Minority Groups: Hispanic

Maldonado, David. 2001. Crossing Guadalupe Street: Growing up Hispanic and Protestant. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege. 2001. "Family and Peer Influences on Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors in Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males." Dr.P.H. Thesis, Loma Linda University.
Abstract: In California, pregnancy is one of the most important social problems in adolescence. Although, the teenage pregnancy rate has been decreasing since 1991, the number of babies fathered by males younger than 20 years remains high due to frequent sexual involvement, particularly in Black and Hispanic youths. A total of 178 adolescent males, 88 Blacks and 90 Hispanics, aged 13 to 19 years were selected from a database of a 1996 Youth Survey conducted as part of the local needs assessment in neighborhoods with high rates of teen pregnancy in San Bernardino County, California. The purpose of this study was to assess the sexual attitudes and behaviors, and to investigate the relationships of family and peer factors and the dimensions of the expanded Health Belief Model with sexual involvement in the study population. Nearly 67% of the sample were sexually experienced. Of them, 71% were Blacks and 63% were Hispanics. Approximately, 36% of Blacks and 33% of Hispanics reported being sexually experienced by age 13 years. Almost 43% of Blacks and 40% of Hispanics reported that they had sexual intercourse during the month preceding the survey. Both Black and Hispanic adolescent males who had been sexually experienced reported a strong belief that sexual intercourse validates masculinity and increases a closeness to a girlfriend. Findings from the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that, as exposure to the family and peer risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of sexual involvement in both Black and Hispanic respondents. Black adolescent males were more likely to be influenced by having a father who had been a teen dad (OR = 2.8), whereas Hispanics were more likely to be influenced by having a sibling who had been a teen parent (OR = 9.8). Black and Hispanic respondents who perceived peer pressure as a reason to engage in sexual behaviors were twice as likely to engage in sexual behavior themselves, when compared with those who were not influenced by their peers. Two dimensions of the expanded Health Belief Model, perceived benefits of sexual intercourse and perceived self-efficacy of refusing sexual intercourse predicted sexual involvement in both ethnic groups. Results of this study can be used to design comprehensive health education and social programs that involve parents, youths, siblings, peers, church leaders, community groups, and school teachers. These programs should be culturally appropriate in order to help Black and Hispanic teens take control over their sexual behaviors. Recommendations include a longitudinal design to explore the factors that influence some adolescent males abstain from engaging in sexual behaviors until a later age. [Source: DA]

Skinner, D. G., V. Correa, M. Skinner, and D. B. Bailey. 2001. "Role of Religion in the Lives of Latino Families of Young Children with Developmental Delays."American Journal on Mental Retardation vol. 106, pp. 297-313.
Abstract: We interviewed 250 parents of Mexican and Puerto Rican origin living in the United States who had young children with developmental delays to determine the role of religion in their lives. Quantitative results indicate that parents largely viewed themselves as religious, were affiliated with a formal religion, and participated in religious activities. Most parents viewed both church and faith as supportive, but faith was shown to provide more support. Repeated measures a analysis of variance found some intragroup variations in religious support and changes in support after learning of the child's condition. Thematic analysis revealed specific religious beliefs and practices parents viewed as supportive, and content and cultural models analyses indicated the religious frameworks by which parents interpreted their child's disability. [Source: SC]

Cook, K. V. 2000. ""You Have to Have Somebody Watching Your Back, and If That's God, Then That's Mighty Big": The Church's Role in the Resilience of Inner-City Youth." Adolescence vol. 35, pp. 717-730.
Abstract: This study was designed to explore Freeman's (1986) finding that the institution that made the greatest contribution to male African-American youths' socioeconomic success was the church. Thirty-two African-American, Haitian-American, and Latino male and female teenagers - 16 drawn from inner-city Protestant churches and 16 comparison teenagers from the same communities - were interviewed. The interviews revealed that churched teenagers were less stressed and less likely to have psychological problems than were teenagers in the comparison group. They also appeared more likely to be living with both biological parents, less likely to have a family member on welfare, and more likely to have a job when compared with the other teenagers. They described the church as being central to their lives and as having multiple functions, many of which have been identified in the resilience literature as contributing to positive developmental outcomes. Results are interpreted in light of the transactional model, and recommendations are made, such as expanding the role of the church within these ethnic communities. [Source: SC]

Hernandez, Edwin I. and Roger L. Dudley. 2000. "Education and the Latino Seventh-Day Adventist Church." Journal of Adventist Educaiton vol. October/November, pp. 17-21.

McClure, Regina M. 2000. "Attitudinal Correlates of Abortion among Female Adolescent Offenders." Ph.D. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary School of Psychology.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was twofold, to examine: (a) the association between age and the percentage of pregnancies ending in abortion, and (b) the relationships between abortion attitudes, and religious participation and unwanted sexual experiences. This study is important in that it utilized a nonclinical, at-risk sample of Black and Latina female adolescents and measured a large, diverse group of demographic and risk variables. One hundred female adolescent offenders were administered a questionnaire to assess (a) number of pregnancies, (b) number of abortions, (c) abortion attitudes, and (d) frequency of religious participation. The Sexual Abuse Exposure Questionnaire measured exposure to unwanted sexual experiences. A correlational approach produced inconclusive results; however, demographic characteristics identified for this at-risk group can inform pregnancy prevention and options counseling. [Source: DA]

