Sex Education

Crosby, R. A. and W. L. Yarber. 2001. "Perceived Versus Actual Knowledge About Correct Condom Use among U.S. Adolescents: Results from a National Study."Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 28, pp. 415-420.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of three misconceptions about correct condom use and determine whether prevalence of these misconceptions varied by gender, sexual intercourse experience, experience using condoms, and the relationship between adolescents' actual and perceived knowledge about correct condom use. Variables that predicted misconceptions about correct condom use were also identified. METHODS : Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed to determine prevalence of misconceptions among 16,677 adolescents. Misconceptions were: (a) no space at the tip of the condom, (b) Vaseline can be used with condoms, and (c) lambskin protects against the acquired immunodeficiency virus better than latex. Chi-square analyses determined differences in prevalence of misconceptions between male and female adolescents based on their sexual and condom use experience as well as their level of perceived knowledge about correct condom use. Logistic regression models identified predictors of reporting misconceptions. RESULTS: Depending on intercourse experience and experience using condoms, about one-third to one-half believed the first two misconceptions and about one-fifth believed the latter one. Perception of knowledge about correct condom use was infrequently related to actual knowledge. Misconceptions were less likely among older adolescents, those ever having intercourse, those reporting four or more lifetime intercourse partners, those who had used condoms, females, and those not reporting a religious affiliation. CONCLUSIONS: Misconceptions about correct condom use are common among adolescents. Sexually active adolescents need more complete information about correct condom use. [Source: ML]

Golden, N. H., W. M. Seigel, M. Fisher, M. Schneider, E. Quijano, A. Suss, R. Bergeson, M. Seitz, and D. Saunders. 2001. "Emergency Contraception: Pediatricians' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions."Pediatrics vol. 107, pp. 287-292.
Abstract: Emergency contraception (EC) is the use of a method of contraception after unprotected intercourse to prevent unintended pregnancy. Although first described over 20 years ago, physician awareness of EC has been limited and many feel uncomfortable prescribing it. OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of practicing pediatricians regarding the use of EC in adolescents. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to all 954 active members of New York Chapter 2, District II of the American Academy of Pediatrics. The questionnaire assessed basic knowledge, attitudes, and opinions regarding EC in adolescents. Data were analyzed by physician age, gender, year completed residency, and practice type. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-three practicing pediatricians (24.4%) completed the survey. Of the respondents, 23.7% had been asked to prescribe EC to an adolescent and 49% of these cases involved a rape victim. Only 16.7% of pediatricians routinely counsel adolescent patients about the availability of EC, with female pediatricians more likely to do so. Most respondents (72.9%) were unable to identify any of the Food and Drug Administration-approved methods of EC. Only 27.9% correctly identified the timing for its initiation and only 31.6% of respondents felt comfortable prescribing EC. Inexperience with use was cited as the primary reason for not prescribing EC by 70% of respondents. Twelve percent cited moral or religious reasons and 17% were concerned about teratogenic effects. There were no differences in comfort level based on age, gender, or practice type. Twenty-two percent of respondents believed that providing EC encourages adolescent risk-taking behavior and 52.4% would restrict the number of times they would dispense EC to an individual patient. A minority of respondents (17%) believed that adolescents should have EC available at home to use if necessary and only 19.6% believed that EC should be available without a prescription. The vast majority (87.5%) were interested in learning more about EC. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the safety and efficacy of EC, the low rate of use is of concern. Pediatricians are being confronted with the decision to prescribe EC but do not feel comfortable prescribing it because of inadequate training in its use. Practicing pediatricians are aware of their lack of experience and are interested in improving their knowledge base. [Source: CI]

Hancock, Jim and Kara Eckmann Powell. 2001. Good Sex: A Whole Person Approach to Teenage Sexuality & God. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Yedwab, Paul Michael and Katherine Schwartz. 2001.Sex in the Texts. New York: UAHC Press.

Coyne, Beasley T. and V. J. Schoenbach. 2000. "The African-American Church: A Potential Forum for Adolescent Comprehensive Sexuality Education." Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 26, pp. 289-294.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes and beliefs of clergy from African-American churches towards sexuality education and the provision of sexuality education in their churches. METHODS: A pilot study was designed to survey a convenience sample of clergy leaders from African-American churches about their young adolescent members. The survey asked about priority health topics, prevalence of sexual and drug risk behavior and the clergy's desire for health education programs. The churches were located in a county (1990 population approximately 200,000, 40% African-American) in the southeastern United States. RESULTS: The respondents' highest priority issues were drugs, violence, HIV/AIDS, pregnancy and alcohol. Many (76%) had discussed one or more of these issues in church. All respondents wanted additional health seminars for their adolescents, though some clergy (30%) excluded some sexual topics (i.e., anal sex, bisexuality, homosexuality, masturbation, oral sex). Only 6% would make condoms available in their churches, but all would allow contraceptive education. CONCLUSIONS: Many African-American churches are open to including sexuality education among their health education offerings for young adolescents. The church should be considered as a potential forum for providing comprehensive sexuality education for African-American adolescents. [Source: ML]

