Santelli & Kirby, 1992; Trad, 1994). The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of pregnant adolescent females. More specifically, the individual adolescent's perceptions and personal perspectives related to the experience of pregnancy were studied. A naturalistic design was used. A purposive sample of participants was solicited from an alternative school program for pregnant teens. The primary data collection method was the use of in-depth interviewing. Other data included field notes and demographic information. In addition, the researcher became a participant observer at the alternative school and observed and interacted with the participants and other students. Peer auditing and debriefing were important components of the analysis process. Intense analysis of cases extracted from the narrative data revealed the following topical categories: (1) decision-making, (2) contraceptive behavior and sexual attitudes, (3) attitudes of self and others about pregnancy, (4) interpersonal relationships, (5) self-perception, (6) fears, (7) personal change, (8) responsibility, and (9) future expectations. In addition, broader themes, characteristic of the participants' experiences as a whole, were identified and developed. Themes included fantasy thinking, religion and fate, propensity for violence, fragmentation of pregnancy, parenting, and marriage, and to be nurtured and to nurture. The findings indicated that the participants viewed pregnancy as a challenging yet fairly normative event. Decisions regarding what to do about their pregnancies were made with relatively little deliberation and influenced primarily by their mothers. All participants opted to continue with their pregnancies and planned to parent. Overall, pregnancy was perceived by the participants as an event that would have little long-term impact on their lives. They expressed a sense of hopefulness and confidence in their futures related to their abilities to manage parenthood, achieve educational goals, and maintain supportive interpersonal relationships with the fathers of their babies and families. [Source: PI]

Werner Wilson, Ronald Jay. 1998. "Gender Differences in Adolescent Sexual Attitudes: The Influence of Individual and Family Factors." Adolescence vol. 33, pp. 519-531.
Abstract: Examined multiple influences on adolescent sexuality, focusing on sexual attitudes because of their influence on sexual behavior. Empirical analyses were based on a nonrandom availability sample of 1,587 public high school students (aged 14-19 yrs) and 1,372 parents. Multiple regression analyses were conducted in 3 phases to elaborate models for adolescent attitudes about premarital sexual intercourse; separate models were developed for females and males. First a regression model was developed that featured individual adolescent characteristics (e.g., age, gender, locus of control, self-esteem, and religious participation) as predictor variables. A 2nd regression model was developed that included family characteristics (e.g., number of siblings, number of parents at home, communication with mother and father, family strengths, parent contribution to sexuality education, parental discussion of sexual values, and the sexual attitudes of mother and father. The integrated model had more explanatory power than separate models. Females were influenced by more family factors and males were influenced by more individual factors. [Source: PI]

Macbeth, David Michael. 1997. "Risk Factors Associated with Early Adolescent Sexual Values and Behaviors."Ph.D. Thesis, Utah State University.
Abstract: Adolescent sexual activity and subsequent pregnancy are an increasing dilemma facing American society. There appears to be an increase in the incidence of casual sexual activity among adolescents that leads to over 50% of students between grades 9 and 12 having been involved in sexual intercourse. This study examines changes in adolescent sexual attitudes, behaviors, and values in a select population over a 2-year time span. A survey of 548 families with adolescents was used to determine the impact of the Facts and Feelings home-based sexual abstinence program on mean scores for academic aspirations, academic achievement, sexual knowledge, the intention to have intercourse, sexual behavior, religiosity, mother approachability, father approachability, frequency of parental communication, sexual abstinence skills, friends', approval of premarital sex, value against sex prior to marriage, risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease, sex being acceptable in relationships, adolescent's values match parent's values, parents approve of premarital sex, and adolescent's rating of physical maturity. The sample was randomly split into equal size experimental and control groups. The treatment materials were given to the experimental group following a baseline measurement, and the control group received the materials after the study was completed 2 years later. Data were collected at four time intervals: pretest, 3-month posttest, 1-year posttest, and 2-year posttest. Dependent variables were identified from previous research as possible antecedents to early sexual activity. The youth studied were in the sixth and seventh grades, and were generally sexually abstinent throughout the study. Hypotheses were related to gender, group membership, and the interaction of these variables over time. A majority of the significant findings came in the hypotheses regarding gender. There were limited findings in the hypothesis that dealt with group membership, group membership by gender, and the interaction effects of gender by group over time. Most of the treatment effects were time limited and not maintained for long periods of time following the treatment. There was evidence that the Facts and Feeling materials used in the study were beneficial in changing behavior, values, and attitudes regarding teenage abstinence for a short time immediately following the treatment period. [Source: PI]

Metcalf Whittaker, Marilyn. 1996. "Adolescent Attitudes Towards Parental Sex Roles, Family Size, and Birth Control." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of North Carolina At Chapel Hill.
Abstract: This project is a secondary analysis of survey data collected by researchers at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research. The study seeks to discover the effects of interactions among respondents' demographic characteristics, religious affiliations, academic aspirations, and family characteristics on their attitudes towards parental sex roles, desired number of children, and attitudes towards birth control issues. In addition, the effects of having had sex education or birth control education on attitudes towards birth control issues will be assessed. [Source: DA]

Beitz, Janice Marian. 1995. "Social and Educational Factors Affecting Sex Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Students." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University, Philadelphia.
Abstract: Adolescent sexual risk behaviors are a national health issue as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have spread in the American population. Social cognitive theory suggests that social and educational factors influence these behaviors. Previous research has found equivocal results in certain factors' relationships to and their interactive effect on sexuality. Earlier sex behavior's effect on current cognition has not been well examined. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, psychosocial, and educational variables related to sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of college students. The study addressed the following questions: What are the individual and interactive effects of number of sources and intensity of formal sex education, performance self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, and religiosity on sex variables? Does gender affect these independent variables? How does gender and/or age of first coitus affect selected sex variables? Measures of the independent variables and sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered. Subjects were 200 full-time college students, aged 17 to 25 years old, enrolled in two large urban universities and a community college. For the independent variables, correlation analyses indicated that formal sex education, parent-adolescent communication, and religiosity were significantly but very weakly related to sex attitudes. No other intercorrelations were significant. Simple multiple regression demonstrated that the variables taken together explained negligible variance in sex behaviors. Gender generated differences in the independent variables. Independent t-tests indicated that males scored significantly lower than females in parent-adolescent communication with mother, social self-esteem, and religiosity. For age of first coitus and gender, a one-way analysis of variance indicated that males had significantly more liberal sex attitudes than females. Subjects with earlier first coitus had significantly more liberal sex attitudes and greater STDs. No interactions were significant. Age of first coitus itself was examined. Independent t-tests demonstrated that subjects with earlier first coitus had significantly less sex knowledge, more liberal sex attitudes, and greater risk behaviors. Results suggested that first coitus age and gender affected sexuality differentially. Recommendations were made for educational and health care practice and further research. [Source: DA]

Heinrichs, Glenn Allen. 1995. "Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: The Effects of Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religiosity." Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary, School of Psychology.
Abstract: This study examined the relationship of intrinsic/extrinsic (I/E) religiosity in adolescents as related to sexual behaviors and attitudes. Specifically, the Intrinsic/Extrinsic Measure of Religious Beliefs-revised (Gorsuch & McPherson, 1989) was used in conjunction with a self-report measure of adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors (McCabe & Collins, 1983). Additionally, several other variables, gender, sexual-self, significant religious experiences, and age were investigated to determine their impact on the relationship of I/E and church attendance with sexual behavior and attitudes. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed a significant negative relationship between both the Intrinsic and Extrinsic religious orientations and the sexual attitudes and behaviors of the adolescent population studied. Furthermore, these findings were significant even when attendance at religious services was partialled out. A secondary hypothesis was confirmed regarding gender differences as an additional variable describing adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. There were no significant relationships found for other demographic variables. The results suggest that Intrinsic religiosity is a significant negatively correlated variable when looking at adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior regardless of gender or other variables. Implications for further research are discussed. [Source: PI]