Miller, K. S., R. Forehand, and B. A. Kotchick. 2000. "Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Two Ethnic Minority Groups: A Multisystem Perspective." Adolescence vol. 35, pp. 313-333.
Abstract: Adolescents are at high risk for a number of negative health consequences associated with early and unsafe sexual activity, such as infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as unintended pregnancy. In the present study, a multisystem model was applied to one adolescent sexual behavior, penile-vaginal intercourse. Nine hundred seven Black and Hispanic adolescents (aged 14 to 17 years) and their mothers were interviewed. Factors from three systems (self, family, and extrafamilial) that are influential in the lives of adolescents were evaluated using four outcome measures. Factors from most or all systems emerged as predictors of each outcome measure. A cumulative risk index suggested a linear relationship between the number of systems identified as being at risk and indicators of adolescent sexual behavior. The implications for prevention are discussed. [Source: ML]

Small, Nelson DaCosta. 2000. "Academic Achievement Orientation of West Indian American Parents and Adolescents." Ed.D. Thesis, Florida International University.
Abstract: Literature addressing academic achievement orientation of Black adolescents in the United States often depicts poor school related attitudes and adaptation patterns, low academic achievement, and deficient family backgrounds. However, some researchers maintained that certain Black immigrant groups possessed positive academic achievement orientations and exemplary academic achievements (Ogbu, 1991; Gibson, 1991; Vernez, & Abrahamse, 1996). In this study, I attempted to combine qualitative data from multiple sources (surveys, interviews, observations, literature, and document analysis), using standard case study methodology and the constant comparative method of analysis to understand the relationship that existed between the academic achievement orientation of a select group of West Indian American parents and adolescents in Broward County, Florida. The sub-sample of 11 families, comprising 15 adolescents and 13 parents, was selected through maximum variation sampling from a pool of 23 families. The findings were presented as a single composite case study. The participants possessed specific, longstanding educational and career goals for the children. The parents were deeply involved and were knowledgeable of their children's schools and academic progress. While mothers were the parents most actively involved in the schools, fathers were strong authoritative figures. Families evidenced a strong moral religious base with set rules of behavior, firm parenting practices, and established chains of authority. Family members emphasized education over material things; reading over audiovisual or social activities; family cohesion over individual wishes; and academics over extracurricular activities. The parents' strong positive academic achievement orientation was communicated to the children and reinforced by relatives, family friends, and others. In turn, the adolescents possessed positive school-related attitudes and attributional styles. While they admitted their parents were somewhat strict, they voluntarily complied with the rules and were highly motivated to succeed because they believed their parents deeply cared for them and that education leads to success and upward mobility. Each adolescent was pursuing an academic track and planning for college and specific profession. The findings support Ogbu's cultural ecological model (1991). I recommend these findings to teachers, counselors, administrators, parents, and others working with West Indian American families. [Source: DA]

Sotelo, M. J. 2000. "Individual Differences in Political Tolerance among Adolescents." Social Behavior and Personality vol. 28, pp. 185-192.
Abstract: In this study, political tolerance is defined as the willingness to extend human rights to different socio-political groups. We considered 12 rights based on Human Rights and the 13 socio-political groups most relevant to Spain. Results based on 273 Spanish adolescents suggest that rights with a higher social component are extended more willingly than those which are more political in nature. This study also attempted to find variables related to political tolerance. Statistically, differences in political tolerance were found in terms of age, political experience, self esteem, support for democratic norms, support for violent groups, and identification with a group of friends, a religious group or a soccer team. [Source: SC]

Epstein, J. A., C. Williams, G. J. Botvin, T. Diaz, and M. Ifill-Williams. 1999. "Psychosocial Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents Living in Public Housing Developments." Tobacco Control vol. 8, pp. 45-52.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adolescents residing in low-income public housing developments in inner-city regions may be particularly vulnerable to a variety of risk factors associated with cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the aetiology of cigarette smoking among adolescents living in public housing developments. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: We examined predictors of smoking from four domains: background characteristics, social influences, behavioural control, and psychosocial characteristics using a sample of seventh graders (mean age 12.9 years) who reside in public housing developments in New York City (n = 624). The addresses of participants in a larger investigation of the aetiology and prevention of smoking were checked to determine if they lived in one of 335 public housing developments in New York City. All participants living in public housing developments were included in the current study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: African-American and Hispanic students completed questionnaires about their cigarette use, social pressures to smoke, smoking attitudes, smoking knowledge, and smoking resistance skills. Students also provided information on demographic and behavioural control (such as church and school attendance). RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses indicated that social influences from friends and family members predicted smoking. Psychosocial characteristics such as advertising resistance skills, anti-smoking attitudes, and refusal skills lowered the odds of smoking. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that smoking prevention approaches targeted at these young people should increase their awareness of social pressures to smoke, correct misperceptions about the prevalence of smoking among friends, and teach relevant psychosocial skills. [Source: ML]

