Gender Identity and Sex Roles

Ingoldsby, B. B. 2001. "The Hutterite Family in Transition." Journal of Comparative Family Studies vol. 32, pp. 377-+.
Abstract: This article provides an updated review of the literature of family life among the Hutterian Brethren. Recent research indicates that there are significant changes occurring in this normally static group. In particular, a shift from community to family as the center of Hutterite life and decision making is noted. This appears to be mainly due to greater affection and equality in marriage, as well as greater societal influence in dating and fertility practices.: Each area of the family life cycle- kinship, early childhood, the school years, adolescence, marriage, fertility, and later life-are all examined. Discussion of how the Hutterites may be focusing on more outward manifestations of their religion to balance out these deeper changes is included. [Source: SC]

Steinberg, L. 2001. "We Know Some Things: Parent-Adolescent Relationships in Retrospect and Prospect."Journal of Research on Adolescence vol. 11, pp. 1-19.
Abstract: This article examines the most important ideas to have emerged from the last 25 years of research on adolescent development in the family context and suggests some directions for the future. Two major sets of questions organize the review. First, how can we best characterize normative family relationships during adolescence, and, more specifically, is adolescence a time of parent-child conflict? Second, how do variations in parent- child relationships affect the developing adolescent? The answer to the first question depends on what is meant by conflict and, more importantly, from whom one gathers data. There is a need for a new perspective on the family, one that emphasizes the different viewpoints and stakes that parents and adolescents bring to their relationship with each other. Special attention should be paid to studies of the mental health of parents of adolescents. With regard to the second question, it is argued that there is enough evidence to conclude that adolescents benefit from having parents who are authoritative: warm, firm, and accepting of their needs for psychological autonomy. Therefore, it would seem most beneficial to institute a systematic, large-scale, multifaceted, and ongoing public health campaign to educate parents about adolescence, one that draws on the collective resources and expertise of health-care professionals, scientists, governmental agencies, community organizations, schools, religious institutions, and the mass media. [Source: SC]

Vakalahi, H. F. 2001. "Adolescent Substance Use and Family-Based Risk and Protective Factors: A Literature Review." Journal of Drug Education vol. 31, pp. 29-46.
Abstract: Adolescent substance use has become a serious concern nationwide. Although there are many ways of viewing adolescent substance use, family influence has been established as one of the strongest sources of risk and protection. A review of the literature indicated relevant theories for understanding adolescent substance use and specific family-based variables influencing adolescent substance use. Tn general, there seems to be a relationship between adolescent substance use and family-based risk and protective factors. Relevant theories identified in the literature review include family systems theory social cognitive theory, social control theory, and strain theory. Specific family-based risk and protective factors include family relationships such as with siblings and parents and family characteristics such as ethnicity and religious backgrounds. Future implications for research and prevention/intervention in relation to family-based risk and protective factors are discussed. [Source: SC]

Antognoli-Toland, Paula Lucia. 2000. "Parent-Child Relationship, Family Structure, and Loneliness among Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Texas Woman's University.
Abstract: Loneliness is a prevalent and serious problem among adolescents. Changing family structure and characteristics of the parent-child relationship influence attachment sentiments of adolescents predisposing them to the experience of loneliness. In the present study, parent-child relationship was analyzed as a predictor of adolescent loneliness. A theoretical model provided the framework for the individual and multi-factorial analyses of parent-child relationship factors and family structure on loneliness prediction. A subset of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) provided the study sample of 5,201 with 1,750 adolescents reporting loneliness. Lonely adolescents were more likely to be female and older than adolescents who were not lonely. Black adolescents were lonelier than White non-Hispanic or Hispanic adolescents. Adolescents with high religiosity scores were less likely to be lonely than adolescents with lower scores. Using logistic regression analyses, it was found that parent-adolescent connectedness, parent-adolescent presence, parent-adolescent activities, closeness to the non-residential parent, and family structure are significant predictors of adolescent loneliness. Lonely adolescents were more likely to be from one-parent or blended families, feel less connected to residential and non-residential parents, have few opportunities during the day to be with parents, and engage in few parental activities. [Source: DA]