Lock, Sharon E. and Murray L. Vincent. 1995. "Sexual Decision-Making among Rural Adolescent Females."Health Values: The Journal of Health Behavior, Education and Promotion vol. 19, pp. 47-58.
Abstract: Analyzed data from the South Carolina School/Community Program for Sexual Risk Reduction Among Teens to determine direct and indirect effects of demographic and psychosocial factors on female adolescents' decisions to engage or not engage in premarital sexual intercourse. 564 predominantly Black adolescent girls (aged 12-29 yrs) completed the Adolescent Curriculum Evaluation Questionnaire. The Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior provided a framework to explain the interrelationships among the variables. Age, family structure, peer influence, commitment to partner, and sexual attitudes had direct effects on premarital sexual intercourse. Race, religiosity, sex role attitude, reproductive knowledge, and parent-adolescent communication had indirect effects on premarital sexual intercourse. [Source: PI]

Sivewright, Gary Michael. 1995. "Influencing Factors on the Sexual Mores of Nazarene Teenagers in the United States." Ed.D. Thesis, Peabody College For Teachers of Vanderbilt University, Nashville.
Abstract: Evangelical churches care about the future of their youth. In February of 1987, Seventeen magazine surveyed teens by randomly selecting 1,100 girls and 1,400 boys ages 13 to 19. More than 900 responded. Of the respondents, 37% of the girls and 46% of the boys claimed to have had sexual intercourse. Church leaders seek to discover where teenagers obtain their information about sexuality, what or whom influences them, and whether teens under the influence of Nazarene churches respond any differently than teens basically unchurched. In 1987, the Barna Research Group of Glendale, California, conducted a survey of evangelical churches, asking for the influences that determine the sexual mores of their teenagers. My study replicates the Barna survey for the Church of the Nazarene only and tried to determine the influencing factors on sexual mores of teens surveyed, in order to ascertain if some influences effect teens more than others and how Nazarene Church leaders should respond. I asked a random sampling of Nazarene youth groups to respond to a survey similar to the Barna (1987) survey, except that I sought more details concerning why teens feel the way they do. through their answers, I determined the following: (1) What is the frequency of infLuential activities by Nazarene teens? (2) What sexual behaviors do Nazarene teens participate in and to what extent? (3) What comparisons can be made between the sexual behavior for youth of the Church of the Nazarene and their sexual influences? [Source: PI]

Ashbourne, Daniel Terrence. 1994. "Adolescent Pre-Pregnancy Decision-Making: Attitudes and Behavioral Intention Relationships." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Guelph (Canada).
Abstract: This thesis investigates adolescents' prepregnancy attitudes and behavioral intentions concerning alternative responses to an unplanned pregnancy. An integrated model with five components (perceived attitudes of others, level of religion, future aspirations, role modelling and dating experience) examined the complex relationships in prepregnancy decision-making for 1377 male and female adolescents. Structural equation modelling with maximum likelihood estimation as implemented with LISREL VII (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1989) was used for the analyses. This new integrated model expands upon Brazzell and Acock's (1988) model of abortion intentions by including adolescents' attitudes about abortion, adoption and parenting and their perceptions of significant others' attitudes towards abortion and adoption. It also eliminates the typical isolated examination of one intention and attitudes about that same option. The study examined three behavioral intentions (abortion, adoption and parenting) using the new integrated model. The model explained more of the variance regarding each behavioral intention than did that of Brazzell and Acock. Several gender differences were found, particularly for the component referring to perceived attitudes of others. Female adolescents were affected more by their perceptions of others' attitudes around them than were males. Another significant gender difference occurred with adoption analyses. The combined attitudes about the options for males, but not females were related to the behavioral intention to place for adoption. The central relationships between attitudes and intentions were significant for males and females in abortion and parenting analyses. Adoption intentions are more difficult to explain, and it is speculated that adoption may actually be a default option for some adolescents who are unable to raise the children or consider abortion as an option. The benefits of using the integrated model for studying prepregnancy decision-making are outlined, along with strengths, weaknesses, potential areas for refinement of the model and further research possibilities. Implications for pregnancy counselling are also considered. [Source: DA]

Bartle, Nathalie Akin Vanderpool. 1994. "The Spoken and Unspoken Word: Ways in Which Mothers and Adolescent Daughters Communicate About Issues of Sexuality." Ed.D. Thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge.
Abstract: In this study, I explored ways in which black and white mothers and adolescent daughters from different social settings and cultural groups communicate about sexuality. I also examined how their interactions may influence daughters' decisions related to sexual behavior. This research is framed by the theoretical perspective on female development that female identity is integrated with relationship. Daughters continue an important connection with their mothers during adolescence even as they begin to differentiate their identities from their mothers (Chodrow, 1974, Gilligan, 1977, 1982; Miller, 1976). I addressed issues that are pivotal for building on and expanding this theoretical framework. Building on previous research that mothers and adolescent daughters do communicate about sexual issues (Fisher, 1986a; Fox & Inazu, 1980; Hepburn, 1983), I administered a brief questionnaire to groups of young adolescent girls and their mothers in two school settings--an urban public high school and a suburban private coed secondary school. From this pool I selected mother-daughter pairs for individual interviews and for participation in focus groups. The interview respondents included six black and five white mother-daughter dyads affiliated with the public school and five black and seven white mother-daughter pairs from the private school. Methods used to analyze the data obtained included: (a) content coding, where specific features were clustered into matrices and themes were constructed; (b) the Reading Guide (Brown et al., 1988), which complemented the content coding strategy; and (c) quantitative analyses of the mother-daughter questionnaires focusing on openness and problems in communication. These three methods allowed me to present descriptive analyses of communication patterns mothers and adolescent daughters reported they experienced in addressing sexual issues and permitted an in-depth analysis for capturing essential elements of meaning from the qualitative data. The triangulation of these different methods supported an integrated data analysis and contributed to the offset of biases of any one particular method. Results demonstrated that mothers and daughters are communicating about sexual topics. They speak explicitly about most issues, although the pleasurable aspects of sex are rarely addressed. Both parties acknowledge difficulty in communicating about sex, and as daughters reach mid-adolescence and become interested in sexual activity, communication is less frequent. A number of factors influence the communication process including: developmental age of daughters, mothers' education, mother-daughter relationships, income level, cultural values, family structure and religious beliefs. Daughters' knowledge of sexual issues is broad. Mothers do influence daughters' knowledge, attitudes and decisions about becoming sexually active and about contraceptive use. However, daughters generally make decisions about their sexual behavior without communicating explicitly with their mothers. At a time when concerns are escalating about the sexual behavior of youth, this study provides valuable insights into ways sexual knowledge and values are transmitted between mothers and daughters in various racial and cultural groups. [Source: DA]

Halpern, Carolyn Tucker, J. Richard Udry, Benjamin Campbell, Chirayath Suchindran, and George Mason. 1994. "Testosterone and Religiosity as Predictors of Sexual Attitudes and Activity among Adolescent Males: A Biosocial Model." Journal of Biosocial Science vol. 26, pp. 217-234.
Abstract: Examined a biosocial model of the effects of early adolescent testosterone levels and religiosity on adolescent males' sexual attitudes and activity over a 3-yr period. Using panel data for 100 boys (aged 12.5-23 yrs old at study entry), significant effects of free testosterone and frequency of attendance at religious services were demonstrated on the transition to 1st intercourse and other aspects of sexual behavior and attitudes. Ss with higher testosterone levels at study entry who never or infrequently attended religious services were the most sexually active and had the most permissive attitudes. Ss with lower free testosterone who attended services once a week or more were the least active and reported the least permissive attitudes. For attitude, ideation, and motivation measures, group differences became less distinct as the boys aged. [Source: PI]