Liebowitz, Stephen W., Dolores Calderon Castellano, and Israel Cuellar. 1999. "Factors That Predict Sexual Behaviors among Young Mexican-American Adolescents: An Exploratory Study." Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences vol. 21, pp. 470-479.
Abstract: Investigated the association between teenage sexual activity and the independent variables of child's religiosity, educational goals, educational grades, perception of parent-child communication, self esteem, and perception of parent-child congruity about sexual values. The sample consisted of 413 Mexican American students (aged 11-14 yrs) who were in either the 6th, 7th, or 8th grades. The best predictors of absence of sexual activity were child's religiosity, educational goals, and perception of the congruency of parent-child sexual values. Child's perception of the congruency of parent-child sexual values accounted for more of the variance than any of the other statistically significant predictor variables. This suggests that increasing congruity between parent-child sexual ideas and values is the best preventive measure to delay sexual activity among Mexican American teenagers. [Source: PI]

Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco. 1998. "Barriers to Access and Succeeding in College: Perceptions of a Group of Midwestern Urban Latino Youth." Journal of Poverty vol. 2, pp. 69-82.
Abstract: To explore Latino youths' perceptions of their chances of entering & succeeding in college, participant observation & survey data were gathered from 64 Hispanic youths in a community college or a church youth group in a major midwestern city. Respondents (Rs) had a shared perception that Latino students were not welcome at area colleges; they identified a series of logistic, culture-specific, & self-efficacy barriers that impeded them from fully benefiting from a college education. Rs who had not yet experienced college life were positive about pursuing a postsecondary education, but Rs who were already enrolled in college held negative views of their experiences & chances of success. Rs' recommendations for improvement ranged from language & culturally specific information campaigns directed toward the whole Latino family to cultural awareness training for faculty & other college personnel, whom they identified as gatekeepers. [Source: SA]

Pesa, J. A. 1998. "The Association between Smoking and Unhealthy Behaviors among a National Sample of Mexican-American Adolescents." Journal of School Healthvol. 68, pp. 376-380.
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between smoking and participation in unhealthy behaviors among Mexican-American adolescents through a secondary analysts of national data. Mexican-American adolescents (N=580), ages 10 through 18 years who were interviewed as part of the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey (TAPS II), were selected for analysis. Data collected included smoking status of the adolescent and participation in certain unhealthy behaviors. Among girls in the study, smokers were more likely to not wear a seat belt, be involved in physical fighting, not be involved in organized sports, perform poorly in school, say they like to do risky things, and ride in a car with a drunk or high driver. For boys, smoking was significantly associated with liking to do risky things, fighting, not attending church, and poor academic performance. These results suggest that Mexican-American adolescents who smoke may be at higher risk for engaging in behaviors that could compromise their health and safety and for not being involved in activities chat may exert a protective influence. [Source: SC]

Rapposelli, Teresa Maria. 1997. "Family Characteristics of Hispanic Male Adolescents Involved in Youth Gangs."Psy.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alameda, Berkeley.
Abstract: This study tested the hypothesis that Hispanic adolescent boys may be turning to gangs in order to seek a place where they feel they belong. The breakdown in the nuclear family unit and how this is associated with an increase in gang involvement, delinquent behavior, and violence and crime for Hispanic youths was studied. Sixty Hispanic male adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 participated in this study. Thirty adolescents who did not self identify as gang members composed the Control group. The Experimental group consisted of thirty adolescents who indicated that they were gang members. A Personal Information Questionnaire was used to assess demographic variables, cultural preferences, and issues concerning family characteristics, values, and emotions of the research participants. The quality of the subjects' family relations was measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-II. It was predicted that families of gang members would demonstrate high levels of cohesion (emotional connectedness) and adaptability (flexibility). Although significant difference between groups was found on the means of the total scores for cohesion, chi square analyses showed no statistical association between non- gang/gang membership and the four cohesion categories. Similarly, no significance was found when comparing the means of the total scores for adaptability, nor did chi square analyses show statistical association between non- gang/gang membership and the four adaptability categories. Finally, results of the Mann-Whitney U test demonstrated no significant difference in the family type between groups. Discussion centered on the implication of findings for the general delinquency literature. The importance of Hispanic cultural values and the necessity of distinguishing traditional Hispanic family dynamics from those of other cultural, ethnic, or religious groups was stressed. Issues of acculturation, environmental stress, and the basic survival issues and societal pressures that Hispanic families face within a dominant culture were also addressed. Recommendations for future research regarding depression, post traumatic stress, substance abuse, and other extraneous factors that may more clearly determine whether or not gang membership is truly due to family dysfunction were given. [Source: DA]

Corcoran, Jacqueline. 1996. "Ecological Factors Associated with Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting."Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Texas At Austin.
Abstract: The central purpose of this research was to discover, using Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework (1979) of an ecological systems model, the combination of factors that successfully predicted pregnancy/parenting status in a convenience sample of 105 teens attending pregnancy prevention programs across a southwestern state. Non-pregnant/non-parenting teens were compared with pregnant and/or parenting teens along factors organized by the following three main systems of interacting categories of variables as explicated by Bronfenbrenner (1979): (1) the microsystem consisting of the psychological variables of self-esteem, depression, and stress levels experienced, and the social psychological variables of alcohol and drug abuse; (2) the mesosystem consisting of religious affiliation and family structure, family functioning, problems with friends, the neighborhood, and the school as well as enacted social support; (3) the macrosystem consisting of household income, parents' occupations, and race. Logistic regression modeling with the entire data set as well as gender and race subsets indicated support for an ecological systems model. The final model included macrolevel (income), mesolevel (communication problems within the family, Catholic religious affiliation, a positive relationship with school, fiancial support from family), and microlevel (age, high stress) factors that acted in combination to predict pregnancy status. The female-only group (N = 82) and the Hispanic group (N = 42) were the only subsamples to have enough members to support statistical modeling. The model for females includes the macrosystem variables of age and income, the mesosystem variables of religious orientation, emotional support from friends, and family communication, and the microsystem variables of depression and drug use. For Hispanics, the macrosystem variables of age and income and the microsystem variable of stress were the factors to enter the logistic regression model. Suggestions for future research and policy and service delivery recommendations are discussed. [Source: DA]

