Minority Groups: Immigration

Harker, K. 2001. "Immigrant Generation, Assimilation, and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being." Social Forcesvol. 79, pp. 969-1004.
Abstract: Utilizing data on adolescents in secondary school from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this article examines the link between immigrant generation and adolescent psychological well-being. I find that first- generation immigrants experience less depression and greater positive well-being than their native born agemates of similar demographic and family backgrounds. Second-generation immigrants, however, do not differ significantly from native- born youth in terms of psychological well-being. A number of family influences serve as "protective" factors that enable first-generation immigrants to maintain their higher levels of well-being. These factors include parental supervision, lack of parent-child conflict, religious practices, and social support. Assimilation among first-generation immigrants, as measured by age at arrival in the U.S., does not significantly affect their positive well-being. [Source: SC]

Easton-Waller, Bob. 2000. "Mean Street Monks."Tricycle: The Buddhist Journal vol. 10, pp. 60-66.

Harker, Kathryn. 2000. "Immigrant Generation, Assimilation and Adolescent Psychological Wellbeing: The Importance of Mediating Factors." Paper presented at Southern Sociological Society (SSS).
Abstract: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of US adolescents in grades 7-12 during 1995, are drawn on to examine the relationship between immigrant generation & adolescent psychological well-being, along with factors that mediate this relationship. After exploring intergenerational differences in well-being, the impact of intragenerational assimilation on the well-being of first-generation immigrant youth is examined. Results indicate that, overall, first- & second-generation immigrants experience similar levels of depression & lower levels of positive well-being than their native-born peers. However, mediating factors such as parental supervision, parent-child conflict, church attendance, frequency of prayer, & social support act as protective influences that allow first-generation immigrants to maintain higher levels of well-being than their native-born peers of similar demographic & family backgrounds. Intragenerational assimilation among first-generation immigrants does not significantly affect adolescents' positive well-being; however, having immigrated to the US as an adolescent is related to slightly lower levels of depression than having immigrated at earlier ages. [Source: SA]

Sidhu, Kamaljit Kaur. 2000. "Second Generation Sikh Adolescent Males: A Grounded Theory Model of Self and Identity Construction." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of British Columbia (Canada).
Abstract: Empirical research indicates that the adolescent years are critical in the development of a coherent sense of self and the subsequent emergence of identity. The construction of a sense of self and identity can be especially complex for children of South Asian immigrants in Canada. These adolescents are similar to all other youth in that they share the same biological and cognitive changes during this period of development. Yet, minority youth are unique in that their identity development is embedded in their ethnicity, status as minority group members, and the process of acculturation. The effects of these contextual factors have not been given due attention in the identity development literature. In this study, I examined self and identity construction among one specific subgroup of South Asians in Canada, second generation Sikh adolescent males. The grounded theory method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1990, 1998) was used to examine the construction of a sense of self and identity of second generation Sikh adolescent males. Through audiotaped, semi-structured interviews in English and Panjabi, 20 Sikh males aged 16 to 19 years were asked to describe how they were constructing a sense of who they are. Transcribed interviews were systematically analysed to develop a model of this process. Resulting from this analysis, the core process in defining a sense of self and identity is being strong enough to stay on track . Three live scripts are incorporated in the construction of the track: the Panjabi ethnic sociocultural script, the Sikh religious/spiritual script, and the dominant culture sociocultural script. The initial track is shaped through parents' selective integration of elements of the Panjabi ethnic script and the Sikh religious/spiritual script. As Sikh males become socialized in the mainstream context, inconsistent elements of all three scripts are negotiated in the reconstruction of the track and maintenance of a track. This reiterative process is affected by issues of striving to be set, managing visibility, belonging while avoiding exclusion, and being guided versus doing it alone. As each young Sikh man negotiates discrepant elements of the three scripts and is confronted with developmental tasks of getting a good education, acquiring a prosperous career, becoming married, and having children, his sense of who he is and who he is becoming becomes further integrated. The model articulates how the construction of a sense of self and identity is embedded in the life contexts of second generation adolescent Sikh males. Implications for theory as well as intervention by mental health professionals and educators are presented. [Source: DA]

Song, Minho. 1999. "Patterns of Religious Participation among the Second Generation Koreans in Toronto toward the Analysis and Prevention of 'the Silent Exodus'." Ph.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.