Bryan, Janice W. and Florence W. Freed. 1993. "Abortion Research: Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Problems in a Community College Population." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 1-22.
Abstract: 80 female and 70 male undergraduates (aged 18-49 yrs) completed surveys regarding their attitudes toward abortion, their sexual behavior, and their past and current problems. Although 70% of Ss were raised Catholic, 82% supported abortion choice. 86% of Ss had engaged in premarital sex, 70% of Ss used contraception, and 26% of the women had had premarital pregnancies. Compared with pro-abortion Ss, anti-abortion Ss had more religiosity, believed that abortion was murder, were more punitive toward the woman and medical personnel involved, were less sexually active, and were less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many Ss had a history of and were currently experiencing serious problems, especially the women. [Source: PI]

Marsiglio, William and Constance L. Shehand. 1993. "Adolescent Males' Abortion Attitudes: Data from a National Survey." Family Planning Perspectives vol. 25, pp. 162-169.
Abstract: Roughly 13% of a nationally representative sample of 1,800 males ages 15-19 approved of abortion in each of 8 circumstances presented to them, while about 4% disapproved in every instance. The proportions agreeing that abortion is acceptable ranged as high as 85%-90% if the pregnancy endangers the woman's health or results from rape. Any type of religious affiliation, especially religious fundamentalism, was related to weaker support for abortion; an even stronger correlate of abortion attitudes was the importance of religion to the respondent (R). Abortion attitudes varied little by race after social background factors were controlled. Rs with more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex & Rs who perceived that they would be upset if they became a father in the immediate future were particularly likely to express acceptance of abortion. Roughly 61% of Rs did not feel that a woman should have an abortion if her partner objects, indicating a possible gender conflict of interest over the abortion issue. [Source: SA]

Sheeran, Paschal, Dominic Abrams, Charles Abraham, and Russell Spears. 1993. "Religiosity and Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behaviour: An Empirical Study of Conceptual Issues." European Journal of Social Psychology vol. 23, pp. 39-52.
Abstract: Surveyed 527 adolescents (aged 15-20 yrs) concerning the associations between 6 models of religiosity (religious upbringing, denominational affiliation, ritual/behavioral, self-attitude/self-schema, and salience of religious identity) and personal sexual standards, attitudes toward sexually active others, virginal status, anticipation of sexual intercourse, and frequency of both coitus and noncoital sexual experiences over the previous year. A negative relationship between religiosity and a number of sexual attitudes and behaviors was observed, though nonsignificant relationships in the case of sexual experiences without intercourse suggested the maintenance of a technical virginity to accord with religious precepts. Results support models that implicate self-conception either in terms of self-attitudes/self-schemas or the salience of religious identity. [Source: PI]

Langer, L. M., R. S. Zimmerman, and R. McNeal. 1992. "Explaining the Association of Race and Ethnicity with the HIV Aids-Related Attitudes, Behaviors and Skills of High-School Students." Population Research and Policy Review vol. 11, pp. 233-247.
Abstract: This study deals with intervening factors such as family composition, religiosity, and HIV/AIDS knowledge in understanding the association of race and ethnicity with HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and behaviors. Data represent Wave 1 of a five-month panel design involving 10th grade students in eight public high schools in Dade County (greater Miami) Florida. Significant differences in attitudes and behaviors were found among racial/ethnic groups. Specifically, Hispanics had more negative attitudes about condom use than blacks or whites. Whites had the most permissive, and blacks the least permissive. sexual attitudes. Hispanics felt least confident and blacks felt most confident about interpersonal sexual skills. Blacks were most likely to have had sexual intercourse, and whites least likely. Religiosity was found to be a significant intervening variable in the less permissive sexual attitudes of both blacks and Hispanics. The most significant implication of this study is that racial/ethnic differences in sexual behavior can be explained more fully by socio- environmental factors such as family structure or religiosity than by knowledge or attitudes. Thus, interventions directed toward minority populations should focus on the development of alternative social environments that would support more positive behaviors. More specifically, extended family. religious youth groups, and other community organizations should be brought into the HIV/AIDS risk reduction arena. [Source: SC]

Pemberton, Larry Donald. 1992. "Religiosity and Adolescent Male Sexual Behavior." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
Abstract: Within the body of research on adolescent sexuality, there has been relatively little attention given to adolescent males and minimal consideration given to the influence of adolescent religiosity. In the present study, religiosity is investigated as a mitigating factor in postponing or preventing adolescent male intimate sexual behavior. In addition, the adolescent male's age, his attitudes of sexual permissiveness, and his perception of closeness to his father and of his father as a committed Christian are considered with religiosity as additive socialization influences. Data for this study were provided by a Pentecostal denomination and were collected by confidentially administered questionnaires from a sample of youth participating in church youth group meetings. A subsample of 13-18 year old males was used in the present analysis. In an elaboration model, contingency tables, zero order and partial correlations, and multiple regression analysis were used to determine and elaborate relationships in the data. For the subsample as a whole, religiosity was demonstrated to have a significant negative relationship with sexually intimate behavior. Religiosity was demonstrated to be a multi-dimensional construct with the personal beliefs component showing the most direct influence. Of the test variables in the elaboration, age demonstrated the most significant influence. Overall, the socialization structure most certainly leading to higher levels of sexual intimacy consisted of low religiosity, closeness to the father, the perception that the father was not a committed Christian, and liberal sexual permissiveness. The socialization structure leading most certainly to low sexual intimacy consisted of high religiosity, closeness to the father, the perception that the father was a committed Christian, and conservative sexual permissiveness. A major conclusion of this study was that religiosity is a multi-dimensional construct which influences male adolescent sexual behavior to the extent to which its values have been internalized. Additionally, this study concluded that several significant socialization influences, including father variables, age, and attitudes of sexual permissiveness, acted conjointly and additively with religiosity in relation to the adolescent's level of sexual intimacy. [Source: DA]

Stone, Rebecca and Cynthia Waszak. 1992. "Adolescent Knowledge and Attitudes About Abortion." Family Planning Perspectives vol. 24, pp. 52-57.
Abstract: Data from a focus-group study of adolescents from cities across the US indicate that they lack accurate knowledge about abortion & the laws governing it, describing it as medically dangerous, emotionally damaging, & widely illegal. Findings also reveal that antiabortion views, conservative morality, & religious beliefs are primary sources of adolescents' attitudes toward abortion. Participants expressed personal opposition to abortion, but supported its continued legality as a woman's choice. Although most of the teenagers expressed positive feelings toward parents, they did not feel that mandatory parental involvement would be helpful &, in some cases, could be harmful. [Source: SA]

White, Sharon D. and Richard R. DeBlassie. 1992. "Adolescent Sexual Behavior." Adolescence vol. 27, pp. 183-191.
Abstract: A brief overview of the past five years of professional literature on adolescent sexuality is presented to identify factors that influence this social phenomenon, as well as effective interventions. The importance of the family & religion on sexual attitudes & behaviors, how sexual activity is related to other age-related behaviors & delinquency, the relationship between early coital behaviors & the risk of pregnancy & sexually transmitted idseases, & attitudes toward contraception & abstinence are discussed. Possible psychological effects of sexual activity on adolescent development are also considered. [Source: SA]

Birch, Diana. 1991. "Teenage Belief Systems About Sexual Health." International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health vol. 5, pp. 37-47.
Abstract: Discusses teenage belief systems regarding sex and pregnancy. It is only by understanding the belief systems of the adolescent and his or her peer group that the health professional can effectively interact with the teenager in a way that has relevance and meaning. Counseling, contraceptive, antenatal or any other service will fail if adolescents do not believe that they need them. Parental, cultural, and religious beliefs, as well as myths, form a basis on which the adolescent belief system is built. Many teenagers do not believe that they will become pregnant because of magical beliefs that they are protected, beliefs that they are too young to get pregnant, or an external locus of control (the belief that they have no control over their bodies or actions). [Source: PI]