Swaim, Randall C., E. R. Oetting, and J. Manuel Casas. 1996. "Cigarette Use among Migrant and Nonmigrant Mexican American Youth: A Socialization Latent-Variable Model." Health Psychology vol. 15, pp. 269-281.
Abstract: A self-report survey of cigarette use among 10th- and 12th-grade Mexican American students found no differences in rates of use by migrant status. Male students reported higher levels of lifetime, experimental, and daily smoking than female students, and 12th-grade students reported higher levels of daily smoking than 10th-grade students. A socialization model of cigarette use based on peer cluster theory was evaluated using structural equation methods, examining the effects of family strength, family tobacco use, school adjustment, religious identification, and peer tobacco associations. The basic latent-structure socialization model was supported in all groups, but final models including specific effects identified both unique and common relationships by gender and migrant status. Common patterns across groups suggest that completely different prevention programs may not be necessary for these youth. However, program elements based on subtle group differences may serve to tailor prevention efforts and make them more effective. [Source: PI]

Deck, Allan Figueroa , Yolanda Tarango, and Timothy M. Matovina (eds.). 1995. Perspectivas: Hispanic Ministry. Kansas City Mo: Sheed & Ward.
Abstract: Models, by A Deck. The poor in a middle-class church, by J Fitzpatrick. Caribbean contribution, by D Zapata. Pluralism, by A Isasi-D"az. Multiculturalism as an ideology, by A Deck. No melting pot in sight, by T Matovina. Women, by Y Tarango. Youth and culture, by A Marill. Youth and evangelization, by C Cervantes. New immigrants, by J Fitzpatrick. Empowering leaders, by T Matovina. Formation in religious communities, by V M"ndez. Catechesis, by A Erevia. The challenge of proselytism, by J D"az Vilar. Preaching in Spanish as a second language, by K Davis. Religious imagination, by A Garc"a-Rivera. Spirituality, by A P"rez Rodr"guez. Popular religion, by V Elizondo. Liturgy, by T Matovina. Pastoral de conjunto, by A Pineda. Basic Christian Communities, by D Mart"nez. Reasons for our hope, by A Deck. Appendix one: selected pastoral resources, by K Davis. [Source: RI]

Hernandez, Edwin I. 1995. "The Browning of American Adventism." Spectrum vol. 25, pp. 29-50.

Romer, D. and S. Kim. 1995. "Health Interventions for African American and Latino Youth: The Potential Role of Mass Media." Health Education Quarterly vol. 22, pp. 172-189.
Abstract: Children in Latino and African American families are far more likely to live in urban, high-poverty settings that greatly increase risks to healthy development. During adolescence, these settings are particularly hazardous for their role in the social transmission of risk behavior. Community-wide health promotion using local mass media can counteract these influences by reaching preadolescents and adolescents, their parents, and other adults in urban communities with safe-behavior messages. These messages can be designed to make safer behavior more acceptable and normative in the community, to increase awareness of community resources for adolescents, and to reverse the stereotyping and disregard that characterize media content about impoverished communities. Evidence is reviewed that, despite their poverty status, African American and Latino communities have considerable social resources to which community-wide health promotion can appeal, including strong family bonds, religious attachment, and concern about the community. The influence of these resources is exemplified by relatively low rates of adolescent drug use. Health promotion conducted regularly through local mass media could be an effective strategy to improve the health of adolescents in urban communities. [Source: CI]

Smith, Peggy B. and Maxine L. Weinman. 1995. "Cultural Implications for Public Health Policy for Pregnant Hispanic Adolescents." Health Values vol. 19, pp. 3-9.
Abstract: Birthrates of both first- & second-generation Hispanic teens are high, although second-generation teens have rates of nonmarital births similar to other teens in the US. Regardless of generational status, Hispanic youth have religious, language, & cultural values that reflect the norms of large families & the value of family ties. The public health system could be used more effectively if there were sensitivity to the importance of cultural norms of Hispanic families, specifically family decision making. Suggestions are provided for accessible family planning & maternal health services for this population. [Source: SA]

Chavez, Virginia. 1994. "Latino Gangs in Arizona." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: A large number of Latino youth are at risk for a multitude of mental health problems. There is a "cholo" subculture that has developed among this particular group across barrios nationwide. In AZ, Latino gangs have developed from this subculture & are considered to be social subsystems often characterized by competition for status & income opportunity through drug sales. Historically, Latinos have not received the attention or the resources necessary to combat social problems that gang members have encountered. For Latino youth, the gang must be reponsive to needs that the individual is lacking outside gang activity. Effects that Latino youths experience as a result of being labeled as a "cholo" or Latino gang member are investigated. Other contributing factors include the judicial & correctional system, police abuse, gang homicides, & church affiliation. Prevention & intervention programs are also discussed. [Source: SA]