Jankowiak, W. and M. Diderich. 2000. "Sibling Solidarity in a Polygamous Community in the USA: Unpacking Inclusive Fitness." Evolution and Human Behavior vol. 21, pp. 125-139.
Abstract: This pilot study explores the degree of solidarity felt between full and half siblings who are raised in a Mormon Fundamentalist polygamous community. The community under study is unique in that, at the level of official culture, it actively promotes full and half sibling solidarity through an ethos that strives to downplay genetic differences in favor of a harmonious family living together in one household. This community is an ideal cultural setting in which to examine the suitability of inclusive fitness theory for understanding the factors that promote family cohesion, sibling solidarity, and rivalry. Our main question becomes: is the degree of sibling solidarity a manifestation of genetic closeness or a natural byproduct of emotional closeness that arises from being raised together? We found evidence for more solidarity between full siblings than between half siblings. Our data suggest that, despite the force of religious ideals, and notwithstanding the continued close physical proximity of half siblings in the polygamous family, there is a pronounced clustering of feeling and affection in the polygamous family that is consistent with inclusive fitness theory. [Source: SC]

Parker, Shandowyn L. 2000. "Family Environment and Sexual Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescent Females." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Abstract: Many interventions have addressed risk-taking behavior as they pertain to sexual risk behaviors. Such interventions have mainly addressed the influence of peers and the environment in adolescent risk-taking behavior. Few studies have addressed the role of family environment in adolescent risk-taking behavior. The aims of the study were to develop a measure to assess family environment, to evaluate the psychometric properties of the family environment measure, and to assess associations between family environment constructs and outcome variables, such as condom use, sexually transmitted diseases history, drug use history, and parental communication. The study assessed 4 constructs of family environment: family cohesion, family conflict, family expressiveness, and family moral religious emphasis. The findings from this study showed that family cohesion was a significant predictor of healthy behaviors among African American adolescent females 14-18 years old residing in Jefferson County, Alabama. [Source: DA]

Semans, M. P. and L. S. Fish. 2000. "Dissecting Life with a Jewish Scalpel: A Qualitative Analysis of Jewish-Centered Family Life." Family Process vol. 39, pp. 121-139.
Abstract: This article highlights findings from a qualitative analysis of the ways in which Jewish families identify how Judaism influences their lives. A theoretical sample of two religious and two cultural families were chosen from a larger sample of 48 Jewish families in Central New York. The qualitative part of this study, which was part of a larger multimethod investigation, was done in order to gather inductively any data that would allow the researchers to build a theory about a particular type of ethnic identity--Jewish identity--and how it affects family dynamics. Eleven categories emerged from this study, which suggest that this particular type of ethnic identity influences many family dynamics, for example, styles of communicating, parenting, values, and family rituals. The participants seem to dissect the world with a "Jewish scalpel." This "scalpel" informs their daily interactions, their parenting styles, and their childrens' self-perceptions. [Source: ML]

Smetana, J. G. 2000. "Middle-Class African American Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Parenting Practices: A Longitudinal Investigation." Child Development vol. 71, pp. 1672-1686.
Abstract: Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of parental rules and decision making were examined longitudinally among 82 middle-class African American adolescents and their parents (82 mothers and 52 fathers), who were divided into two groups according to family income. Adolescents were, on average, 13.14 years of age at Time 1 and 15.05 years of age at Time 2. Nearly all adolescents and parents affirmed parents' legitimate authority to regulate (and children's obligation to comply with) rules regarding moral, conventional, prudential, friendship, and multifaceted issues, but they were more equivocal in their judgments regarding personal issues. With age, adolescents increasingly judged personal issues to be beyond the bounds of legitimate parental authority, but judgments differed by family income. Adolescents from upper income families rejected parents' legitimate authority to regulate personal issues more at Time 1 than did adolescents from middle income families, but no differences were found at Time 2. Authority to regulate adolescents' behavior did not extend to other adults or to schools, churches, and the law. With adolescents' increasing age, African American families became less restrictive in regulating prudential, friendship, multifaceted, and personal issues. Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' judgments demonstrated significant continuity over time, but few cross- or within-generation associations in judgments were found. Conceptions of legitimate parental authority at Time 1 were found to predict family rules at Time 2. [Source: ML]

Starrels, Marjorie E. and Kristen E. Holm. 2000. "Adolescents' Plans for Family Formation: Is Parental Socialization Important?" Journal of Marriage and Familyvol. 62, pp. 416-429.