Chong, Kelly H. 1998. "What It Means to Be Christian: The Role of Religion in the Construction of Ethnic Identity and Boundary among Second-Generation Korean Americans." Sociology of Religion vol. 59, pp. 259-286.

Chrispin, Marie Carmel. 1998. "Resilient Adaptation of Church-Affiliated Young Haitian Immigrants: A Search for Protective Resources." Ed.D. Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.
Abstract: This exploratory study examined the phenomenon of resilience despite high levels of acculturative stress in a sample of 96 church-affiliated Haitian immigrant adolescents. Two domains of the resilience process were examined: academic resilience which was operationalized by school grades (GPA) and emotional resilience which was operationalized by measures of depression and anxiety. Variables examined for their predictive relationships with resilience were: locus of control, biculturalism, religious affiliation, parental influence, special education attendance, and bilingual education attendance. Acculturative stress was operationalized by scores on the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental (SAFE) scale. Two aspects of the acculturation process were examined: (1) acculturation orientation or the degree to which young Haitian immigrants adopted a monocultural or bicultural ethnic identity during the acculturation process, and (2) biculturality or the degree to which they maintained social interactions and contact with one culture to the exclusion of the other (Haitian or American) or both cultures (Haitian and American). Various mechanisms were found to be involved in protective and vulnerability processes. Bicultural acculturation orientation emerged as a strong predictor of academic resilience, and parental influence as a strong predictor of emotional resilience. Acculturative stress and biculturality were found to be operating as vulnerability factors for emotional resilience. However, acculturative stress was a stronger and more consistent predictor of emotional resilience (anxiety) among first generation than among second generation immigrants. Gender differences were also noted. Females were noted to be more vulnerable to emotional distress than males. These findings were discussed in terms of their implications for interventions, recommendations for future research, and theoretical definitions for resilience. It was suggested that more attention be paid to the mental health of bicultural youth. [Source: DA]

Crane, Ken R. 1998. "Religious Adaptation among Second Generation Latino/a Adventists: Finding from `Avance'." Latino Studies Journal vol. 9, p. 74.
Abstract: Examines religious adaptation among second generation Latin American Adventists in the United States. Role of religion in the immigrant adaptation process; Comparison with United States-born and foreign born youth; Factors influencing departure from conservative Latino Adventism in the area of youth culture involvement. [Source: AS]

Ajrouch, Kristine Joyce. 1997. "Ethnicity, Gender and Identity among Second-Generation Arab Americans: Growing up Arabic in America." Ph.D. Thesis, Wayne State University, Detroit.
Abstract: This study implements the use of focus group discussions and life history interviews with Muslim Lebanese immigrants and their adolescent children in order to explore the process by which an Arab-American identity develops among the second generation. The participants reside in Dearborn, Michigan which has the largest and most visible Arab population outside of the Middle East. The adolescents were accessed through the Dearborn Public school system on a voluntary basis. Immigrant parents were accessed through the adolescents or volunteered through the Kfarhouna Lebanese Club of America. This study was informed by the interactionist perspective and therefore approaches ethnic identity formation as a process which is continuously negotiated. The major goal of this research is to ascertain the impact of both the American culture and the Arab culture upon the formation of personal and community identities among these adolescents. Focus group discussions and life history interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and then analyzed through the development of major themes. Gender relations is a central theme to discovering the process of ethnic identity formation in this study. Much of the dialogue by parents and adolescents revealed that ethnic identity formation is a gendered process. Specifically, there are a set of restrictions placed upon the females by parents with regard to social outings, particularly with regards to dating, which does not apply to males. This difference marks not only the parent child relationship, but extends to the relationship between brother and sister. Brothers often times assume the role of protector as they watch over their sisters. The social structure of the community places the female in a position where her actions not only represent herself, but extend to her family and to community members generally. She is the bearer and transmitter of the Arab ethnic identity in America. Religion is a central theme because it not only serves as a justification for the structure of gender relations, but also often times becomes conflated with definitions of Arab culture. The respondents often drew upon religious precepts to underscore the meaning of an Arab identity in America. Immigration also became a core theme. The experiences of the parents in Lebanon as well as the adolescents' perceptions of their experiences contribute to their understanding of Arab culture and an Arab identity. Respect is the aspect of traditional Arab culture which faces a major threat from the American cultural value of freedom. The negotiation of these forces arises within each major theme of gender, religion, and immigration to produce the finding that ethnic identity formation is a gendered process among children of Lebanese Muslim immigrants living in Dearborn. [Source: DA]