DiIorio, C., K. Resnicow, W. N. Dudley, S. Thomas, D. T. Wang, D. F. Van Marter, B. Manteuffel, and J. Lipana. 2000. "Social Cognitive Factors Associated with Mother-Adolescent Communication About Sex." Journal of Health Communication vol. 5, pp. 41-51.
Abstract: To better understand why some mothers talk to their children about sex and others do not, we examined the role of two social cognitive variable-self-efficacy and outcome expectancies--in explaining sex-based communication. The present study was part of a larger study to test the efficacy of two HIV prevention programs for mothers and their adolescents. Mothers and their adolescents were recruited from a large community organization that serves youth who live in disadvantaged circumstances. The sample for the present study included 486 mothers who averaged 38.4 years of age (SD = 6.73). The majority were African American (97.7%), not married (66.7%), and had a high school degree (89.5%). Their adolescents ranged in age from II through 14 years of age and most were male (61.3%). The results of the analysis revealed that mothers who expressed higher levels of self-efficacy and more favorable outcomes associated with talking to their children about sex were more likely to do so. In a regression analysis, we learned that the mother's degree of efficacy beliefs, along with her expected outcomes associated with talking about sex, the importance of religious beliefs to her, and the age and sex of her adolescents were important factors associated with talking with them about sex. [Source: SC]

DiIorio, Colleen, Ken Resnicow, William N. Dudley, Stephen Thomas, Wang Dongqing Terry, Deborah F. Van Marter, Brigitte Manteuffel, and Jenny Lipana. 2000. "Social Cognitive Factors Associated with Mother--Adolescent Communication About Sex." Journal of Health Communication vol. 5, pp. 41-51.
Abstract: Examines the role of self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in explaining sex-based communication in the United States. Parental involvement in educating adolescents about sex; Important factors associated with sex communication between parents and children; Investigation of the affective component of sex-based communication. To better understand why some mothers talk to their children about sex and others do not, we examined the role of two social cognitive variables--self-efficacy and outcome expectancies--in explaining sex-based communication. The present study was part of a larger study to test the efficacy of two HI V prevention programs for mothers and their adolescents. Mothers and their adolescents were recruited from a large community organization that serves youth who live in disadvantaged circumstances. The sample for the present study included 486 mothers who averaged 38.4 years of age (SD = 6.73). The majority were African American (97.7%), not married (66.7%), and had a high school degree (89.5%). Their adolescents ranged in age from 11 through 14 years of age and most were male (61.3%). The results of the analysis revealed that mothers who expressed higher levels of self-efficacy and more favorable outcomes associated with talking to their children about sex were more likely to do so. In a regression analysis, we learned that the mother's degree of efficacy beliefs, along with her expected outcomes associated with talking about sex, the importance of religious beliefs to her, and the age and sex of her adolescents were important factors associated with talking with them about sex. [Source: AS]

Jordan, Timothy R., James H. Price, and Shawn M. Fitzgerald. 2000. "Rural Parents' Communication with Their Teen-Agers About Sexual Issues." The Journal of School Health vol. 70, pp. 338-344.
Abstract: A study investigated the communication between rural parents and their teenage children about sexual issues. Participants were 374 parents of students in grades 7-12 in a rural county in northwest Ohio. The results revealed that most parents thought that the family should play the prominent role in sexuality education with supplemental help from the school. Most of the rural, religious parents supported the inclusion in formal sex education of information on contraceptive methods. Over 50 percent of parents claimed that the receipt of a regular newsletter regarding teenage issues could help them to communicate with their teenagers. These findings reveal that school health educators may have an important part to play in helping parents take the lead role in their children's sexuality education. [Source: EA]

Moran, Jeffrey P. 2000. "Teaching Sex: The Shaping of Adolescence in the 20th Century." Commonweal vol. 127, pp. 21-22.

Ali, Heidi Karamat and Anthony Naidoo. 1999. "Sex Education Sources and Attitudes About Premarital Sex of Seventh Day Adventist Youth." Psychological Reports vol. 84, p. 312.
Abstract: 37 Seventh Day Adventist youth were surveyed about their sex education and attitudes towards premarital sex. Analysis indicated differences between their attitudes and actual sexual behaviour. While 70%. endorsed the church's prohibition on premarital sex, 54% had engaged in premarital sex. [Source: PI]

Thomas, Gary. 1999. "Where True Love Waits."Christianity Today vol. 43, pp. 40-45.

Gustafson, Cynthia Zotalis. 1998. "The Effects of a Health Promotion Program on Parental Attitudes and Behaviors and Adolescent Sexual Well-Being." Thesis, University of Michigan.
Abstract: Fifty-two parents and their 35 teens participated in an eight-week church-based health promotion program designed to strengthen parental attitudes and behaviors that enhance adolescent sexual well-being. Measures of interpersonal influences of parents and adolescent sexual well-being of this group were compared with 37 parents and their 28 teens who did not participate in the program. Teens in the program increased satisfaction with their own personal sexuality and clarity of personal sexual values. Families also displayed a trend toward increased quality of parent-teen communication about sex when compared to families not participating in the program. These are positive initial effects given the limited time frame for intervention and measurement of outcomes. Implementation of the program by the investigator was successfully completed in the religious communities and is an example of a community-based nursing intervention that can be tested further as a means to address the health promotion needs of the parent-teen population. [Source: PI]

Sawyer, Robin G., Paul J. Pinciaro, and Anne Anderson Sawyer. 1998. "Pregnancy Testing and Counseling-a University Health Center's 5-Year Experience." Journal of American College Health vol. 46, pp. 221-225.