Gibson, John W. and Jean B. Lanz. 1991. "Factors Associated with Hispanic Teenagers' Attitude toward the Importance of Birth Control." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal vol. 8, pp. 399-415.
Abstract: Studied how demographic factors, educational aspirations, maternal characteristics, religiosity, clarity of long-term goals, and perception of friends' behavior were associated with attitudes toward the importance of birth control (ATIBC), using 240 Hispanic 12-28 yr old females who completed a written questionnaire. Significant relationships were found between ATIBC and 4 predictors: primary language, mother's education, importance of religion, and friends' perceived contraceptive use. Adolescents who appeared to attach the least importance to birth control were those who reported that their best spoken language was Spanish, whose mothers had less than a 10th-grade education, who viewed religion as relatively important, and who perceived that their friends would not use birth control. [Source: PI]

Lock, Sharon Estelle. 1990. "Factors Affecting Premarital Sexual Intercourse and Contraceptive Use among Rural Adolescent Females." Ph.D. Thesis, University of South Carolina.
Abstract: Many factors associated with female adolescent sexual decision-making are of interest to nursing and could be positively influenced by nursing strategies. Secondary analysis using structural equation modeling was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of selected demographic and psychosocial factors on female adolescents' decisions to: (1) engage or not engage in premarital sexual intercourse, and (2) use effective or ineffective contraception at most recent intercourse. Data were derived from responses to selected items from a questionnaire designed to evaluate the South Carolina School/Community Program for Sexual Risk Reduction Among Teens. In this program, one school district in a rural South Carolina county received an educational intervention and another school district in the same county served as the comparison group. Respondents consisted of 564 predominantly black females ages 12 to 19 years old who participated in the program in 1987. Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior provided a nursing framework to guide the study. Demographic and psychosocial factors included: town, age, race, religious affiliation, family structure, socioeconomic status, affordability and accessibility of contraception, religiosity, parent-adolescent communication, peer influence, commitment to partner, educational goals, reproductive and contraceptive knowledge, sex-role attitudes, sexual and contraceptive attitudes, decision-making ability, self-esteem, health locus of control, and personal responsibility. Multiple regression, logistic regression and LISREL VII were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that town, age, family structure, peer influence, commitment to partner, and sexual attitudes had significant direct effects on premarital sexual intercourse. Birth control attitudes and parent-adolescent communication had significant direct effects on contraceptive use. LISREL analysis indicated that Cox's model fit the premarital sexual intercourse data poorly, whereas, the model fit the contraceptive use data reasonably well. Findings suggest that nursing strategies should focus on the development of peer counseling groups, promotion of positive attitudes toward sexuality and contraception, and development of parent support groups. [Source: DA]

Pleck, Joseph H., Freya L. Sonenstein, and Leighton C. Ku. 1990. "Contraceptive Attitudes and Intention to Use Condoms in Sexually Experienced and Inexperienced Adolescent Males." Journal of Family Issues vol. 11, pp. 294-312.
Abstract: Analysis of data collected in the 1988 National Survey of Adolescent Males from 1,880 males aged 15-19 revealed that nearly 60% indicated an "almost certain chance" to use a condom in future intercourse. Compared to sexually inexperienced males, those who had sexual experience reported lower perceived costs for condom use in terms of embarassment, but high costs in terms of reduction of pleasure. The perceived benefits of using condoms in terms of preventing pregnancy & gaining appreciation from the partner, & attitudinal endorsement of male responsibility for contraception were similar for the two groups. Attitudes discounting the risk of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) reduced intended condom use in both groups. For the sexually experienced, metropolian residence, high educational aspirations, & self-esteem were associated with intended condom use. For the sexually inexperienced, being Hispanic, holding religion to be important, liberal attitudes about the male sex role, worry about AIDS, & condom use at last intercourse were associated with intended condom use. [Source: SA]

Thomas, Darwin L. and Craig Carver. 1990. "Religion and Adolescent Social Competence." Pp. 195-219 inDeveloping Social Competency in Adolescence. Advances in Adolescent Development, Vol. 3, edited by Thomas P. Gullotta and Gerald R. Adams. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Abstract: (from the chapter) assesses the relative influence of religious variables on adolescent prosocial development an attempt is made to situate the increasing interest in the study of religion and the social sciences with the renewed interest in charting the stages of religious growth and development along with adolescent growth and development the effect of religion in the life of the adolescent is developed by considering both theory and research as they contribute to our understanding of why and how the religion variables seem to lead to prosocial developments in the areas of self-esteem, academic and occupational achievement, sexual attitudes and behavior, and substance addiction and abuse as well as in the various belief and behavioral dimensions of religiosity per se attempts to derive central theoretical propositions by looking at the basic relationships that emerge in each of the above areas. [Source: PI]

Gassaway, Jeanette Marie. 1989. "Adolescent Sexuality Education: A Survey within the Black Church." M.A. Thesis, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
Abstract: This study assessed the informational interests of adolescents and their parents for sexuality education, adolescents' sexual knowledge and sexual concerns, adolescents' first, current, and preferred sources of information as indicated by adolescents and parents, and parent-child communication about sexuality. The results indicated that adolescents were marginally interested in obtaining more information about sexuality topics while parents were significantly more interested in their adolescents obtaining more information on sexuality topics. Adolescents were knowledgeable about sexual functioning, and were not greatly concerned about the sexual issues presented. Mother, school, and friends were both adolescents' first and current sources of sexuality information. They preferred mother, school, and church. Parents reported that mother, school, and father were adolescents' current sources of sexuality information. Parents preferred mother, church, and father. Parents reported discussing and wanting to discuss sexuality with their children and feeling comfortable in doing so significantly more than adolescents. [Source: DA]

Murstein, Bernard I., Michelle J. Chalpin, Kenneth V. Heard, and Stuart A. Vyse. 1989. "Sexual Behavior, Drugs, and Relationship Patterns on a College Campus over Thirteen Years." Adolescence vol. 24, pp. 125-139.
Abstract: 737 college students at a small liberal arts college received questionnaires regarding their sexual philosophies, behavior, relationship with most recent partner, self-perceived attractiveness, relationship with parents, use of drugs and alcohol, attitudes toward marriage and abortion, and other subjects in 1974, 1979, and 1986. Results show that sexual behavior increased dramatically from 1974 to 1979 and then decreased in 1986 to approximately where it was in 1974. It is suggested that data reflect an increase in individualism and a weakening of the influence of religion and parental relationship on sexual behavior. However, newly prominent diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), have pushed college youth toward more committed sexual relationships, although not to abstention. [Source: PI]

Thornton, Arland and Donald Camburn. 1989. "Religious Participation and Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Attitudes." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 51, pp. 641-653.
Abstract: Causal interconnections between adolescent sexuality & the religious affiliation & participation of adolescents are considered, based on interviews conducted in 1962, 1963, 1966, & 1967 with mothers of a sample of children selected from birth records of the Detroit, Mich, metropolitan area in July 1961; interviews were also conducted with both mother & child in 1980 (original N = 916 families). Findings are consistent with previous research in showing religious involvement & adolescent sexual attitudes & behavior to be strongly correlated. Young people who attend church frequently & who value religion in their lives have the least permissive attitudes & are less experienced sexually. Results also support the traditional hypothesis that religious participation effects adolescent sexuality, but also indicate that sexual behavior & attitudes significantly influence religious involvement. [Source: SA]

Miller, Brent C. and Terrance D. Olson. 1988. "Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of High School Students in Relation to Background and Contextual Factors." Journal of Sex Research vol. 24, pp. 194-200.
Abstract: Investigated how a number of background and contextual variables relate to sexual attitudes and behavior when they are combined in a multivariate analysis, using survey data from 2,423 adolescents (95% 15-28 yrs old). Results show a strong relationship between premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. However, attitude/behavior discrepancies suggest that adolescent sexuality is complex. Religious variables were strong predictors of sexual attitudes and behavior. [Source: PI]