D"az Stevens, Ana Mar"a. 1994. "Latino Youth and the Church." Pp. 278-307 in Hispanic Catholic Culture in the US, edited by J. Dolan and Allan Figueroa Deck. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

Cervantes, Joseph M. and Oscar Ramirez. 1992. "Spirituality and Family Dynamics in Psychotherapy with Latino Children." Pp. 103-128 in Working with Culture: Psychotherapeutic Interventions with Ethnic Minority Children and Adolescents. The Jossey Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series, edited by Luis A. Vargas and Joan D. Koss-Chioino. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc, Publishers.
Abstract: (from the chapter) suggested . . . that spirituality can be used to form a strong therapeutic consciousness in the treatment of Mexican American families view family therapy as a natural method with which to integrate spirituality, given its theoretical roots of system balance, family focus, and familial intervention conceptual view of Mestizo spirituality and family therapy the role of the philosophy of curanderismo Presents case illustrations of three males aged 15, 12 and 10, a 17-year-old female and her parents, an 8-year-old male and his mother, and three siblings aged 12, 13, and 15 and their parents. [Source: PI]

Dusenbury, Linda and Jon F. Kerner. 1992. "Predictors of Smoking Prevalence among New York Latino Youth."American Journal of Public Health vol. 82, p. 55.
Abstract: Examines the prevalence rates and risk factors for smoking among Latino adolescents in New York City public and Catholic schools. Current smoking of older and younger students; Prevalence of smoking for female and male Puerto Rican students; Prosmoking social-influence variables; Predictors of smoking; Interventions that may prevent smoking. [Source: AS]

Arriaga, Jose Jesus. 1991. "A Missionary Call to Hispanic Youth: Their Mestizo Identity as Hispanics and Catholics." D.Min. Thesis, The Catholic University of America.
Abstract: The increasing presence of young Catholic Hispanics in the metropolitan area of Washington, D.C., urgently needs the Church's pastoral attention. Confronted by different cultures and different religious groups, many young Hispanics face problems of self-identity, as individuals, as immigrants, and as Christians. Given the close relationship between Hispanic culture and their Catholic faith, what works to the detriment of one necessarily affects the other. Thus, there is a need for youth to address their mestizo identity, as Hispanics and as Christians. This pastoral project was designed to assist recent young immigrants to claim their mestizo identity as Hispanics and Catholics. The project took the form of three weekend encuentros, each with seven sessions: (1) The first encuentro provided participants an opportunity for determining and discussing their Myers-Briggs personality-type as presented by Keirsey-Bates in Please Understand Me. (2) In the second encuentro, participants reflected on their Christian identity in light of (a) the Pauline teaching on Baptism in Romans 5:12-6:11, and (b) the findings about Catholic identity in the survey of Gonzalez and LaVelle, The Hispanic Catholic in the United States. (3) The focus of the third encuentro was the missionary character of the Christian, in light of the relation between culture and evangelization, as presented by Elizondo's Christianity and Culture. The report records in detail the actual implementation of the project, including adaptations dictated by circumstances. The immediate result of the project was the formation of a team of a dozen young Hispanics who presently serve as jovenes misioneros in their respective parishes. This report also provides a design for the formation of similar groups at the parochial and diocesan levels. [Source: DA]

Berger, D. K., W. Kyman, G. Perez, M. Menendez, J. F. Bistritz, and J. M. Goon. 1991. "Hispanic Adolescent Pregnancy Testers - a Comparative-Analysis of Negative Testers, Childbearers and Aborters."Adolescence vol. 26, pp. 951-962.
Abstract: Fifty-six Hispanic adolescents who requested a pregnancy determination at a municipal outpatient adolescent clinic participated in a comparative study of negative testers, childbearers, and aborters. The study's purposes were to assess differences between negative and positive pregnancy testers and to evaluate the pregnancy resolution decision-making process of positive testers. Data were collected using a two-part structured interview administered prior to and following knowledge of pregnancy test results. Results indicated that negative and positive pregnancy testers were similar in all areas evaluated. However, positive testers were slightly older and had higher self-esteem than negative testers. Of the 36 positive testers, 29 chose to deliver and keep the baby. None of the adolescents chose adoption. Adolescents were consistent in their pregnancy resolution decision before and after knowledge of pregnancy test results. The pregnant adolescents considered themselves to be the most influential person in the decision-making process. There were no significant differences between the childbearers and the aborters, although the former demonstrated higher self-esteem and greater religiosity. Most of the teenagers were at risk for unintended pregnancy; therefore, subsequent family planning counseling efforts should be directed at this population. [Source: SC]