Greeff, A. P. and M. C. le Roux. 1999. "Parents' and Adolescents' Perceptions of a Strong Family."Psychological Reports vol. 84, pp. 1219-1224.
Abstract: Perceptions of family strengths of 40 parents and 20 adolescents were investigated by means of semistructured interviews and Likert-type ratings on commitment, appreciation, spending time together, communication patterns, religious values, and crisis management. Significant differences were found between the perceptions of parents and adolescents for the family characteristics of commitment, time spent together, and crisis management. Although family strength correlated positively with all six identified characteristics, time spent together and appreciation for each other had the highest correlation with family strength. This result supports the notion that sufficient quality time together may be a prerequisite for well-being in family relationships. [Source: ML]

Hughes, R. S. 1999. "An Investigation of Coping Skills of Parents of Children with Disabilities: Implications for Service Providers." Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities vol. 34, pp. 271-280.
Abstract: Over 100,000 parents a year face the birth of a child with a disability, The stresses resulting from that child's condition are numerous and ongoing. Parents cope with that stress and crises in their families in numerous ways. To learn of parental coping mechanisms, ethnographic research of parents (N=34) of children with disabilities was conducted. Results indicated that families who were active in church received ministry from the church, which led to their ability to cope with stress and have a positive outlook for their child. Service providers who use family-centered planning can utilize and encourage the religious practices of the family as a resource. [Source: SC]

King, V. and G. H. Elder. 1999. "Are Religious Grandparents More Involved Grandparents?" Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences vol. 54, pp. S317-S328.
Abstract: Objectives. This study explores how various aspects of a grandparent's religiousness are related to involvement with their grandchildren. Methods. The study ascertains whether religious grandparents are significantly more involved with their grandchildren than less religious grandparents by testing a series of bivariate and multivariate regression models. Multiple measures both of religiousness and of grandparent involvement are used. The study also examines factors that potentially confound, link, or explain the connection between religious involvement and grandparenting (e.g., demographic factors, health, community involvement, traditional values, ties to others). The sample of 585 grandparents comes from two related studies of rural families, the Iowa Youth and Families Project and the Iowa Single Parent Project. Results. Overall, the results indicate that religious grandparents are more involved grandparents, and this involvement is explained in part by their generally greater involvement in all types of family and social ties-religious grandparents are more likely to be enmeshed in social ties to others. Discussion. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of prior research that finds little influence of religion. We also consider the implications of our results for the future of grandparent involvement. [Source: SC]

King, Valerie and Jr. Glen H. Elder. 1999. "Are Religious Grandparents More Involved Grandparents?"Journal of Gerontology vol. 54, pp. 317-328.

Lovinger, S. L., L. Miller, and R. J. Lovinger. 1999. "Some Clinical Applications of Religious Development in Adolescence." Journal of Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 269-277.
Abstract: The use of religion in the lives of adolescents to repair problematic or disrupted attachments is discussed in the context of attachment theory and Kohut's self-psychology theory, with particular reference to the self-object. It is proposed that adolescents do not seek to break ties with parents or adults so much as to revise their relationships in a more adult direction. Two adolescent cases, one beginning treatment in childhood and the other in early adolescence, are presented and discussed in the context of attachment theory and self-psychology. [Source: ML]