Schmidt, Paul F. 1988. "Moral Values of Adolescents: Public Versus Christian Schools." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 7, pp. 50-54.
Abstract: 118 students in public high school and 73 students in Christian schools completed a true false test measuring 8 pairs of moral and immoral attitudes. Findings indicate that there were significant differences on a "total morality index" favoring the Christian school students. Significant differences were obtained in 3 particular areas: Money, Body/Health, and Sexuality. Christian school students were more inclined than public school students to be aware of and confess their minor character flaws, contradicting the view that Christian students tend to present themselves in a socially desirable light. [Source: PI]

Giles, Shewanna Lagale K. 1987. "The Sexual Attitudes of Black Adolescent Females." M.S.S.W. Thesis, The University of Texas, Arlington.
Abstract: An exploratory study of the sexual attitudes of Black adolescent females was conducted. A 54 pecent return rate was obtained. The study explores relationships among demographic factors and reported psychological variables regarding sexual security, sexual self image, and sexual autonomy. Data analysis involved the use of general frequencies, and Pearson's Correlation. Correlation analysis of the sample indicated a significant correlation between age, religion, family relationships relative to sexual attitudes and behaviors. The importance of this research lies in its contribution to understanding Black adolescent development, their attitude formation and the clarification of stereotypes regarding sexuality in Black adolescents. This is of fundamental importance in trying to combat the teenage pregnancy epidemic. [Source: DA]

Hoge, Dean R., Jann L. Hoge, and Janet Wittenberg. 1987. "The Return of the Fifties: Trends in College Students' Values between 1952 and 1984." Sociological Forum vol. 2, pp. 500-519.
Abstract: An analysis of value trends during the 1950s-1980s using questionnaire data obtained in (1) a 1952 survey of M students (N not provided) at 11 US Colls & Us, & (2) replication studies conducted in 1968/69, 1974, 1979, & 1984 at Dartmouth Coll, NH (N = 360, 366, 316, & 334, respectively), & the U of Michigan (N = 400, 348, 331, & 364, respectively). In most value domains the trends are U-shaped, reversing from the 1950s direction in the 1960s & 1970s; by 1984, attitudes were similar to those of the 1950s or moving in that direction. Domains examined include: traditional religion; career choice; faith in government & the military; advocacy of social constraints on deviant social groups; attitudes about free enterprise, government, & economics; sexual morality; marijuana use; & personal obligations. Two attitude areas do not show a return to 1950s values: (1) other-direction was high in 1952, then dropped in the 1960s & did not rise; & (2) the level of politicization rose greatly from 1952 to the 1960s, then dropped again only slightly. [Source: SA]

Miller, Brent C., Roger B. Christensen, and Terrance D. Olson. 1987. "Adolescent Self-Esteem in Relation to Sexual Attitudes and Behavior." Youth and Society vol. 19, pp. 93-111.
Abstract: The relationship between self-esteem & sexual intercourse experience was investigated in surveys of 2,423 high school students in 3 western US states in 1983/84. In this sample, self-esteem was related to sexual attitudes & behavior in ways that are consistent with a normative context hypothesis. That is, among those who were in conservative groups (frequent church attenders & Mormons) there was a significant negative relationship between self-esteem & permissive sexual attitudes & behavior. The relationship was also mediated by personal attitudinal permissiveness, with self-esteem being positively related to sexual intercourse among adolescents who believed that premarital sex was usually or always right, & negatively related to sexual intercourse among those who believed it was always wrong. [Source: SA]

Miller, Brent C., Robert Higginson, J. Kelly McCoy, and Terrance D. Olson. 1987. "Family Configuration and Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior." Population and Environment vol. 9, pp. 111-123.
Abstract: Measures of family configuration, derived from the number, age, & sex of siblings & the number of parents, were related to adolescent sexual attitudes & behavior in an analysis of 1983 questionnaire survey data from 836 high school students in Salt Lake City, Utah, & Albuquerque, NM. Zero-order correlations showed that sexual intercourse experience was less common among adolescents who lived with both parents & also among those who had more younger siblings. However, controlling for adolescents' age, sex, race, religion, church attendance, & parents' educational attainment eliminated the relationships between family configuration variables & sexual attitudes & behavior. Only parents' marital structure, reflecting whether adolescents lived with both original parents or not, continued to be weakly related to adolescents' sexual attitudes & behavior. [Source: SA]

Sweet, Loretta Elaine. 1987. "Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior among Black Male Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Abstract: This study examined the relationship of religiosity, perceived parental strictness, family structure, and socioeconomic status to sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Black male adolescents. Two hundred inner-city Black male junior and senior high school students between the ages of 11 and 19 years anonymously completed a 45-minute questionnaire containing all the measures. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In these analyses, the relation of a particular independent variable was examined while the effects of the other independent variables were statistically controlled. In addition, the analyses statistically controlled for student's age. The results revealed that the sexual attitudes of the students who were higher in religiosity were both more moralistic and more responsible than were those of their peers. These students also used contraception more frequently when they had sexual intercourse. Students who perceived their parents as stricter were older when they first had sexual intercourse. Students who lived with both parents were less likely to have made someone pregnant and were more likely to have been in a steady relationship the first time they had sexual intercourse. Students with higher socioeconomic class were younger on their first date, when they had their first steady romantic relationship, and when they had sexual intercourse for the first time. As might be expected, there were a number of significant relations involving age, for instance, older students had more sexual knowledge and experience and used contraceptives more consistently during the past year. In general, the students in this sample engaged in sexual intercourse at an early age without using contraception. Their mean age at first intercourse was 11 years, and 78.3% of those who had intercourse did not use contraception on the first occasion. The results suggest the need for human sexuality programs which includes contraception for Black male adolescents aged 11 years and younger. Limitations of the study are discussed, and suggestions for future research on Black male adolescent sexuality are offered. [Source: DA]

Collins, John K. and Lesley Robinson. 1986. "The Contraceptive Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Unmarried Adolescents." Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage and Family vol. 7, pp. 132-152.
Abstract: Studied the premarital contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 288 14-25 yr old males and females. The Contraceptive Knowledge Schedule, the Social Desirability scale of the Personality Research Form, the Contraceptive Practice Schedule, and an attitude measure were administered. Results reveal a substantial incidence of unprotected coitus among adolescents. Females had more adequate knowledge and more favorable attitudes and reported greater contraceptive efficiency and use than males. Discussion of contraception with one's partner was associated with greater efficiency and use, while greater educational attainments were associated with increased knowledge and favorability toward contraceptive practices. Less sexually experienced adolescents were inclined to be nonusers of contraception, as were those who disapproved of premarital intercourse. Other than the finding that adolescents who had never attended church used contraception at an earlier age, religiosity was not associated with either knowledge of, efficiency of, or favorability toward contraceptive use. [Source: PI]

Earle, John R. and Philip J. Perricone. 1986. "Premarital Sexuality: A Ten-Year Study of Attitudes and Behavior on a Small University Campus." Journal of Sex Research vol. 22, pp. 304-310.
Abstract: An analysis of changes in sexual attitudes & behaviors among undergraduates at a small, private, church-related southern U between 1970 & 1981, based on questionnaire responses from 3 samples (N = 243 in 1970, 182 in 1975, & 368 in 1981). Results indicate significant increases in rates of premarital intercourse & in the average number of partners, & significant decreases in the average age at first experience, for both Ms & Fs. Attitudes toward sexual activity are more strongly related to sexual behaviors for Fs than for Ms; however, Fs are more conservative than Ms in their attitudes toward the kinds of relationships in which premarital coitus is personally acceptable. Influences of religiosity, SE background, fraternity/sorority membership, age at onset of dating, & societal attitudes are examined. [Source: SA]