Dodrill, Mark Andrew. 1991. "Christian Youth Ministry in Hispanic Chicago and Barcelona: An Inquiry into Similarities, Dissimilarities and Cross-Cultural Themes." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Abstract: The study seeks to describe, compare, and contrast the purposes and procedures of volunteer-led, Christian youth ministries in evangelical churches of Hispanic Chicago and Barcelona, Spain. Three cases were selected from each setting on the basis of their reputation for effectiveness in volunteer-led youth ministry and maximum diversity in such areas as denominational affiliations, levels of acculturation, and socioeconomic status. Data was gathered through observation of youth group activities, a sentence completion survey of group members, any available documents, and semi-structured interviews of various leaders. The small size of the sample precludes statistical generalizations to the larger populations. Nevertheless, the following tentative conclusions were advanced as topics for further research: (1) Some Christian youth groups are able to use their social power to help raise the socioeconomic levels of lower-class youth. (2) The effectiveness of volunteer-led youth groups is correlated with that of their sponsoring congregation. (3) The goals of youth ministry are quite similar among evangelical churches across a variety of Hispanic cultural settings. (4) Differing emphases within this set of goals may be related to different stages of group development. (5) The combination of different ministry strategies increases their effectiveness in reaching group goals. (6) These strategies can be grouped under the headings of specialized youth activities, whole church activities, and personal ministry. (7) The number of specialized youth activities in a given program may be related to factors such as the size of the congregation, the level of acculturation to dominant societal values, and the relationships between youth and adults within the congregation. (8) Both acceptance by the group members and recognition by the church as a whole are prerequisites for effective youth leaders. (9) The leadership styles of youth leaders tend to mirror the styles of their pastors. (10) A congregational model seems to be the most effective leadership structure for volunteer-led youth ministry. (11) Effective leaders demonstrate their concern for youth through their commitment of time, energy and resources. (12) A variety of leadership development activities are necessary for the continuity of volunteer-led youth ministries. [Source: DA]

Gibson, John W. and Jean B. Lanz. 1991. "Factors Associated with Hispanic Teenagers' Attitude toward the Importance of Birth Control." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal vol. 8, pp. 399-415.
Abstract: Studied how demographic factors, educational aspirations, maternal characteristics, religiosity, clarity of long-term goals, and perception of friends' behavior were associated with attitudes toward the importance of birth control (ATIBC), using 240 Hispanic 12-28 yr old females who completed a written questionnaire. Significant relationships were found between ATIBC and 4 predictors: primary language, mother's education, importance of religion, and friends' perceived contraceptive use. Adolescents who appeared to attach the least importance to birth control were those who reported that their best spoken language was Spanish, whose mothers had less than a 10th-grade education, who viewed religion as relatively important, and who perceived that their friends would not use birth control. [Source: PI]

Wong, Edward G. 1991. "An Investigation of Home, School, and Religious Factors That Relate to Achievement of Hispanic Tenth and Twelfth-Graders in the United States." Thesis, University of Akron.

DuRant, Robert H., Carolyn Seymore, Robert Pendergrast, and Rebecca Beckman. 1990. "Contraceptive Behavior among Sexually Active Hispanic Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 11, pp. 490-496.
Abstract: Factors associated with the contraceptive behavior of a national representative sample of 85 US Hispanic female adolescents ages 15-19 who were unmarried & sexually active are investigated drawing on data from a 1982 national survey. Among the findings, those from Mexican & Central/South American backgrounds were more likely to use effective birth control than were Puerto Rican, Cuban, & other Hispanic background Ss. Poorer contraceptive behavior was associated with: noncompliance with the initial birth control method used, lower coital frequency, older menarchal age, failure to use birth control at first coitus, fewer years dating, lower frequency of church attendance, & never having experienced a pregnancy scare. Findings suggest that the contraceptive behavior of Hispanic female adolescents is a dynamic process that can be understood in the context of previous sexual & contraceptive behavior. [Source: SA]

Guerra, Lee Roy. 1990. "Acculturation and Measurement of Moral Development in Hispanic Adolescent Males." Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles.
Abstract: This study questioned whether moral development as defined by Kohlberg (1958) is a culturally biased construct. Specifically, this study investigated if the Defining Issues Test (DIT, Rest, 1974), a measure of moral development based upon Kohlberg's theory, is an ethnocentric instrument. It was predicted that less-acculturated subjects would score lower on the DIT than would more-acculturated Hispanic subjects, because the DIT was assumed to be measuring only those aspects of moral development that exist in Western, Anglo, male culture. The sample consisted of 99, adolescent, Hispanic males recruited as volunteers from a California high school. They completed the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1974), the Olmedo Acculturation Scale (Olmedo, Martinez, and Martinez, 1978) and several additional questions assessing gang involvement and delinquency. The results were mixed. Global measures of acculturation did not relate significantly to global DIT scores. However, several specific variables of acculturation (primary language and SES) did show significant relationships to moral development as measured by the DIT. In addition, several variables intuitively expected to correlate with moral development (gang involvement, delinquency, and church involvement) showed no significant relationship to DIT scores. These findings suggest strongly that the DIT may not be a good universal measure of moral development, as it claims. There appears to be an ethnocentric bias. This study thus supports a major criticism of Kohlberg's theory and the DIT, namely that Kohlberg's theory is not universal but is specific to Western, Anglo, male culture. [Source: DA]

Hernandez, Edwin I. and Roger L. Dudley. 1990. "Persistence of Religion through Primary Group Ties among Hispanic Seventh-Day Adventist Young People."Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: In a search for factors related to religious commitment, 443 Hispanic youth from 22 Seventh-Day Adventist churches distributed throughout the US were surveyed. It was hypothesized that the strength of primary group ties are related to religious commitment, providing evidence for a collective-expressive view of the church, & that the process of acculturation weakens these ties leading to a lessening of religious commitment. Three components of commitment were defined, & four blocks of predictor variables were introduced. Multiple regression reveals that acculturation variables predicted saliency of religion, ritual commitment, & devotional commitment; the family dynamics block predicted saliency & ritual commitment; & pastoral relations predicted only saliency. Demographic variables were not significantly predictive, except for family income, which was negatively related to saliency. [Source: SA]