Panzer, Richard A. 1997. Condom Nation; Blind Faith, Bad Science. Westwood: Center for Educational Media.
Abstract: Recounts the history of misinformation coming out of the Clinton administration regarding condom effectiveness, & explains why the firing of Jocelyn Elders in no way solves the lack of honesty of government policy in teen pregnancy prevention. CONDOM NATION explains why 40% of college students surveyed aren't sure what the word "abstinence" means & why definitions of "abstinence" in schools often include a variety of erotic behaviors & the advocacy of teen SEXUAL RIGHTS. CONDOM NATION examines the assumptions & track records of "comprehensive," contraceptive-based programs versus the surprising successes of abstinence-centered approaches to AIDS, pregnancy prevention. It reveals that "at risk" teens benefit the most from these more directive approaches. CN also looks at comprehensive sex ed for elementary school, surveys showing strong support for abstinence education AMONG TEENAGERS, the destructive impact of teen sex on grades & mental health, & the disappointing results of "abstinence, but" programs. Finally, CONDOM NATION explains why social science research has much to offer to improve the effectiveness of AIDS/Family Life education & why science, not religion, may become the best advocate for monogamy & marriage. [Source: BP]

Stephenson, Andy Lee. 1997. "The Role of the Fundamentalist Church Institution in Value Clarification among Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Texas, Arlington, Arlington.
Abstract: This study randomly examined 51 senior pastors and 47 youth workers from a fundamentalist denomination to analyze leadership influence and other church factors influence on the involvement of the fundamentalist church in addressing and educating adolescents in value clarification. The study also surveyed 241 adolescents to discover the influence of church discussion, parental communication and church size on adolescent sexual behavior. The results of the study indicate senior pastor's and youth worker's previous training are significant predictor variables of church involvement in the education of adolescents in value clarification. Also senior pastor readiness to educate youth in value clarification of societal issues was a significant factor in the youth worker sample. The results revealed larger churches were more likely to address value clarification with their adolescents than small churches in the youth worker sample. The adolescent sample reported total parent-adolescent communication was inversely related to adolescent sexual behavior. When father-adolescent and mother-adolescent communication were analyzed separately, father-adolescent communication was a significant predictor variable inversely related to adolescent sexual activity. Church size was also a predictor variable with churches in the middle size category indicating a positive relationship to increased sexual activity of adolescents when compared to small churches. Age and gender were also significant predictors of adolescent sexual activity. [Source: DA]

Metcalf Whittaker, Marilyn. 1996. "Adolescent Attitudes Towards Parental Sex Roles, Family Size, and Birth Control." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of North Carolina At Chapel Hill.
Abstract: This project is a secondary analysis of survey data collected by researchers at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research. The study seeks to discover the effects of interactions among respondents' demographic characteristics, religious affiliations, academic aspirations, and family characteristics on their attitudes towards parental sex roles, desired number of children, and attitudes towards birth control issues. In addition, the effects of having had sex education or birth control education on attitudes towards birth control issues will be assessed. [Source: DA]

Arp, Robert K. 1995. "A Strategy for Commitment to Sexual Purity among Senior High Students." Thesis, Erskine Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The dissertation describes and evaluates biblical and cultural perspectives of human sexuality in light of adolescent development. Senior high school students were evaluated on their present sexual experience, spiritual growth and faith development and knowledge of human sexuality. The dissertation also has five sexual abstinence sessions designed to affirm students in their commitment to sexual purity before and after marriage. [Source: RI]

Beitz, Janice Marian. 1995. "Social and Educational Factors Affecting Sex Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Students." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University, Philadelphia.
Abstract: Adolescent sexual risk behaviors are a national health issue as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have spread in the American population. Social cognitive theory suggests that social and educational factors influence these behaviors. Previous research has found equivocal results in certain factors' relationships to and their interactive effect on sexuality. Earlier sex behavior's effect on current cognition has not been well examined. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, psychosocial, and educational variables related to sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of college students. The study addressed the following questions: What are the individual and interactive effects of number of sources and intensity of formal sex education, performance self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, and religiosity on sex variables? Does gender affect these independent variables? How does gender and/or age of first coitus affect selected sex variables? Measures of the independent variables and sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered. Subjects were 200 full-time college students, aged 17 to 25 years old, enrolled in two large urban universities and a community college. For the independent variables, correlation analyses indicated that formal sex education, parent-adolescent communication, and religiosity were significantly but very weakly related to sex attitudes. No other intercorrelations were significant. Simple multiple regression demonstrated that the variables taken together explained negligible variance in sex behaviors. Gender generated differences in the independent variables. Independent t-tests indicated that males scored significantly lower than females in parent-adolescent communication with mother, social self-esteem, and religiosity. For age of first coitus and gender, a one-way analysis of variance indicated that males had significantly more liberal sex attitudes than females. Subjects with earlier first coitus had significantly more liberal sex attitudes and greater STDs. No interactions were significant. Age of first coitus itself was examined. Independent t-tests demonstrated that subjects with earlier first coitus had significantly less sex knowledge, more liberal sex attitudes, and greater risk behaviors. Results suggested that first coitus age and gender affected sexuality differentially. Recommendations were made for educational and health care practice and further research. [Source: DA]