Herring, Lynda L. 1985. "The Effect of Family Adaptability and Cohesion on Psychosexual Development." Ph.D. Thesis, Kansas State University.
Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of college students' perceptions of their family cohesiveness and adaptability on the development of their sexual attitudes and values. Additionally, demographic factors were observed for differences. Previous research dealing with adolescent sexuality has focused on the sexual behavior of the adolescent, rather than the attitudes which precede behavior. This study attempted to supply to some degree, a first step toward building an integrated, multi-dimensional relationship theory of systemic family dynamics as it relates to the psychosexual development of young people. Responses were elicited from 820 college students at Central Missouri State University, Warrensburg, Missouri. The questionnaire was a combination of two recognized instruments, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scales (FACES II) and the Sexual Attitude and Value Inventory in addition to demographic information. Major conclusions drawn from this study showed that demographic influences had a difference upon the way college students perceived their psychosexual development. Females scored higher on the way they viewed the importance of birth control, in their opposition to the use of pressure and force in sexual activity, and in recognition of the importance of the family. Males scored higher on their attitude toward sexuality in life. Individuals who had had intercourse appeared to have a greater understanding of their personal sexual response and had a more positive attitude toward sexuality in life in addition to having higher esteem. Other demographics showing significance involved the degree of importance of religion and size of the home community. Overall, family adaptability and cohesion had some direct positive impact on all measured aspects of sexual attitudes and values and the majority of the activity was directional. That is, the closer and less structured a family became, the more positive the perceptions of sexual values and attitudes. Family cohesion appeared to be a larger factor in positive sexual attitudes and values than family adaptability. The implications of this study could have substantial effect upon the quality of life through Family Life Educators, researchers, clinicians, and others interested in a systemic perspective of family functioning and/or sexuality. [Source: DA]

Killeen, Katherine Winston. 1985. "Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Contraceptive Use." Ph.D. Thesis, Washington University.
Abstract: Failure to use contraceptives is a critical problem among American youth because sexual activity is common, and illegitimacy and abortion rates are high among young women. This study investigates gender differences in attitudes toward contraceptive use within the framework of the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a nonprobability, purposive sample of 339 never-married, sexually active college students (158 males and 181 females) between the ages of 17 and 22 years. No statistically significant or meaningful differences between male and female respondents were found in regards to demographic and sexual background characteristics. Regression analyses revealed that the Fishbein/Ajzen model was not of comparable explanatory magnitude for males and females. Overall, the model accounted for 19% of the variance in contraceptive use intentions for males and 26% for females. Males and females were found to differ as well in the weighting of the model's components (the normative component was more heavily weighted for females whereas the attitudinal component was more heavily weighted for males) and also in regards to the specific elements making up the model's components. Six other variables believed to be related to contraceptive use were also examined. Regression analyses revealed that for males frequency of intercourse, level of intimacy, and the experience of one's partner becoming pregnant were independent and significant predictors of contraceptive use intention. For females, affiliation with a religious group rather than no religious affiliation was an independent and significant predictor of contraceptive use intention. When independent and significant predictors of contraceptive use were included in an expanded model, it was able to account for 29% of the variance among males and 32% of the variance among females. [Source: DA]

McCormick, Naomi, Angela Izzo, and John Folcik. 1985. "Adolescents' Values, Sexuality, and Contraception in a Rural New York County." Adolescence vol. 20, pp. 385-395.
Abstract: Administered a questionnaire to 75 male and 88 female high school students from a rural county of New York that asked them about their personal values and sexual and contraceptive experiences. Results indicate that religiosity was unrelated to Ss' sexual behavior and use of contraceptives. Very religious Ss were not more likely to abstain from having sexual intercourse than less religious students; religiosity did not influence the effectiveness of contraceptives used by nonvirgins. Ss who had more liberal premarital sexual standards and profeminist Ss became significantly more sexually intimate with their dates than either sexually conservative or sex-role traditional Ss. However, neither premarital sexual standards nor sex-role attitudes were useful for predicting nonvirgins' coital frequency and use of effective contraceptives. The different groups of Ss exhibited remarkably homogeneous sexual and contraceptive behavior. Nonvirgins had coitus sporadically or on the average of only twice a month. In addition, regardless of their values, most nonvirgins were contraceptive risk-takers. Rejecting the most reliable methods that are available (e.g., birth control pills and the intrauterine device), the condom was the most effective contraceptive used by most Ss (57%), and 21% of the nonvirgins relied exclusively on such ineffective contraceptives as withdrawal, trusting in luck, and douching. [Source: PI]

Blake, Judith. 1984. "Catholicism and Fertility: On Attitudes of Young Americans." Population and Development Review vol. 10, pp. 329-340.
Abstract: The fertility expectations of practicing Catholic, nominal Catholic, & non-Catholic youths are compared. Analysis of a subsample (N = 29,495) of data obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics Study, "High School & Beyond" (1980, no publication information given) reveals that: (1) practicing Catholic girls expect 19% more children than non-Catholic ones, (2) practicing Catholic boys expect 17% more than their non-Catholic counterparts; (3) Catholics attending Catholic schools expect more children than those attending public schools; & (4) the more religious the Catholic youth, the larger the family size anticipated. Results suggest a positive relationship between adherence to Catholic doctrine & the definition of the maternal role in terms of traditional sex-role differentiation. [Source: SA]

Canter, Rachelle J. and Suzanne S. Ageton. 1984. "The Epidemiology of Adolescent Sex-Role Attitudes." Sex Roles vol. 11, pp. 657-676.
Abstract: The results of an examination of the epidemiology of sex-role attitudes among a national probability sample of 1,626 US adolescents generally corroborate earlier findings with more limited samples: more traditional sex-role attitudes are reported by M, Lc, & minority Rs. The magnitude of the sex difference overshadows the remaining differences. In addition, the impact of sex-role attitudes on conventional & delinquent behaviors & values is assessed. Sex-role groups differ in their involvement in the conventional settings of family, school, religion, & work, as well as in minor forms of delinquency & in their values concerning conventional & delinquent behaviors. The findings are discussed in terms of their contribution to general understanding of adolescent sex-role attitudes. [Source: SA]

Hendricks, Leo E., Diane P. Robinson Brown, and Lawrence E. Gary. 1984. "Religiosity and Unmarried Black Adolescent Fatherhood." Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 417-424.
Abstract: 48 unmarried Black adolescent fathers and 50 unmarried Black adolescent nonfathers under age 21 yrs were interviewed with regard to their religious behavior and attitudes; social and demographic characteristics; sexual knowledge, attitudes, and practices; and problems and coping methods to examine the relationship between religiosity and unmarried adolescent fatherhood. Results indicate that fathers did not differ from nonfathers in the degree that they were religiously oriented but in the manner that they gave expression to their religious involvement. Fathers were more likely to be responsive to nongroup modes of institutionalized religion (i.e., media forms), whereas nonfathers' religious involvement was likely to be within institutionalized groups. Findings also suggest that unmarried Black adolescent fathers are more likely to be employed, drop out of school, and not to use contraceptives. Media forms are recommended to practitioners as useful ways of reaching out to young Black fathers. [Source: PI]

Hong, Sung mook. 1984. "Permissiveness, More or Less: Sexual Attitudes in the General Public." Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage and Family vol. 5, pp. 89-96.
Abstract: Analyzed survey responses on sexual permissiveness from 657 members (321 males and 336 females) of the general public in terms of age, church attendance, sex, and education variables. 134 Ss were under 20 yrs of age, 153 were between 21 and 30 yrs old, 137 were between 31 and 40 yrs old, 126 were between 41 and 50 yrs old, and 107 were over 50 yrs old. 186 described themselves as regular church goers, 288 as occasional, and 182 as nonattenders. Educational level for 69 was elementary school; for 388, secondary school; and for 192, college. While age and church attendance were found to significantly affect attitudes toward both premarital and extramarital relations, sex and education influenced only attitudes toward premarital permissiveness. When compared with college students, the results also reveal more conservative attitudes on the part of the general public toward both premarital and extramarital relations. For all categories of analysis, prevailing attitudes toward premarital relations were liberal, while the attitudes toward extramarital relations remained uniformly restrictive. [Source: PI]