Bhadha, Bakhtawar Rayomand. 1997. "Ethnic Identity in Parsee Teenagers." M.A. Thesis, University of Southern California.
Abstract: Thirty-two Parsee teenagers and their parents were interviewed to determine how ethnic identity affects social adjustment and academic competence among first and second generation immigrants. Adolescents and parents completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), a religiosity questionnaire, and the Acculturation Rating Scale (ARSMA) adapted for Parsees. Adolescents also completed the Harter Self Perception Profile. Academic competence was found to be significantly related to teenagers' orientation toward the host culture and other ethnic groups that comprise it. Self worth was found to be significantly related to adolescent and parent self-identification, acculturation, and religiosity. [Source: DA]

Kim, Dohmin. 1997. "Identity Education of Korean-American Youth through Family Worship Service."Thesis, School of Theology at Claremont.
Abstract: This project seeks solutions for identity crises of young Korean Americans suspended between the cultures of their immigrant parents and their new homes in America. Based on research in current literature and field work in a Korean American community, the project proposes that spiritual or faith education in the home can transform a marginalized people. Family worship services as a ministry of churches can overcome the alienation of an immigrant home in a new environment. [Source: RI]

Zobary, Shaul. 1997. "The Association among Recreation Participation Patterns, Perceived Recreation Barriers, Self-Esteem, and Acculturation of Syrian Jewish Immigrant Adolescents." Thesis, New York University.
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the relationship among acculturation, recreation participation and self-esteem among recently arrived Syrian Jewish immigrant adolescents. A total of 92 Syrian adolescents in New York City, 49 males and 43 females between the ages of 13 and 19, completed the three questionnaires used in the study. Descriptive analysis, Pearson's Correlation, t-test, Chi Square and Regression Analysis were used to answer the study's six research questions. Research findings showed that these adolescents were at a low level of acculturation, but had a moderately high level of self-esteem. They most often recreated with family members, with Syrian friends or were alone in their free time. Girls participated significantly more often in the creative activities category in comparison to boys. The perceived barriers to participation cited most often were too much school work, religious obligations, family obligations and lack of transportation. Acculturation had a significant positive correlation with total level of recreation participation, but no significant relationships were found between acculturation and the number of perceived barriers or between acculturation and self-esteem. Self-esteem had a significant positive relationship with the total number of perceived barriers. However, no significant relationship was found between self-esteem and total level of recreation participation or with participation in any of the six recreation categories. The association between the demographic variables of age, gender, and length of time living in and attending school in the United States and recreation participation and perceived recreation barriers are described. Implications of the findings of the study for future research are discussed. [Source: PI]

Bankston, C. L. and M. Zhou. 1996. "The Ethnic Church, Ethnic Identification, and the Social Adjustment of Vietnamese Adolescents." Review of Religious Researchvol. 38, pp. 18-37.
Abstract: This article examines the effect of participation in an ethnic religious institution on ethnic identification and social adjustment to American society by Vietnamese adolescents. It considers to what extent ethnic identification and social adjustment may be the product of church attendance and church- sponsored formal educational programs. Our results show that church attendance has a consistently significant influence on ethnic identification and that church-sponsored formal educational programs contribute to stronger ethnic identification (chiefly by increasing use of the Vietnamese language) and to better adjustment (by positively influencing scholastic performance). However, the relationship between church attendance and ethnic identification is not merely determined by the formal educational programs sponsored by the church. We suggest rather that the ethnic church serves as a network focus for the ethnic community and that participation in the ethnic church binds youth more closely to the ethnic network. The close association with the ethnic community, in turn, facilitates positive adjustment of immigrant adolescents to American society by increasing the probability that they will do well in school, set their sights on future education, and avoid some of the dangers that confront contemporary young people. We conclude that the immigrant congregation should be viewed as promoting adjustment to American society because it encourages the cultivation of ethnic group membership. [Source: SC]