Benson, M. D. and E. J. Torpy. 1995. "Sexual Behavior in Junior-High School Students." Obstetrics and Gynecology vol. 85, pp. 279-284.
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the association between 14 demographic variables and the loss of virginity in a specific sample of junior high school students in Chicago. Methods: Nine hundred seventy-six students in nine Chicago junior high schools, sixth through eighth grades, were given an anonymous behavior survey (the noncognitive assessment survey). Two separate logistic regression equations were used to determine the relative relationships of the demographic variables to self-reported virginity loss. Results: Five variables were significantly associated with virginity loss in both regression equations. In rank order, they were gender, ethnic group, pubertal status, suicidal ideation, and sibling number (adjusted odds ratio 13.3, 4.57, 3.38, 1.93, and 1.24, respectively.) Nine variables did not have a consistent relation with early sexual activity: church attendance, religious affiliation, grade average, housing status, marital status of natural parents, self-esteem, sex education knowledge, school attendance, and chronologic age. Conclusions: These results call into question two widely held assumptions that form the foundation of many teen pregnancy prevention efforts. First, although many believe that sex education courses can affect behavior, we found no link, either positive or negative, between knowledge of reproductive biology and age of first intercourse. Second, self-esteem level was not associated with age of first intercourse. The variables that did seem related to early sexual activity do not lend themselves to easy manipulation. Our findings suggest that current school-based efforts to alter teen pregnancy rates and sexual behavior are unlikely to succeed. [Source: SC]

De Gaston, Jacqueline F., Larry Jensen, and Stan Weed. 1995. "A Closer Look at Adolescent Sexual Activity."Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 24, pp. 465-479.
Abstract: Examines adolescent sexuality, drawing on survey data from 1,228 parochial students in the eastern US. Few claimed that sex was forced or even pressured. Over 50% reported "going steady" as their relationship status when experiencing their first intercourse. Another 25% reported that they were "dating" or "knew each other well." Approximately 20% reported that drugs or alcohol were used at the time of first sex, & 75% had first sex at either their own home or a friend's home. Nearly 50% wished they had waited longer before having sex, especially the females & the more religious students. Half of the nonvirgin students reported having had only 1 sexual partner. The implications of this information for setting social policy, & designing & implementing effective sex education programs are discussed. [Source: SA]

Hogan, Harold E., Jr. 1995. "Leading the Youth of First Baptist Church, Crockett, Tx, to Evaluate Opposite Sex Relationships in Light of the Biblical View of Agape Love." Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The author completed a thirteen-week Bible study on the biblical concept of agape love. The author explored three areas of opposite sex relationships in the context of agape love: friendship, family, and marriage. The author utilized video clips as teaching aids. The youth showed attitudinal changes which were more consistent with the biblical teaching on agape love. [Source: RI]

Rubin, Roger H., Andrew Billingsley, and Cleopatra Howard Caldwell. 1994. "The Black Church and Adolescent Sexuality." National Journal of Sociology vol. 8, pp. 131-148.
Abstract: In the Black Church Family Project survey of 635 northern Black churches, 176 churches reported having at least 1 program directed at adolescent members of the community. Focus here is on problems related to adolescent sexuality, including pregnancy, out-of-wedlock births, homosexuality, & sexually transmitted diseases. Relatively few churches reported being actively engaged in these types of programs, due in part to the church's historical reticence regarding sexual issues. However, the omnipresence of the church, community linkages, its history of service, & the traditional religiosity of Black youth provide opportunities for the church to involve Black youth in programs that address sexual behavior. [Source: SA]

Tapia, Andr"s. 1993. "Abstinence: The Radical Choice for Sex Ed." Christianity Today vol. 37, pp. 24-29.

Feldman, P. 1992. "Sexuality, Birth-Control and Childbirth in Orthodox Jewish Tradition." Canadian Medical Association Journal vol. 146, pp. 29-33.
Abstract: This paper examines some of the traditional texts that deal with sexuality, birth control and childbirth in the orthodox Jewish tradition and presents the rules governing these areas. For instance, a married woman should avoid being alone with a male physician unless other people are in earshot and have access to the room. A husband and wife must separate during the woman's menses and for the first 7 days afterward. Contraception is permitted if childbearing would endanger a woman's life or health. Termination of pregnancy is also permitted to preserve a woman's health, including her mental health. During childbirth the health of the mother is primary and supercedes all other rules or laws, including those of Sabbath observance. In general, orthodox Jewish women try to live as much as possible within the framework of Halacha. These customs are examined as examples of the need for sensitivity to cultural norms that affect the behaviour of different ethnic groups. [Source: SC]