Thompson, Roger. 1984. "Adolescent Culture in Colonial Massachusetts." Journal of Family History vol. 9, pp. 127-144.
Abstract: Examined are 4 issues in recent research on adolescence in early modern society: the recognition of a distinctive age period between puberty & marriage, parent-teenager relationships, adolescent sexuality, & youth culture. An investigation of these topics in seventeenth-century New England is conducted using court, town, & church records from Middlesex County, Mass, from 1649 to 1699. The 26 reported incidents involving groups of young people suggest the presence of a youth culture in the county, especially in Charlestown & Cambridge, but also evident in 8 other towns. This culture emerged during the 1660s, possibly in the institutional context of the militia, & members were from all SCs. It is concluded that adolescence was generally recognized as a distinct stage of life & that a marked generation gap existed. Youth culture represented an alternative to norms & values of the adult world & puritan patriarchalism, transcending SC & religious distinctions & with enough institutional regularity to be regarded as more than just a subgroup of deviants. Implications are provided for future research & revisions in current studies of family dynamics, generational relations, the pathology of conversion, & puritan sexual attitudes. [Source: SA]

Canson Pegues, Patricia. 1982. "The Sexual Attitudes of African-American Adolescent Females." Ph.D. Thesis, The Wright Institute.
Abstract: This study focuses on the sexual attitudes of Black adolescent females. It explores relationships among demographic factors (i.e., age and religion), family life variables (e.g., closeness of the family) and self reported psychological variables regarding sexual image, sexual autonomy, and sexual security. Thirty one 16, 17 and 18 year old Black female high school students recruited from urban high schools and youth centers served as subjects. Subjects completed a three part questionnaire based on items from the Offer Self Image Questionnaire which measured sexual self esteem, the Sorenson Survey of Sexual Attitudes which measured sexual autonomy and sexual security, and the Westside Health Survey which elicited demographic and sexual activity information. Data analysis involved exploration of the sample first as a whole and second by its dichotomization into sexually active and inactive subjects. Correlation analysis of the sample as a whole indicated that age and religion were not significantly related to the subjects sexual attitudes. Sexual autonomy, measured by high scores on items which reflected sexual control and choice, was positively related to the family life variable of family closeness, and to the future goal variable of career aspiration. Chi square comparisons between subjects who were more secure about how to handle sex (as indicated by high scores on sexual self image items) and subjects who were less secure, indicated that the latter group felt that they knew less about sexuality than their peers, and were highly ambivalent about whether to abort or keep unplanned pregnancies. When sexually active and inactive subjects (i.e., those who respectively have or have not experienced sexual intercourse) were compared, sexually active subjects described a closer relationship with their mothers, had generally closer family ties and in general did not require a commitment to a love relationship in order to be sexually active. Inactive girls, on the other hand, described their family relationships as less close, explained their lack of sexual activity as unreadiness for the responsibilities of intimacy or as an inability to find the right partner. The importance of this research lies in its contribution to understanding Black adolescent development, to the clarification of myths and stereotypes regarding sexuality in Black females and to the continuing search for understanding of human sexuality. [Source: DA]

Davids, Leo. 1982. "Ethnic Identity, Religiosity, and Youthful Deviance: The Toronto Computer Dating Project--1979." Adolescence vol. 17, pp. 673-684.
Abstract: Analyzed data on 298 Jewish (J) college students in the Toronto Computer Dating Project. Findings indicate that J identity is quite independent of J religiosity: 5 of 6 Ss reported a high sense of J identity but less than 1 out of 10 reported themselves to be highly religious. J schooling was not concentrated among Ss of higher religiosity. Chemical/drug abuse was found to be an extremely minimal problem. Sexual liberalism (SL) was fairly evenly distributed among Ss, but males scored higher on SL than females. When SL was considered in conjunction with J schooling and religiosity, it was found that more J schooling had a slight association with more traditional moral attitudes (i.e., lower SL scores), and that a higher religiosity was associated with lower SL scores. These findings suggest that Ss who were more involved in religious practice and to whom religion was a greater force in their thinking had a tendency toward the moral side of the SL continuum, while those who were not involved in religion were more likely to have the nontraditional attitude that favors premarital sex. These findings confirm those of other researchers (e.g., K. L. Cannon and R. Long, 1971). Implications for youth policy and program planning are discussed. [Source: PI]

Fisher, Terri Dale. 1982. "Parent-Child Communication and Adolescents' Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes."Ph.D. Thesis, University of Georgia.
Abstract: Previous studies have indicated that teenagers whose parents have talked to them about sex tend to be less sexually active and more likely to use an effective method of contraception. This study sought to determine the effects of parent-child communication about sex on young adolescents' reproduction and contraceptive knowledge and their sexual attitudes. In addition, the characteristics of parents who often had sexual discussions with their offspring were examined, as well as the effects of pretesting on sexual knowledge and attitudes. The research participants were 10 male and 12 female 12-14 year olds and their parents. The participating families were basically middle-class, white, Protestant, and well educated. Parents and their children completed the 24-item version of the Miller-Fiske Sexual Knowledge Test as well as Calderwood's Checklist of Attitudes Toward Aspects of Human Sexuality. Other questionnaires were used to determine background information about the parents and their children. Only half of the children were pretested. The parent who was the predominant sex educator for each family was determined, and these parents were placed into "high sexual communication" and "low sexual communication" categories. These two groups of parents were found to be equivalent in terms of occupational status, education, religion, marital status, and sexual permissiveness, but parents in the high communication group scored significantly higher on the sexual knowledge test. There were no significant differences in the sexual knowledge, attitudes, or contraceptive choices of the children in the high communication and low communication groups, but the correlation between parents' and children's sexual attitudes in the high communication group (.76) was significantly higher than that of parents and children in the low communication group (.28). There were no significant effects of pretesting on the children's scores on the knowledge, attitude, or contraceptive choice tests. Adolescent subjects who had previously taken a sex education course scored significantly higher on the sexual knowledge test than those who had not taken such a course. The predominant effect of parent-child discussion about sex seems to be on the children's sexual attitudes and values. [Source: DA]

Altopp, David Paul. 1981. "A Study of Sexual Attitudes, Sexual Behaviors, and the Religiosity of High School Students in Free Methodist Church Youth Groups." Ph.D. Thesis, Southern Illinois University At Carbondale.
Abstract: The major purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the degree of religiosity and both sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors of high school students in grades ten through twelve who attend the Free Methodist Church. An attempt was also made to measure the relationship of selected socio-demographic variables with sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors. The sample for this study (67 female, 61 male) was obtained from seven Free Methodist Churches, four in Illinois and three in Indiana. All data was collected at each individual church by the researcher. The instrument contained four parts: socio-demographic information, sexual attitudes scale, sexual behaviors inventory, and a religiosity scale. The religiosity scale had been developed and tested by Faulkner and DeJong (1966). A test-retest reliability analysis was conducted on the instrument because it had never been used before in its complete form. Results indicated the instrument was adequately reliable. Six null hypotheses were tested. They are as follows: (1) Degree of religiosity will not vary with sexual attitudes (rejected); (2) Degree of religiosity will not vary with sexual behaviors (retained); (3) The socio- demographic variables under study will not be correlated with sexual attitudes (rejected); (4) The socio- demographic variables under study will not be correlated with sexual behaviors (retained); (5) The set of independent variables will not contribute significantly to the variance of sexual attitudes (rejected); and (6) The set of independent variables will not contribute significantly to the variance of sexual behaviors (retained). All statistical tests were made at the .05 alpha level. Subjects who participated in this study exhibited an overall high degree of religiosity as measured by the Faulkner-DeJong scale (1966). Analysis of the items on the sexual attitudes scale showed the subjects to be primarily conservative in their sexual attitudes. They were most uncertain on items dealing with masturbation and abortion. Whether or not two people are in love appears to be the most influencing factor in whether or not to engage in petting. A majority of the subjects believe sexual intercourse should be reserved for marriage. Males were noticeably more liberal in their sexual attitudes than females. Both male and female subjects were closest in their beliefs toward homosexuality than any other sexual activity for which information was sought on the sexual attitudes scale. Subjects in this study reported participation in sexual behaviors but not at the high percentage levels as the recent study on teenage sexuality by Hass (1979). The most often reported sexual behavior for both male and female subjects was petting. While degree of religiosity demonstrated a significant relationship to sexual attitudes, there was no relationship found between degree of religiosity and sexual behavior. For the subjects in this sample, there appears to be some discrepancy between what the subjects say they believe about the items on the sexual attitudes scale and what their actual sexual behaviors are. Further study is recommended to determine why this discrepancy exists. [Source: DA]