Carlson Cumbo, Enrico Thomas. 1996. ""as the Twig Is Bent, the Tree's Inclined": Growing up Italian in Toronto, 1905-1940." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toronto (Canada).
Abstract: While the Italian first generation in Canada has been studied extensively, little has been done on the second generation experience. The dissertation treats the second generation Italian youth experience in pre-World War II Toronto in the context of familial, peer and host institutional relationships. The study is divided into two parts. Part A, examines the primary socializing influence of family and home in the lives of the second generation young. Here, the children were imbued with the core values and value systems of their elders, instructed in their importance as "traditions" and their currency as functional, ongoing strategies of survival. The integrity of these values remained even as their "boundaries" were "pulled and hauled by cultural contention." Moving beyond the confluence of home and ethnic ambience, the study examines the larger urban and peer associational influences of the "streets" on Toronto's second generation youngsters. Though the streets comprised a "separate world" for the children, the adolescent young in particular incorporated and adapted many of their elders' values in the very "independence" of their peer associational life. Italian Canadian youngsters, however, were far from mere clones of their elders. They developed a vibrant street culture based partly on inter-ethnic associations, and a distinctive sense of identity bearing little a resemblance to the ethnic "marginalization" and "alienation" theories of the day. Part B examines the Canadianization efforts of four host agencies (each an important "outreach" presence in the enclaves), i.e, the elementary school, the settlement house, the Protestant mission, and the Catholic parish. Each of these institutions is dealt with separately. Three broad questions frame the analysis: (i) what were the host institutional impressions of the foreign element, the immigrant young in particular? (ii) What were the achievements and limitations of the work as defined by the workers themselves? and (iii) What was the immigrant response to the institutional outreach; in what way and to what extent did first and second generation Italians participate in organized institutional activities? While differing in their approach, the agencies essentially agreed on the necessity of "moulding" the foreigners into "Christian Canadian citizens of the right type." In seeking to implement this ideal, however, the agencies faced a variety of problems, chief among them the foreigners' unwillingness to act as subservient or ancillary players in the relationship. Like their elders, the immigrant young had their own agendas and their own perception of the institutions' usefulness. In the case of the settlement and mission houses especially, many simply made use of the facilities and resources provided without the least regard for formal ideals. The children's familial, peer and street culture was not easily "remoulded". Indeed, Italian youngsters were more successful in "bringing the streets" into the mission and settlement houses than the house workers were in "taking the streets out of the children". In locating the "voice" and "agency" of the immigrant young in pre-War Toronto, the dissertation contests the usefulness of imposition and social control theories as models of historical explanation. [Source: DA]

Carroll, Susanne Dennington. 1996. "Resiliency and the Hmong Child Growing up in Fresno: An Ethnographic Narrative with Drawings." Psy.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology - Fresno.
Abstract: This dissertation is an ethnographic exploration of the thoughts, feelings and resiliency of Hmong children growing up in Fresno. For 23 months, I lived in Little Ban Vinai, a Fresno California neighborhood named after the Ban Vinai refugee camp in Thailand. During this time, I spent both formal and informal time with nine children between the ages of 7 and 13. The children became "coresearchers" teaching me about their life and learning about mine. Through the children's drawings and the stories they would tell, certain themes emerged. I wove these themes into a narrative retelling reflecting the children's sense of time. The children's drawings compliment the story. The use of story allows for the complexity and paradox of their lives. The children illustrate and describe coming to America, going to school, relating to their families and friends, playing after school, celebrating holidays, going to church, as well as their ideas about love and marriage, their spiritual understandings, their fears of spiritual and human dangers, and their hopes for the future (possibly somewhere else). The children's story, like that of the Hmong people, is one of resilience in the face of numerous difficulties past and present. They are creative, persistent, energetic, and fiercely committed to each other as siblings, friends, cousins, and as immediate and extended families. Still, there are very real risks in their future. They live in a dangerous neighborhood where becoming either a part of or a victim of a gang is likely before adulthood. In addition, they face the challenging task of sorting through a myriad of conflicting world views, particularly in the areas of love and marriage, and spiritual understandings. In the future these conflicting world views could become points of conflict within themselves and between their relatives and friends. The importance of psychologists expanding their efforts to include prevention and outreach is discussed. Finally, the method is reviewed and recommendations made for future studies.. [Source: DA]

Powell, Ron. 1996. "Cross Cultural Youth Ministry in the Ethnic Church." Eastern Journal of Practical Theologyvol. 10, pp. 6-14.