Stone, Rebecca and Cynthia Waszak. 1992. "Adolescent Knowledge and Attitudes About Abortion." Family Planning Perspectives vol. 24, pp. 52-57.
Abstract: Data from a focus-group study of adolescents from cities across the US indicate that they lack accurate knowledge about abortion & the laws governing it, describing it as medically dangerous, emotionally damaging, & widely illegal. Findings also reveal that antiabortion views, conservative morality, & religious beliefs are primary sources of adolescents' attitudes toward abortion. Participants expressed personal opposition to abortion, but supported its continued legality as a woman's choice. Although most of the teenagers expressed positive feelings toward parents, they did not feel that mandatory parental involvement would be helpful &, in some cases, could be harmful. [Source: SA]

Boyer, Cherrie B. and Susan M. Kegeles. 1991. "AIDS Risk and Prevention among Adolescents." Social Science and Medicine vol. 33, pp. 11-23.
Abstract: Although adolescents currently account for only 1% of the reported cases of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) in the US, the % of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is undoubtedly much greater. Adolescents are at increased risk of HIV transmission because of their behavioral lifestyle, including unprotected sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, & intravenous drug use; inner-city minority teenagers, youth in detention facilities, & street youth are at particular risk. It is argued that prevention programs emphasizing cognitive & behavioral skills training are essential to limit further spread of the HIV-AIDS epidemic. The AIDS Risk Reduction Model, an example of such a social-physiological program, identifies three stages necessary to reduce risky sexual activities: (1) recognizing that one's activities make one vulnerable to contracting HIV; (2) deciding to alter these behaviors & implementing that decision; & (3) overcoming barriers to enacting the decision, eg, problems in sexual communication & seeking help when necessary. To reach all adolescents, it is recommended that HIV prevention programs be age-appropriate & sensitive to cultural values, religious beliefs, sex roles, & adolescent group customs. [Source: SA]

Lamanna, Mary Ann. 1991. "Teenagers' Decision-Making About Sexuality and Reproduction: Policy Implications." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Data from 225 focus group participants & semistructured interviews with 64 teenage women (white/black; ever-pregnant vs never-pregnant) provide information on teen women's sexual & reproductive decision making in a midwestern US city. Typical decision sequences are identifiable. Young women in the pair bonding model make an early commitment to family-building, in an often fictive "ritual marriage." In the development model, teens are highly committed to educational & career goals, more attentive to the need for contraception, & more open to abortion or adoption as possible solutions to problem pregnancies; goals & aspirations regarding future relationships & marriage are vague, & paradoxically, their rational & detached approach to gaining sexual experiences leads to activity that seems emotionally undesired, yet entails the risk of pregnancy. Results are compared to the premises of contemporary teen pregnancy policy in such areas as: religious proscriptions, family relationships, & sexual activity; life goals & self-esteem; peer culture; sex education; mentoring programs; school retention programs; role playing; contraceptive programs; adoption, or abortion as solutions to problem pregnancies; & job training & career development. [Source: SA]

Cullari, Salvatore and Robert Mikus. 1990. "Correlates of Adolescent Sexual Behavior." Psychological Reports vol. 66, pp. 1179-1184.
Abstract: 50 9th and 66 12th graders in a Catholic school and 52 9th and 40 12th graders in public school completed questionnaires concerning sexual knowledge and information about sexual activity. Analysis showed that 33% of Catholic and 73% of public 12th graders had previous sexual experience. Catholic school 12th graders had significantly higher scores on sex knowledge than did public school Ss. Factors Ss said encouraged sexual experimentation included curiosity, need for love, and peer pressure; factors discouraging experimentation were said to be fear of pregnancy and sexually transmissible diseases. [Source: PI]

Allen, Carlton E. 1989. "A Program of Sex Education for Adolescents of the First Baptist Church of Greenwood, South Carolina." Thesis, Andover Newton Theological School, Newton Centre.
Abstract: The thesis of this project is that the church must respond to adolescents who are undergoing parental divorce. This project presents one method of dealing with this problem. The type of therapy provided and examined in this context is group therapy sponsored by the church. The theological, psychological and practical implications of this therapy are examined as to their effects upon the group in general and the individual adolescents participating in the group. Case studies are also presented as a way of examining the group's effectiveness. The conclusion is that all the adolescents involved in this group received positive therapeutic help and that the church was and is an important place for this therapy to exist. [Source: RI]

Gassaway, Jeanette Marie. 1989. "Adolescent Sexuality Education: A Survey within the Black Church." M.A. Thesis, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
Abstract: This study assessed the informational interests of adolescents and their parents for sexuality education, adolescents' sexual knowledge and sexual concerns, adolescents' first, current, and preferred sources of information as indicated by adolescents and parents, and parent-child communication about sexuality. The results indicated that adolescents were marginally interested in obtaining more information about sexuality topics while parents were significantly more interested in their adolescents obtaining more information on sexuality topics. Adolescents were knowledgeable about sexual functioning, and were not greatly concerned about the sexual issues presented. Mother, school, and friends were both adolescents' first and current sources of sexuality information. They preferred mother, school, and church. Parents reported that mother, school, and father were adolescents' current sources of sexuality information. Parents preferred mother, church, and father. Parents reported discussing and wanting to discuss sexuality with their children and feeling comfortable in doing so significantly more than adolescents. [Source: DA]

Green, Shelley K. and Donna L. Sollie. 1989. "Long-Term Effects of a Church-Based Sex Education Program on Adolescent Communication." Family Relations vol. 38, pp. 152-156.