Nicholson, J. M., D. M. Fergusson, and L. J. Horwood. 1999. "Effects on Later Adjustment of Living in a Stepfamily During Childhood and Adolescence." Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines vol. 40, pp. 405-416.
Abstract: This paper examines the effects of living in a stepfamily during childhood and adolescence on a range of psychosocial outcomes at age 18 years. Data collected during an 18-year longitudinal study were used to examine a sample of 907 children with respect to: exposure to living in a stepfamily during the period from age 6 to 16 years; measures of psychosocial outcomes including mental health, antisocial behaviour, substance use, restricted life opportunities, and sexual risk-taking at age 18 years; and measures of prospectively collected confounding factors. The analyses revealed that children exposed to living in a stepfamily for the first time between ages 6-16 years had elevated risks of a range of psychosocial outcomes at 18 years. These included elevated risks of: (1) juvenile offending; (2) nicotine dependence; (3) abuse or dependence on illicit substances; (4) leaving school without qualifications; (5) early onset of sexual activity; and (6) multiple sexual partners. However, these risks were reduced substantially when psychosocial outcomes were adjusted for the confounding effects of antecedent factors such as: family socioeconomic characteristics: family history of instability, adversity, and conflict; mother's age, religiosity, and smoking; child gender; and preexisting child conduct and attentional problems. After adjustment, the odds ratios between exposure to a stepfamily and adolescent outcomes were nonsignificant. Additional analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in outcomes for boys and girls exposed to stepfamilies. It was concluded that although young people exposed to living in a stepfamily had increased risks of poor psychosocial outcomes, much of this association appeared to be spurious, and arose from confounding social, contextual, and individual factors that were present prior to the formation of the stepfamily. [Source: ML]

Wilcox, W. Bradford. 1999. "Religion and Paternal Involvement: Product of Religious Commitment or American Convention?" Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Using data taken from the second wave of the 1992-1994 National Survey of Families & Households, the influence of religious affiliation, attendance, & ideology on father's involvement in one-one-one activities, dinner attendance, nonreligious youth-related activities, & religious youth groups is examined. Findings reveal religious effects for each of these four measures. Moreover, the competing hypothesis is tested, ie, that these effects are artifacts of a conventional masculinity such that the type of men who are more conventional (in work, civic activities, & gender role ideology) are, as a consequence, both more religious & more involved with their children. No support for this competing hypothesis was found, which suggests that religion has an independent effect on paternal involvement. Morever, it was revealed that two indicators of this conventional masculinity - job satisfaction & civic engagement - are positively associated with paternal involvement. [Source: SA]

Erich, Stephen and Patrick Leung. 1998. "Factors Contributing to Family Functioning of Adoptive Children with Special Needs: A Long Term Outcome Analysis." Children and Youth Services Review vol. 20, pp. 135-150.
Abstract: Examines long-term outcomes of adopted children with special needs, focusing on the identification of family & child characteristics & interventions that contribute to family functioning. Drawing on 1995 telephone interview data from 28 families & 69 adoptees located through an adoption program in an urban, southern US city, analyses suggest that adoptive families with more children, who did not receive family therapy, participated in religious activities, & had fathers with less education were more likely to have a higher family functioning score. Implications for practice are discussed. [Source: SA]

Gunderson, Elaine Ruth. 1998. "Effect of Training in Communication on Relationships between Youth and Their Parents." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a pilot program called Youth and Parent. The intent of this program, which was under the auspices of the Augsburg Youth and Family Institute, was to improve communication between parents and their adolescent sons and daughters. During training sessions, youth interacted with other adolescents, and parents interacted with other adults in the unique peer-to-peer component in this program. This research to determine the effectiveness of the Youth and Parent program was focused on the question: When parents and their adolescent children participated in Youth and Parent training, was there any improvement in the communication and interaction within their family system as measured by Family Assessment Measure III (FAM-III)? It was assumed that an improved score from pretest to posttest indicated parents and their sons and daughters had made healthy changes in communication that positively influenced their family system. The quasi-experimental research design was made up of an experimental group which consisted of 50 youth-parent dyads from 5 Lutheran congregations in the Midwest and 26 control group dyads. FAM-III Overall Scores identified 14 youth in the experimental group as being from problem families. In addition to the analysis of all 50 families, problem families were analyzed separately. As a result of participating in Youth and Parent, in the experimental group, communication improved for the following: 66% of parents, especially mothers, in non- problem families; 75% of parents, especially mothers, in problem families; and 79% of mothers in the daughter- mother dyads. Statistically significant pretest to posttest improvement in communication was consistently indicated for mothers but not indicated for adolescents or fathers. Results provided information to support recommendations for changes that potentially could achieve greater effectiveness in the Youth and Parent pilot program. These conclusions may be applied to programs focusing on improving communication between parents and their adolescent children in religious settings. [Source: DA]