Jackson, Alice Elaine. 1990. "The Relationships among Knowledge, Perceived Accessibility and Practice of Contraception of Mexican-American Adolescent Females." Ph.D. Thesis, Texas Woman's University.
Abstract: A descriptive survey was used to determine what relationships existed among contraceptive knowledge, perceived accessibility to contraceptive methods and contraceptive use within a randomly selected sample of 250 adolescent Mexican-American females. In their home environment, all subjects completed the investigator-adapted Contraceptive Knowledge Index (r =.88) and the investigator-designed Contraceptive Methods Access Index (r =.93) and Demographic Data Record. Analysis of data revealed significant relationships between contraceptive knowledge and perceived accessibility to contraceptive methods (r =.45; p =.0001) and between the combined influences of contraceptive knowledge and perceived accessibility to contraceptive methods and contraceptive use ($chisp2$ = 81.31, df = 6; p = $le$.05). Associations were significant between sexual experience (p =.0001), age (p =.002), education (p =.008), and religion (p =.004). Sexual experience had the highest predictive capacity for contraceptive use followed by perceived accessibility to contraceptive methods, age, religion, contraceptive knowledge, education and socioeconomic status. [Source: DA]

Manning, William Henry. 1990. "The Influence of the Home and School on the Religious Socialization of Puerto Rican Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, Fordham University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to focus on the responsiveness of the Catholic school and the home to the religious socialization of Puerto Rican teenagers. This study attempted to examine intergenerational similarities and differences concerning faith development expectations grandparents and parents in the Puerto Rican family had of their adolescent son/daughter who was in his/her senior year of Catholic high school. In addition this study sought to determine to what extent the Puerto Rican family identified with a particular parish, its forms of worship, and its religious traditions. The total sample of the study included 27 persons who were randomly selected from intergenerationally linked Puerto Rican families made up of grandparents, parents, and students (nine persons formed each group) who lived in New York City. Three questionnaires, which were designed for each intergenerational respondent, were used to collect the data. The major findings of this study were: (a) Generally speaking, the differences which were found within the home that had an effect on the religious development of Puerto Rican youth were attributed to family instability, divorce, and an ambivalent attitude of parents toward active teenage sexuality; (b) this study found a high degree of discontinuity between each generation with respect to the influence the home had on the religious development of the youth; (c) the majority of the respondents had a weak identification with their local parish because of divorce and a lack of a sense of belonging; (d) the attitudes of the majority of parents and students toward the religious education program of their respective high schools was very positive and the school proved to be a strong reinforcer of values and student morale. The major conclusions were: (a) Age of arrival in New York City determined the devotional and religious characteristics of the Puerto Rican immigrants in this study; (b) parents who regularly communicated with their children by talking with them about God and by the religious environment they provided in the home positively influenced the religious development of their children; (c) the role of the parents as transmitter of religious faith values was on the decline primarily because of divorce; (d) the reception of the Sacrament of Penance was problematic for each generation of respondents; (e) the Catholic high school met the expectations of the parents with respect to their children's religious development. [Source: DA]

Barrett, Mark E., D. Dwayne Simpson, and Wayne E. K. Lehman. 1988. "Behavioral Changes of Adolescents in Drug Abuse Intervention Programs." Journal of Clinical Psychology vol. 44, pp. 461-473.
Abstract: Analysis of intake & during-program measures reveals that reduction of problem behaviors (drug & alcohol use, school problems, & legal involvement) by Mexican-American youth (N = 326) during their first 3 months in drug abuse intervention programs was related negatively to peer drug use during the program & was related positively to the amount of family support available during the program, participation in program activities, & a background of religious involvement. These findings support previous research that has shown the importance of peer influences & commitment to conventional structures of family & religion in relation to adolescent problem behaviors. Results suggest that adolescent drug abuse programs should stress the development of positive peer relations & family support while they encourage disassociation from deviant friends. [Source: SA]

Barrett, Mark Elliot. 1988. "Socialization Influences in Adolescent Drug Use: A Causal Modeling Study of Peer Cluster Theory." Ph.D. Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of socialization influences in adolescent drug use. The efficacy of the Peer Cluster Socialization Influence (PCSI) model of Oetting and Beauvais (1987) was tested using a sample of Mexican-American youth in drug abuse prevention/intervention programs throughout Texas. Methodological improvements were made by using latent variables, and by testing key relationships with a longitudinal subsample. Support was found for the PCSI model when tested with the cross-sectional sample ($N = 467$). As predicted by peer cluster theory, associations with peers that used drugs was the only direct influence on drug use. The findings suggest that the influences of family strength and sanctions, religious identification, and school adjustment are indirectly related to drug use by preventing associations with peers that use drugs. Also, the relatively strong influence of school adjustment to peer drug association suggests a possible revision of the PCSI model. The proposed changes involve positing family and religion as antecedent to school adjustment, leaving school adjustment as the only direct influence on peer drug associations. The hypothesis that peer drug associations would be associated with future drug use was only partially supported in the analysis using the longitudinal subsample ($N = 97$). However, drug use was found to be associated with increased associations with peers that used drugs at two future times. Recommendations for future research and for intervention were discussed. [Source: DA]

Ortiz, C. G. and E. V. Nuttall. 1987. "Adolescent Pregnancy - Effects of Family Support, Education, and Religion on the Decision to Carry or Terminate among Puerto-Rican Teenagers." Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 897-917.