Sidey, Kenneth H. 1989. "Kids Get the Message: It's Okay to Say No." Christianity Today vol. 33.

Valentino, Lorene. 1989. "Teenage Pregnancy from the Perspective of Three Groups of Low Income Teenage Girls." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Southern California.
Abstract: Purpose. The primary purposes of the study were to determine and to analyze the perceptions of three groups of teenagers (pregnant girls, girls using birth controls, and girls never pregnant and do not use birth controls) regarding (1) sex education in the schools; (2) their locii of control; and (3) their personal and professional goals. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the three groups of teenage girls on the basis of selected personal and professional characteristics. Procedure. A 40-item questionnaire-survey was utilized to survey 548 teenage girls enrolled in a summer work program for economically disadvantaged youth in Central California. The descriptive study used a Likert-type weighted scale to analyze and compare mean responses to survey questions. Findings. Most of the girls in all three groups received at least one quarter of sex education in the schools. Girls using birth controls reported receiving information about contraceptives in education classes at an earlier grade level than the other two groups. The birth control group of girls had the highest internal locii of control and also had a significantly higher reported use of birth controls than the pregnant girls who had the highest external locii of control. The group of girls who had experienced a pregnancy were one grade level behind girls in the other two groups. Girls who abstain from sex more often come from two parent families and attend church more frequently than girls in either of the other two groups. Conclusions. Instruction and activities which teach self- esteem, decision making, and assertiveness are effective methods to increase contraceptive use among sexually active teenage girls. Family stability and participation in religious activities make positive contributions to abstinence of sexual relations for teenage girls. Recommendations. Sex education is a highly controversial issue and educators should develop a program representative of differing viewpoints but still appropriate for teenagers. Information regarding contraceptives should be taught at a lower grade level than is current practice and curriculum should include self-esteem/assertiveness training activities. [Source: DA]

Collins, John K. and Lesley Robinson. 1986. "The Contraceptive Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Unmarried Adolescents." Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage and Family vol. 7, pp. 132-152.
Abstract: Studied the premarital contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 288 14-25 yr old males and females. The Contraceptive Knowledge Schedule, the Social Desirability scale of the Personality Research Form, the Contraceptive Practice Schedule, and an attitude measure were administered. Results reveal a substantial incidence of unprotected coitus among adolescents. Females had more adequate knowledge and more favorable attitudes and reported greater contraceptive efficiency and use than males. Discussion of contraception with one's partner was associated with greater efficiency and use, while greater educational attainments were associated with increased knowledge and favorability toward contraceptive practices. Less sexually experienced adolescents were inclined to be nonusers of contraception, as were those who disapproved of premarital intercourse. Other than the finding that adolescents who had never attended church used contraception at an earlier age, religiosity was not associated with either knowledge of, efficiency of, or favorability toward contraceptive use. [Source: PI]

Marsiglio, W. and F. L. Mott. 1986. "The Impact of Sex Education on Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use and Premarital Pregnancy among American Teenagers."Family Planning Perspectives vol. 18, pp. 151-162.
Abstract: Sixty percent of women and 52 percent of men now in their 20s took a sex education course by age 19, according to the 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Work Experience of Youth. Whites are more likely than either blacks or Hispanics to have had a course by that age--57 percent compared with 53 percent and 48 percent, respectively. The survey also shows that large proportions of teenagers initiate coitus before they have taken a sex education course. Among young women who first have sex at age 15, for example, only 48 percent have already taken a course (i.e., have taken it at a younger age or at the same age); and among young women who first have intercourse at age 18, the proportion is 61 percent. Young men are even less likely than young women to take a course before they begin coitus--at age 15, the figure is 26 percent, and at age 18, 52 percent. Adolescent women who have previously taken a sex education course are somewhat more likely than those who have not to initiate sexual activity at ages 15 and 16 (though they are no more likely to do so at ages 17 and 18). However, the effect of prior sex education is small, and is weaker than that of virtually every other variable found to have a significant relationship with first intercourse at ages 15-16. Among the strongest determinants of first coitus at those ages are infrequent church attendance, parental education of fewer than 12 years and black race. Older sexually active girls who have previously had a course are significantly more likely to use an effective contraceptive method (73 percent) than are those who have never taken a course (64 percent). This relationship may offset any effect that a sex education course may have in raising the likelihood of early first coitus, since no significant association can be found between taking a sex education course and subsequently becoming premaritally pregnant before age 20. [Source: ML]

Poris, Barry. 1986. "The Conceptualization of a New Program Design Concerning Sexuality for Adolescents in a Jewish Community Center of Metropolitan New York." Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.