Johnson, K., D. D. Bryant, D. A. Collins, T. D. Noe, T. N. Strader, and M. Berbaum. 1998. "Preventing and Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use among High-Risk Youths by Increasing Family Resilience." Social Work vol. 43, pp. 297-308.
Abstract: This study examines the effects of a community-based program designed to delay onset and reduce the frequency of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use among high-risk youths, ages 12 to 14, through strengthening family resilience. It is part of a larger five-year demonstration project funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP). The program was implemented in multiple church communities in rural, suburban, and inner-city settings. Program components of this study included parent or guardian and youth training, early intervention services, and follow-up case management services. The results show that the program produced positive direct effects on family resilience. The evaluation also found positive moderating effects on delayed onset of alcohol and other drug use and frequency of alcohol and other drug use among youths in the form of conditional relationships with changes in those family resilience factors that were targeted by the program. [Source: CI]

Pearce, Lisa D. and William G. Axinn. 1998. "The Impact of Family Religious Life on the Quality of Mother-Child Relations." American Sociological Review vol. 63, pp. 810-828.

Ajrouch, Kristine Joyce. 1997. "Ethnicity, Gender and Identity among Second-Generation Arab Americans: Growing up Arabic in America." Ph.D. Thesis, Wayne State University, Detroit.
Abstract: This study implements the use of focus group discussions and life history interviews with Muslim Lebanese immigrants and their adolescent children in order to explore the process by which an Arab-American identity develops among the second generation. The participants reside in Dearborn, Michigan which has the largest and most visible Arab population outside of the Middle East. The adolescents were accessed through the Dearborn Public school system on a voluntary basis. Immigrant parents were accessed through the adolescents or volunteered through the Kfarhouna Lebanese Club of America. This study was informed by the interactionist perspective and therefore approaches ethnic identity formation as a process which is continuously negotiated. The major goal of this research is to ascertain the impact of both the American culture and the Arab culture upon the formation of personal and community identities among these adolescents. Focus group discussions and life history interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and then analyzed through the development of major themes. Gender relations is a central theme to discovering the process of ethnic identity formation in this study. Much of the dialogue by parents and adolescents revealed that ethnic identity formation is a gendered process. Specifically, there are a set of restrictions placed upon the females by parents with regard to social outings, particularly with regards to dating, which does not apply to males. This difference marks not only the parent child relationship, but extends to the relationship between brother and sister. Brothers often times assume the role of protector as they watch over their sisters. The social structure of the community places the female in a position where her actions not only represent herself, but extend to her family and to community members generally. She is the bearer and transmitter of the Arab ethnic identity in America. Religion is a central theme because it not only serves as a justification for the structure of gender relations, but also often times becomes conflated with definitions of Arab culture. The respondents often drew upon religious precepts to underscore the meaning of an Arab identity in America. Immigration also became a core theme. The experiences of the parents in Lebanon as well as the adolescents' perceptions of their experiences contribute to their understanding of Arab culture and an Arab identity. Respect is the aspect of traditional Arab culture which faces a major threat from the American cultural value of freedom. The negotiation of these forces arises within each major theme of gender, religion, and immigration to produce the finding that ethnic identity formation is a gendered process among children of Lebanese Muslim immigrants living in Dearborn. [Source: DA]