Bankston, Carl L., III and Min Zhou. 1995. "Religious Participation, Ethnic Identification, and Adaptation of Vietnamese Adolescents in an Immigrant Community."The Sociological Quarterly vol. 36, pp. 523-534.
Abstract: This article addresses the role of religion in immigrant adaptation through the case of Vietnamese adolescents. Our results show that religious participation consistently makes a significant contribution to ethnic identification, which, in turn, facilitates positive adaptation of immigrant adolescents to American society by increasing the probability that adolescents will do well in school, set their sights on future education, and avoid some of the dangers that confront contemporary young people. These results suggest that an immigrant congregation does not function simply as a means of maintaining a psychologically comforting sense of ethnicity while group members drop ethnic traits in their day-to-day lives. Nor does identification with an ethnic group appear to limit life chances by binding group members to ethnic traits. On the contrary, the ethnic religious participation examined here, to a large extent, facilitates adjustment to the host society precisely because it promotes the cultivation of a distinctive ethnicity, that, in turn, helps young people to reach higher levels of academic achievement and to avoid dangerous and destructive forms of behavior. [Source: SS]

Rumbaut, Rub"n G. 1994. "The Crucible Within: Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem, and Segmented Assimilation among Children of Immigrants." International Migration Review vol. 28, pp. 748-794.

Jon, Yung Kyu Paul. 1991. "Transgeneration Ministry for Korean Immigrants in the United States." Thesis, McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago.
Abstract: This thesis addresses the relationships between Korean-American parents and their children, and an effective ministry for the transgeneration in the bi-cultural setting. As Korean youths grow up in the United States, they become Americanized, creating cultural and generational problems between them and their parents. Most problems originate from changing family roles, the generation gap, cultural problem/shock, language problems, different values, identity crises, and conflicting attitudes toward church affiliation. Through understanding of the generational and cultural gaps, and with the help of appropriate ministry, these youths and adults can rediscover their own identity and redefine their life work. [Source: RI]

Kim, Dea Hee. 1990. "A Cultural Program as an Effective Means of Ministry with the Second Generation Korean Youth in the United States of America." D.Min. Thesis, Drew University.
Abstract: Korean youth in America are going through a very unique experience due to their Korean ethnicity. Today, however, virtually all Korean churches in American are struggling in dealing with ministry for the youth, and it has become one of the toughest challenges for Korean churches in their ministry. This phenomenon is a result of the growing number of youth in the Korean community and proportionally increasing problems such as suicide, run-aways, crimes, etc. Needless to say, these problems of Korean youth today are very serious ones that shake the Korean community as a whole. By no means is youth ministry in Korean churches a simple task. It involves not only religious dimensions but all social as well as cultural dimensions, because of their Korean ethnicity. In order to build an effective youth ministry, it is also important to understand the situation that Korean youth in America face. Korean youths are confronted by the two different cultures, and often struggling to find the ways to balance these two cultures. Obviously, for them, it is not an easy task, and there is a need for much guidance and support which must be provided by youth ministry. Given these issues, youth ministry for the Korean youth must embrace three dimensions: Cultural, Social, and Religious. The ultimate goal of youth ministry must be designed in such a way that is becomes an effective means to help the youth grasp the love of God, and through experience of that love, to become responsible individuals of God in society. However, in order to achieve that goal, it is essential to incorporate the above three dimensions. [Source: DA]

Galperin, Mikhail David. 1989. Soviet Jewish Emigre Adolescents' Adjustment to the U.S.: Comparisons with American Norms and Inter-Relationships of Parent- and Self-Reported Adolescent Psychopathology and Social Adjustment with Family Environment Factors, Parental Attitudes and Demographics. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International.

Munoz Rivera, Brindice. 1989. "A Pastoral Counseling Program for Mexican-Immigrant Families." D.Min. Thesis, School of Theology At Claremont, Claremont.
Abstract: Mexican immigrants have different values than the Anglos. When they come to the United States, they bring their culture, which is very rich, and experience many conflicts because of the different culture in which they are living. The author of this project read several books and did research among the Mexican-immigrant families in Long Beach, California to determine if their values were changed, what kinds of conflicts they were dealing with, and their suggestions on how to deal with them. After examining the results, a pastoral counseling program was developed to help families deal better with their conflicts and adjust to this culture. More than thirty questionnaires were prepared and distributed among the Mexican immigrants, the majority of them undocumented and from different areas of the city. Of the questionnaires distributed, twenty were collected by youth, men and women. Some of the values considered important for them were personalism, familism, spiritual concerns (justice, love, and loyalty), parental approval for courtship and marriage, support of grandparents, discipline of children, and fatalism. According to the results, the majority of the traditional values have been maintained, although the Anglo culture is influencing the immigrants, especially the youth. Among the conflicts that the immigrant considered very important were: young people and drugs, lack of health insurance, lack of employment, the discipline of young people, youth and gangs, and high crime. Because of these conflicts and differences in values from white middle-class Americans, a pastoral counseling program to the Mexican immigrants should use different types of counseling in order to to be effective. The author proposes a type of counseling that gives more direct advice, help, and support to the poor regarding their needs. These persons seek help which is related to their material needs. The author and volunteers from the church will give help or refer these persons to other agencies. After they develop trust, other counseling techniques can be used to help them, such as pluralistic counseling, group counseling, family therapy, and assertiveness training. [Source: DA]