Santos Fontova, Eduviges. 1984. "A Multivariate Predictive Model for Pregnancy Avoidance and Coital Involvement among Puerto Rican Unmarried Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, St. John'S University.
Abstract: A multivariate model consisting of 16 variables found in the literature associated either with adolescent pregnancy or contraceptive use were studied in 60 adolescent Puerto Rican women. Pregnants (N = 20), effective contraceptive users (ECU) (N = 20), and virgins (N = 20). The variables were analyzed using a discriminant analysis. This is a variety of multiple regression analysis that correlates "predictors" (or independent variables) with a single "outcome variable" (dependent variable), and it is used when the "outcome variable" is scored in a categorical fashion. The regression equation (or discriminant function) supplies weights for the predictor variables that will optimize predictions for an individual's scores on this variable to her membership in one of the categories of the outcome variable (pregnant, ECU or virgin). Results indicated that using a combination of three of the variables, namely: IQ, Traditional Religiosity and Perception of Best Friend Permissiveness towards Females, it was possible to correctly predict membership into either of the groups, for 77% of the cases. If and when the discriminant function is rotated this feature performs like a factor analysis. Results of the rotation indicated that the three significant variables delineated two factors, one labeled "pregnancy avoidance (ECUs and virgins vs. pregnants) basically delineated by IQ and Traditional Religiosity and another factor labeled "coital involvement" (ECUs and pregnants vs. virgins) basically delineated by Perception of Best Friend Permissiveness towards Females. Findings further indicated IQ to be the best predictor for pregnancy avoidance among these samples of women. Findings also indicated the convenience of using a multivariate model for the identification of adolescents at risk for pregnancy. Results further indicated the virgins to be, like the ECUs, pregnancy avoiders, and that pregnancy avoiders (ECUs and virgins) constitute a more cohesive and, therefore, easier to discriminate group than the pregnancy non-avoiders (pregnants). Therefore efforts to identify girls at risk of pregnancy during adolescence are better served by identifying and ruling out those young women most likely to be pregnancy avoiders. Results were discussed and recommendations for further research and prevention programs advanced. [Source: DA]

Erdman, Daniel. 1983. "Liberation and Identity: Indo-Hispano Youth." Religious Education vol. 78, pp. 76-89.
Abstract: Discusses how the humanistic orientation of Indo-Hispano youth can best be served through liberation theology. Indo-Hispano youth generally orient more toward cooperation than competition, toward people than tasks, and toward family than society. Their view of life as a tragedy is in direct contrast to the view of Anglo culture of life as a struggle for success. Liberation theology, which has its origins in Latin America, is also oriented toward ministering to the individual. Educators concerned with imparting this model to Indo-Hispano youth should emphasize (1) hope in the future; (2) the importance of the extended family; (3) the mystic tradition of the Spanish saints and their identification with the suffering Christ; (4) activity and activism, especially activity that promotes ethnicity; and (5) independent and objective thought. Liberation theology offers freedom from destructive ties to the past, from prejudice and fear, from self-hatred, and from lack of identity. [Source: PI]

Ortiz, Carmen G. 1983. "Teenage Pregnancy: Factors Affecting the Decision to Carry or Terminate Pregnancy among Puerto Rican Teenagers." Thesis, University of Massachusetts.

Garcia, Osvaldo B. 1982. "Ministry to the Hispanic Community of the Pomona Valley." D.Min. Thesis, School of Theology At Claremont.
Abstract: This project is an attempt to call the attention of the Christian and secular community to the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and the insufficient services available. To substantiate this problem of ministry the author brings a considerable amount of data from schools, from elementary to college. He brings together for the cities of Chino, Claremont, La Verne, Montclair, Ontario, Pomona, Rancho Cucamonga, San Dimas and Upland the comparable figures of the 1977 state census and the two national census of 1970 and 1980 to show the Hispanic rate of growth during the decade of the 70's, and projects to the future decade the Hispanic demographic growth. The project also offers insight into the probable number of undocumented persons in the valley to give the whole perspective as it is and as it will develop in future years. The project lists all Hispanic churches and their locations, religious and community programs, Anglo churches in areas of Hispanic population and their programs to these communities. The most important social service agencies are listed also for additional information. Maps are provided for the nine cities, locating barrios, Hispanic population concentration and city boundaries. Hispanic and Anglo churches are indicated, as well as basic service centers. A basic part of this project is an extensive listing of services provided in the valley, with a critique of these services showing the areas of unmet needs. The most pressing needs of the Hispanic community, e.g., unemployment and youth training, are evaluated. The project presents a Protestant point of view. It offers a call to look at the Bible, the work of the prophets, and the life and ministry of Jesus as an example to serve the needy, the dispossessed and the foreigner. It calls for theological reflection and action given the specific conditions in the valley, calling society, and specifically the church to serve in the name of Christ the "least of these." Practical suggestions are given to the individual Christian, the denominations, and the Valley Council of Churches. [Source: DA]