Herold, Edward S. and Marilyn S. Goodwin. 1981. "Adamant Virgins, Potential Nonvirgins and Nonvirgins." Journal of Sex Research vol. 17, pp. 97-113.
Abstract: Using data obtained from 106 single high school and 408 single college females, variables differentiating among adamant virgins (AVs), potential nonvirgins (PNs), and nonvirgins were analyzed. AVs were Ss who had not experienced intercourse and were not likely to engage in premarital intercourse (PMI). PNs were Ss who had not experienced PMI but were likely to engage in PMI. Variables significantly related to virginity status in chi-square analyses were age, religiosity, career aspirations, parental acceptance of PMI, dating commitment, and dating frequency. Using discriminant analysis, it was found that peer experience with PMI was the most important predictor of virginity status, followed in importance by dating commitment and religiosity. Results suggest that studying PNs can help explain the relationship between sexual attitudes and behavior and factors influencing the transition from virginity to nonvirginity. [Source: PI]

Seltzer, Judith Rhoads. 1981. "Premarital Sexual Attitudes of Young Women in the United States, 1971 and 1976." Ph.D. Thesis, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.
Abstract: This study is concerned with premarital sexual attitudes of young, never-married women in the United States in 1971 and 1976. The primary research problem was to identify factors in a conceptual model which would explain variation in premarital sexual attitudes and to determine how these factors were related to premarital sexual attitudes. Other purposes of the study were to describe trends in premarital sexual attitudes during the 1970s and to compare attitudes of Black and White never-married young women. The data are from two national surveys of young women aged 15-19 conducted in 1971 and 1976. The sample in each survey was a probability sample, stratified by race, representative of females 15 to 19 years of age living in the coterminous United States. The plan of analysis involved developing measures of premarital sexual attitudes, testing and describing simple relationships based on cross-classification, and analyzing the conceptual model using a multivariate technique. The analysis was carried out separately by race and by sexual activity so that in each survey year there were four subgroups: White sexually active, White sexually inactive, Black sexually active, and Black sexually inactive. Although neither sexual activity nor race were included as explanatory variables in the conceptual model, these two factors were very useful in describing premarital sexual attitudes of young American women. Sexually active respondents had much more permissive attitudes than did the sexually inactive. Attitudes of Blacks were generally more permissive than those of Whites regardless of sexual experience (except that sexually active Whites had more permissive attitudes than sexually active Blacks in 1971). The results of the descriptive analysis also indicate that only for the sexually active respondents were attitudes more permissive in 1976 than in 1971. Given that a higher pecentage of young women were sexually active by the latter date, the trend from 1971 to 1976 was not only toward more permissive attitudes, but also toward broader acceptance of those attitudes. The results of the explanatory analysis suggest that traditional institutions of church and family (closeness to parents) still have an important negative influence on permissive premarital attitudes of young women aged 15-19 regardless of sexual experience. However a higher level of educational attainment for parents or raisers (and similarly educational aspiration of the respondents) has a positive influence on premarital sexual attitudes among Whites. Prior to initiation of sexual activity, various factors such as involvement in the courtship system (dating and marriage plans) and involvement in extra-curricular activities were important predictors of attitudes for at least one subgroup. Once young women had acquired sexual experience such factors were no longer important, and other factors identified with sexual activity itself, number of partners and age at first intercourse, were important. Of all potential explanatory factors studied in the model (for 1976), peer influence appears to be the dominant predictor of adolescent attitudes for all racial and sexual activity subgroups. [Source: DA]

Roebuck, Julian and Marsha G. McGee. 1977. "Attitudes toward Premarital Sex and Sexual Behavior among Black High School Girls." Journal of Sex Research vol. 13, pp. 104-114.
Abstract: Examined the premarital sexual attitudes and sexual behavior of 242 Black high school females. It was hypothesized that sexual attitudes and behavior vary in relationship to family structure, social class, and religious participation. Results show that Black family structure appeared to have a significant influence on premarital sexual permissiveness of daughters, particularly in the matriarchal family. Social class appeared slightly to influence attitudes, but behavior between classes was similar. No relationship was found between religious participation and attitudes toward premarital sex and sexual behavior, although the more active religious girls were more permissive or as permissive toward premarital sex as the less active religious girls. [Source: PI]

Bardis, Panos D. 1975. "Abortion Attitudes among Catholic College Students." Adolescence vol. 10, pp. 433-441.
Abstract: Explored the abortion attitudes of 200 students (freshmen-seniors) attending a midwestern liberal arts college affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. Ss' attitudes were quantified by means of P. Bardis' (1972) Abortion Scale. A 2nd tool was a questionnaire dealing with independent variables (e.g., sex, age, number of siblings, birth order, marital status, and education). Findings show the following: (a) Catholics in general tended to be more conservative than Protestants. (b) There were no statistically significant differences between urban and rural residents and between single and engaged Ss. On the other hand, females, social science majors, and those having no plans for graduate studies were significantly more conservative than males, natural science majors, and those planning to do graduate work, respectively. (c) Abortion scores were significantly negatively correlated with religious services attended, amount of Catholic education, and, to a limited extent, father's occupation, but nonsignificantly with age, number of siblings, birth order, college rank, parental education, and mother's occupation. [Source: PI]

Wallace, Jerry M. 1972. "Factors Associated with the Premarital Sexual Standards of North Carolina Baptist Young People." Thesis, North Carolina State University.

Hampe, Gary D. 1971. "Interfaith Dating: Religion, Social Class and Premarital Sexual Attitudes."Sociological Analysis vol. 32, pp. 97-106.

Light, Harriett K. 1970. "Attitudes of Rural and Urban Adolescent Girls toward Selected Concepts." Family Coordinator vol. 19, pp. 225-227.
Abstract: Examined the attitudes of 164 rural and 161 urban adolescent girls toward family, religion, peer groups, premarital sex, ethnic prejudice, morality, and education. Ss were matched on age (16-17 yr. old), grade in high school (juniors-seniors) and socioeconomic status (middle class). Each S was given a questionnaire consisting of 45 statements with 5 choices for responding to each. Data were analyzed using chi-square. Results show highly significant differences between rural/urban girls toward family, religion, morality, premarital sex, and education: (a) family and religion are more likely to influence attitudes of rural than urban girls; (b) rural girls continue to accept conventional ethical standards, urban girls are more receptive to new morality; and (c) rural girls place greater value on education than do urban girls. [Source: PI]

Marth, Selden B. 1962. "Guilt Feelings and Disapproval Projections as Related to Parents, Church, God, and Fate, in Adolescent Sexual Development." Th.D. Thesis, School of Theology At Claremont, Claremont.

Trobisch, Walter. 1962. "Attitudes of Some African Youth toward Sex and Marriage." Practical Anthropologyvol. 9, pp. 9-14.

Heath, R. W., M. H. Maier, and H. H. Remmers. 1958. "Youth's Attitudes toward Various Aspects of Their Lives." Purdue Opinion Panel Poll Report p. 24.
Abstract: The majority of teenagers appear to be absorbing the values of the culture and reflect pretty much the attitudes of the culture toward drinking, dating, divorce, religion, and juvenile delinquency. [Source: PI]