Stepp, Theodore J. Jr. 1989. "Serving Samoan Youth in Honolulu: Culture, Religious Education, and Social Adjustment." M.A. Thesis, University of Hawaii, Manoa.
Abstract: A study of Samoan behavioral norms, Samoan Christianity, and the history of Samoan migration to Hawai'i reveals the complex cultural and psychological dimensions of social adjustment problems among immigrant Samoan youth and the potential for religious education to contribute to the resolution of some of these problems. The purpose of this study was to bring the research insights to bear on current Roman Catholic parish religious education programs in order to propose enhancements to those programs that might benefit Samoan immigrant youth in particular. Recommendations based on the research and analysis include policy and program proposals in the areas of theology and culture, teacher recruitment and training, curriculum development and methodology, and parental involvement in the religious education process. [Source: DA]

Gonzalez, Rocio Revuelta. 1988. "The Impact of Family Support System and Strength of Religious Affiliation on Levels of Alienation and Acculturation among Mexican-American Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles.
Abstract: This study examined the importance of family support and strength of religious affiliation on levels of alienation and acculturation among Mexican-American adolescents. Previous studies have attempted to prove that more acculturated individuals were psychologically healthier. Another previous study showed an inverse correlation between acculturation and feelings of alienation towards the New Mexico educational system. Ninety-two subjects (33 males and 59 females) between the ages of 14 and 18 responded to questionnaires measuring acculturation, alienation, family support, and religious affiliation. Forty-six subjects were members of youth ministry programs in Los Angeles County and the other 46 subjects were randomly selected from the same geographic areas. The results of this study indicated no significant correlations between type of acculturation and alienation. There was a significant positive correlation between cultural incorporation and family support, a significant inverse correlation between religious affiliation and alienation, and a significant negative correlation between religious affiliation and powerlessness for the total sample. For the teenagers who were members of youth ministry programs, there was a significant positive correlation between religious affiliation and social isolation. For those teenagers who were not members of youth ministry groups, there was a significant inverse relationship between family support and alienation. [Source: DA]

Wu, David Y. 1988. "Imaginary Audience Egocentrism and Spiritual Well-Being among Church-Going American-Born Chinese Adolescents." Thesis, Biola University Talbot School of Theology.

Varghese, Philip. 1984. "Helping Immigrant Mar Thoma Christian Youth and Parents Face Adolescent Identity Crises: A Shared Praxis Model." Thesis, Perkins School of Theology at Southern Methodist University.
Abstract: Children of immigrant families have to cope with the normal adolescent "identity crisis" in a bicultural setting. Members of the Mar Thoma church of South India failed to anticipate the serious and complex nature of this problem for their congregation in Dallas, Texas. This project addressed this issue by building on a strong family structure and providing the resources of the Christian faith so that communication was enhanced between parents and children. Parents and children thought family communication was facilitated when a shared praxis model was used. They better understood the inter-cultural tensions and each other's perspectives. [Source: RI]

Kim, Mark Heung Soo. 1982. "The Role of the Korean Church in Ministry with Korean Immigrant Youth."Thesis, Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston.
Abstract: This report describes the development and evaluation of ministry programs with Korean immigrant youth. These were implemented in the local church, Chicago metropolitan area, and as a national youth leadership program. This project included a nationwide questionnaire survey which identified needs and problems of Korean youth, and is based on study of the transition of biculturalism of Korean immigrants, with special reference to youth-parent relationships. It is grounded in a "vision theology" for Korean immigrants that has both theoretical and practical aspects. Recommendations included bilingual preaching, fostering parent-teen understanding, and a "selective assimilation" approach. [Source: RI]