August-Prudhomme, N. R. 1997. "The Relationship between Family Functioning and Female Adolescent Sexual Behavior." D.n.s. Thesis, Louisiana State University Medical Ctr. In New Orleans, S. Of Nursing.
Abstract: A descriptive exploratory design was used to examine the relationship of sociodemographic characteristics, family functioning levels, family and community socioeconomic status, and peer relationships to adolescent sexual behavior. Four questionnaires (Demographic Profile, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale, and an Index of Peer Relations) were administered to 101 African American female adolescent volunteers. Means, standard deviations, and frequency distributions were used to describe sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects, and frequency distributions were used to describe the sexual activity of the subjects. The associations between the dependent and independent variables were examined, using the Chi-Square statistic, Fisher's Exact test, and t-tests. Results indicated an association between age, neighborhood socioeconomic status, church attendance, grade point average, educational aspirations, and family cohesion levels and sexual activity status among the subjects. Although the differences fell short of statistical significance, trends related to parent's home ownership, family types, parent-adolescent communication, and single-parent household structures were consistent with those of earlier investigations. Implications for nursing include assessing family functioning and the interrelationships of family members and the adolescent in the family setting. The results of this assessment can be used to guide clinical programs for counseling and strengthening families with adolescents. [Source: CI]

Calvert, W. J. 1997. "Protective Factors within the Family, and Their Role in Fostering Resiliency in African American Adolescents." Journal of Cultural Diversity vol. 4, pp. 110-117.
Abstract: Violence has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with African American males residing in urban areas bearing the brunt of this epidemic. The violence permeating our society emanates from a variety of societal ills, including poverty, racism, substance abuse and exposure to violence. Traditionally, methods of research on adolescent violence have focused on an identification of associated risk factors. The majority of African American adolescents living in communities with widespread and chronic violence grow up to be law-abiding citizens. The reason for this may be due to resiliency within these adolescents. Resiliency has been defined as the ability to experience adverse circumstances and successfully overcome them. Resiliency is enhanced through three mechanisms identified as protective factors: individual characteristics/traits; familial traits; and extrafamilial relationships. The risks faced may be altered, and even ameliorated, through the presence of these protective factors. The purpose of this paper is to identify protective factors within the family that foster resiliency. Protective factors within they family may be categorized as having three broad characteristics: caring and support, high expectations, and encouragement of participation and involvement for the adolescent. [Source: CI]

Dodd, David S. 1997. "Missionary Family Life: Resources and Strategies for Dealing with Stress." Ph.D. Thesis, Rosemead School of Psychology Biola University.
Abstract: This study examined missionaries family members' relational resources and how these resources were related to the stressors on their family functioning. The sample of thirty missionary families consisting of a father, mother, and at least one adolescent in each family totaled 98 participants. Family members were examined on dimensions of overall family functioning, coping strategies, the marital relationship, parent-adolescent communication, the adolescent's perception of parental acceptance and rejection, and the degree of accumulated stressers. The instruments used were the Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales-II (FACES II), the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales (F-COPES), the ENRICH Marital Subscales (ENRICH), the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PCC), the Parent Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ), the Family Inventory of Life Events (FILE), and the Adolescent Family Inventory of Life Events. The results indicated several differences between the missionary family sample and the normative data. The missionaries showed higher levels of cohesion and better marital functioning, and poorer parental reports of communication with their adolescents. Differences were also found in methods of coping and degree of stressful events. There were few differences among missionary family members on the relational resources as defined by the instruments. There were significant differences between the parents and adolescents on the FACES II instrument, with the adolescents reporting lower levels of cohesion and overall family functioning than their parents. There was a significant negative relationship between the accumulated stressors and several relational factors including Cohesion, Adaptability, FACES II total score (overall family functioning), Acquiring Social Support, Problems in Communization, Open Communication, and degrees of parental Acceptance and Rejection. It was concluded that, first of all, there were several differences between the missionary families and the normative group. Secondly, there may be some differences between family members particularly at different life cycle stages. Lastly, some family resources do have a negative relationship with the accumulated stressors. [Source: DA]