Chirban, John T. and Dean P. Talagan. 1985. Youth and Sexuality. Brookline, Mass.: Hellenic College Press.

Powell, Lane H. and Stephen R. Jorgensen. 1985. "Evaluation of a Church-Based Sexuality Education Program for Adolescents." Family Relations: Journal of Applied Family and Child Studies vol. 34, pp. 475-482.
Abstract: 49 females and 25 males (aged 14-28 yrs) attending a Protestant church were administered a sex knowledge test, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a personal values scale. Ss subsequently attended a church-based sexual education program designed to increase sex information and self-esteem and to clarify personal values. 41 control Ss from a church of the same denomination and size in the same geographic area completed the pre- and posttests but not the education program. Posttest evaluation showed that level of sexual knowledge and clarity of personal sexual values in the experimental Ss increased over levels in the controls. Results suggest that short-term programs are effective, and a recommendation for parent/teen involvement in program design is made. [Source: PI]

Stayton, W. R. 1985. "Religion and Adolescent Sexuality." Seminars in Adolescent Medicine vol. 1, pp. 131-137.
Abstract: The health professional can be helpful to the adolescent, the adolescent's family, and the community through participating in and initiating local sex education programs. Religious settings provide a great potential for sexuality education within a value framework. A helpful curriculum will include the meaning of sexuality; developing a positive concept of sexuality, and a healthy sexual identity; present the issues of adolescent sexuality, including the various health issues; and an understanding of quality relationships within the family and among peers. If health professions and the community religious institutions can joint together, they can reach the goals of most programs in human sexuality, namely, "learning to appreciate our sexuality as a positive potential for self-expression, fulfillment and intimacy; respect for the personhood and well-being of others; and responsible decision-making." [Source: ML]

Jacknik, Michele, Fred Isberner, Shelia Gumermann, Robert Hayworth, and Debra Braunling-McMorrow. 1984. "Octopus: A Church-Based Sex Education Program for Teens and Parents." Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 757-763.
Abstract: Describes OCTOPUS, a rural, church-based sex education program for teenagers and parents that was designed to promote open communication regarding sexuality. The purpose of OCTOPUS was to establish a forum for family discussion within a church setting to enhance communication skills, convey factual information, and cultivate the development of a decision-making process to help parents help their teenagers acquire appropriate morals and values. Feedback from 4 churches and 100 participants is presented, indicating favorable results of the program. [Source: PI]

Swan, Raymond W. 1983. "Communicating About Sexuality in Catholic Homes." Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality vol. 1, pp. 39-52.
Abstract: Investigated whether Catholic parents were conservative with reference to discussion of sexual matters with their adolescent daughters. 139 female high school seniors from a predominately White middle-class Catholic congregation were given a questionnaire designed to elicit responses about how their families deal with sex education in the home. A similar questionnaire was given to 69 mothers and 24 fathers of these adolescents. Results are discussed in terms of sexual sophistication of adolescents, conservatism in Catholic homes, the parent who most frequently communicated about sexual matters, and communication of sexual themes on TV. Findings highlight the increased family tension that results from sexual themes being introduced more frequently into American homes through TV. Implications for the role of the social worker as a facilitator between parents and children when sexual issues are at hand are discussed. [Source: PI]

Fisher, Terri Dale. 1982. "Parent-Child Communication and Adolescents' Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes."Ph.D. Thesis, University of Georgia. " Previous studies have indicated that teenagers whose parents have talked to them about sex tend to be less sexually active and more likely to use an effective method of contraception. This study sought to determine the effects of parent-child communication about sex on young adolescents' reproduction and contraceptive knowledge and their sexual attitudes. In addition, the characteristics of parents who often had sexual discussions with their offspring were examined, as well as the effects of pretesting on sexual knowledge and attitudes. The research participants were 10 male and 12 female 12-14 year olds and their parents. The participating families were basically middle-class, white, Protestant, and well educated. Parents and their children completed the 24-item version of the Miller-Fiske Sexual Knowledge Test as well as Calderwood's Checklist of Attitudes Toward Aspects of Human Sexuality. Other questionnaires were used to determine background information about the parents and their children. Only half of the children were pretested. The parent who was the predominant sex educator for each family was determined, and these parents were placed into "high sexual communication" and "low sexual communication" categories. These two groups of parents were found to be equivalent in terms of occupational status, education, religion, marital status, and sexual permissiveness, but parents in the high communication group scored significantly higher on the sexual knowledge test. There were no significant differences in the sexual knowledge, attitudes, or contraceptive choices of the children in the high communication and low communication groups, but the correlation between parents' and children's sexual attitudes in the high communication group (.76) was significantly higher than that of parents and children in the low communication group (.28). There were no significant effects of pretesting on the children's scores on the knowledge, attitude, or contraceptive choice tests. Adolescent subjects who had previously taken a sex education course scored significantly higher on the sexual knowledge test than those who had not taken such a course. The predominant effect of parent-child discussion about sex seems to be on the children's sexual attitudes and values. [Source: DA]