Kim, Paul Shu. 1980. "A Study of Ministry to Second Generation Korean Immigrants in the Church." D.Min. Thesis, Drew University, Madison.
Abstract: For several years the author has been convinced that there is a desperate need to awaken the Korean Church to its mission to second generation Korean immigrants. He has discerned a tendency on the part of many young Korean-Americans to stay away from church, feeling the Church is not interested in youth and its problems. To ascertain whether his theory is correct, the author took steps toward identification of the basic problems of the Korean immigrant churches in their life situations in America. He then sought to find a solution for the same. This project has been developed in six areas. A brief history is presented of Korean emigration to American from 1903 to the present, explaining the characteristics of the different immigrant groups and their reasons for emigrating. The social problems facing the Korean immigrant in the new world are: racial, cultural, economic, educational (children), differences in family life between parents and children, language, and assimilation. The four periods through which the Korean immigrant churches in America have passed are: (1) Their beginnings and growth (1903-1918); (2) The period of conflicts, divisions (1919-1945); (3) The period of status quo (1946-1967); (4) The period of revival (1968 - ). The author interviewed forty Korean pastors of Greater New York delving into the problems of the churches. He discusses the pastors, their qualifications, theology and roles; also the make-up of the congregations. The author, believing the ideal ministry has our Lord at its center with equal emphasis placed on worship, mission, fellowship, education, service to the community, discusses the three functions of the church: (1) Kerygmatic; (2) Diakonic; (3) Koinoniac. Leadership for the second generation is lacking; the curricula supplied is inadequate; the worship services are irrelevant to second generation Korean-American youth and their problems. The character of the Korean Church is unique, functioning not solely as a religious institution but forming the basis and source for the Korean immigrant's new life within his community, supplying him with the cultural, mental and political sustenance he needs. To ascertain the basic needs of the youth ministry in the church, the author created and distributed a six- page questionnaire which was filled out by 125 Korean- American youths. Their answers, indicating problems and giving suggestions, were tabulated. A one-day seminar on Christian Education for Second Generation Korean Immigrants was held. As part of the seminar the author led a workshop to determine the unique need of a ministry to second generation Koreans. The workshop was divided into four study groups: (1) Worship; (2) Christian Education; (3) Identity; (4) Image of Pastor and Church Administration. Each group rendered a report of their findings. The author conducted a thirteen-week experimental bi- lingual ministry starting with fifteen youths from his own congregation which increased to twenty-five. They met for two hours a week on Saturdays for three months. The program created by the author was attended twice by some of the parents. At its conclusion the program was evaluated by both the first and second generations. Theological foundation for this project is based upon a concept of the church as the body of Christ where the Holy Spirit is at work, which finds its expression in a worshipping, reconciling and serving fellowship. The differences existing between the first and second generation's theological understanding of culture and faith were explored and the theological basis cited for the author's suggested ministry of reconciliation. Basically the goal of the project can be summed up as a program of Christian nurture for the second generation Korean. The author concludes there is a definite necessity for a ministry to the second generation. He believes that while retaining the second generation's cultural heritage, such a ministry should be Christ-centered. He submits his thirteen-week bi-lingual ministry as a model. [Source: DA]

Yamaoka, Haruo, David S. Steward, and Margaret S. Steward. 1979. "Defining New Buddhist Education: A Study of Japanese American Buddhist and Christian Youth." Religious Education vol. 74, pp. 295-303.
Abstract: This interview study determines the areas of interest and problems which young people active in the Buddhist Churches of America report in the relation of their ethnic heritage and identity to their functioning in American society. The study serves as background information in the development of new educational resources for youth to be used in the Buddhist Churches of America. New Buddhist education needs to be characterized by 1) the lived history of persons of Japanese ancestry in the United States; 2) reliance on family members as a source of information and wisdom; 3) confidence in traditional Japanese values for peer friendship relations; 4) awareness of the temple as a natural place for teaching both the content and life-implications of Buddhist concerns. [Source: RI]

Barron, Frank and Harben B. Young. 1970. "Rome and Boston: A Tale of Two Cities and Their Differing Impact on the Creativity and Personal Philosophy of Southern Italian Immigrants." Journal of Cross Cultural Psychologyvol. 1, pp. 91-114.
Abstract: Various psychological tests and questionnaires were administered to 95 Boston adolescents whose grandparents had migrated from Southern Italy around 1900 and 125 similar adolescents in Rome. The Boston Ss were found to be more religiously orthodox and socially conservative. The Rome group was also higher in ideational fluency, originality, and flexibility, though not in intelligence. [Source: PI]