Dworkin, Rosalind J. and Alfred N. Poindexter. 1980. "Pregnant Low-Income Teenagers: A Social Structural Model of the Determinants of Abortion-Seeking Behavior." Youth and Society vol. 11, pp. 295-309.
Abstract: While there has been substantial sociological research on the attitudes of women seeking abortion, few studies have been concerned with teenaged abortion patients. Proposed is a theoretical model to test decisions to abort or to deliver by low-income pregnant teenage girls. A path model is hypothesized containing 7 variables: age, race, religion, education, marital status, number of children, & delivery/abortion-seeking behavior. Analysis of 1,341 abortion patients & 390 delivery patients at Houston's Jefferson Davis County Hospital was made from hospital admissions interview data. Behavior was most directly affected by the number of children, marital status, & age. The tendency to seek an abortion is evident among those under age 20 who have not yet felt social reinforcement of commitment to having one's own children. Needed are more aggressive sex-education programs within school curricula. [Source: SA]

Fischer, Kay Pamela Justman. 1979. "Precocious Pregnancies: Patterns of Sexuality among White Adolescent Women in the Rural South." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida.
Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has been noted as a social phenomenon capable of affecting population trends relatively recently in America. However, patterns of early birth have long been recognized as contributors to dense populations in developing countries. Sexuality among adolescents has been explained primarily as a variant of deviant behavior and pregnancy as the result of either contraceptive incompetence or psychological forces. Study populations have commonly been derived from urban settings and often are black and/or lower socio-economic class. Clinic populations are frequently utilized. Surveying techniques have been the most prevalent investigative methodology. Adolescent sexuality represents a complex behavioral issue that can significantly affect health status and has been investigated from multiple viewpoints. The theoretical context for this study was compiled from research in human sexuality, adolescence, sex roles, demography and social anthropology. Strawberry Junction, a community in north central Florida, was selected as the study site on the basis of a field trial and demographic investigation as conforming to the typical southern rural pattern: land- based economy, religious fundamentalism, racial segregation, kin-based social organization, and complementary sex roles. The town accounts for approximately one-third of the 15,000 county residents and serves as the county seat. It contains the only high school in addition to a middle and vocational school for adolescents which together enroll about 2,500 students. The study group included one hundred white woman aged 13 to 19 and drawn primarily from the schools and seventy- five adults judged as having insight into adolescent concerns, e.g. parents, young marrieds, teachers, ministers, social agency personnel, and so forth. A small number of males (fifteen) were included as corroborative informants. A natural historical approach was used for this study in order to avoid bias inherent in a clinical population of medically-assisted contraceptors. Information was elicited via structured and informal interviews and participant observation during the period of community residency from September 1974 through June 1976. The study provides contextual information about adolescent sexuality and contraceptive behavior of white rural adolescent women. The following findings of the study are significant in understanding the behavior of these teenagers. Sexual relations are important to adolescent life and begin early. Expression differs between boys and girls. Girls' sexual aggressiveness is not intrinsically sexual but is related to achievement of social goals. Adolescents are ineffective contraceptors due to the inadequacy of their knowledge base and difficulties in accessing medical services. Folk techniques are often relied upon. Intergenerational interaction is minimal with generational insularity maintained by parents as well as teenagers. Adults do not educate their young in sexual matters and covertly allow adolescent sexual activity by according teenagers a high degree of social autonomy. The failure of adults to provide sexual instruction to youth is due in part to religious sanctions and in part to their own inadequate knowledge base. Due to sex role differentiation in the rural south adolescence is a period of apprenticeship for males but a period of deviance for girls which will terminate upon marriage. This female role-deviation is described as "male-mimicking." Marriage and childbearing are ultimate female goals; alternate role models for women are rare in the community. Precocious pregnancy is not tragic but rather begins the preordained course early. Community religious tenets and social structure prescribe the options for pregnant girls. In order of preference, they are marriage, adoption, raising by the unwed mothers, or abortion. Abortion appears to be rare. Choice of sexual partners appears to be different than described for urban settings. The pattern is often young girls partnered by older men, occasionally in incestuous relationships. [Source: DA]

Berman, Myron. 1970. "Sex and the Jewish Teenager."Religious Education vol. 65, pp. 415-421.
Abstract: Sex-with-affection among the middle classes, constituting the sexual revolution, is less evident among Jews than among Catholics and Protestants, but shows signs of increasing. Stability of the family has served as the common denominator of sexual behavior for Jews, coupled with the elevated status of women. Sex education should include: physiological factors, interpersonal relations, preparation for marriage, sociological considerations, and formulating a standard of values. Girls in a sex education class posed almost 3 times as many questions as boys. Girls' inquiries, in descending order, related to female physiology and the birth process, social implications of sexual behavior, petting, social-sexual behavior, male physiology, intercourse, and contraception. Boys' lesser concern over interpersonal relations suggests continued existence of a double standard with respect to sex. Avoiding puritanism and irrelevancy, future programs can construct a bridge for understanding sex within a total philosophy of life. [Source: PI]

Irvine, John M., Jr. 1968. "Sex Education for Church Youth." International Journal of Religious Education vol. 44, pp. 10-11.