Brody, Gene H., Zolinda Stoneman, and Douglas Flor. 1996. "Parental Religiosity, Family Processes, and Youth Competence in Rural, Two-Parent African-American Families." Developmental Psychology vol. 32, pp. 696-706.
Abstract: A model that linked parental formal religiosity to children's academic competence and socioemotional adjustment during early adolescence was tested. The sample included 90 9- to 12-year-old African American youths and their married parents living in the rural South. The theoretical constructs in the model were measured through a multimethod, multi-informant design. Rural African American community members participated in the development of the self-report instruments and observational research methods. Greater parental religiosity led to more cohesive family relationships, lower levels of interparental conflict, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problems in the adolescents. Formal religiosity also indirectly influenced youth self-regulation through its positive relationship with family cohesion and negative relationship with interparental conflict. [Source: PI]

Elder, G. H., V. King, and R. D. Conger. 1996. "Attachment to Place and Migration Prospects: A Developmental Perspective." Journal of Research On Adolescence vol. 6, pp. 397-425.
Abstract: In the troubled economy of the rural Midwest, adolescents come of age with a future that seems increasingly less promising at home than in other places Their growing recognition of limited opportunities may fuel a resolve to migrate to other regions, which clashes with binding attachments to local people and places. By using preferences for living near family and in the local community, obtained in the 8th and 11th grades, this longitudinal study modeled the social and developmental pathways by which adolescents approach decisions to leave home and settle in other parts of the country. Data come from 351 two-parent families in the Iowa Youth and Family Project, launched in 1989 to investigate the economic stresses and family consequences of the farm crisis. Lack of socioeconomic opportunity, relatively weak and declining ties to parents, kin, and the religious community, and strong educational prospects emerged as potent sources of a declining preference for Living near family and in the local community among boys and girls. Whether coupled with family attachments or not, plans to settle elsewhere after education are linked to more elevated feelings of depression and unhappiness about life. [Source: SC]

Hilliard, Donnie Ray. 1996. "Qualities of Successful Father-Child Relationships." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Alabama.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to develop an instrument (the DADS Inventory) that could be used to examine the perceptions of college students concerning the degree of success with which their fathers performed the role of fathering. A secondary purpose was to identify factors related to perceptions of successful fathering. The DADS Inventory was subjected to a factor analysis which revealed three clusters or underlying factors: communication, commitment, and religiosity. An item analysis indicated that each of the items in the DADS Inventory was significantly discriminating at the.00001 level between those respondents whose total scores fell in the top quartile and those respondents whose total scores fell in the bottom quartile. A reliability analysis indicated Cronbach Alpha values of.96 (communication),.94 (commitment), and.92 (religiosity). Six major hypotheses were examined and significant relationships were found to exist between the DADS Inventory total scores and the following variables: age of the respondent, race of the respondent, family structure, father's income, educational attainment of the father, depth of religious faith of the respondent, how much the respondent likes his/her father, the degree of closeness the respondent feels to his/her father, the degree of perceived closeness between the respondent's father and mother, the frequency with which the father read to the respondent when a child, the degree of friendship the respondent experienced with the father while growing up, the frequency with which the father played games with the respondent when he/she was a child, the degree of permissiveness/strictness of discipline which the respondent received from his/her father, whether the respondent received most of his/her discipline from father or mother, the degree to which the father used withdrawal of love, the degree to which the father used reasoning, and the degree of adolescent wellness. These findings add to a growing body of paternal health literature that may enable therapists to deal more effectively with father-child issues and that may serve as a model of paternal success for future fathers. [Source: DA]

Ramey, Timothy R. 1996. "The Development of a Mentor Ministry to Train the Brotherhood of the Barraque Street Missionary Baptist Church." Thesis, Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Kansas City.
Abstract: This project proposes to combat the rising rate of violent crime and social disintegration among young Black males by preparing Christian men to serve as mentors to neighborhood youth. The project conducted three seminars for church leaders concerning child abuse and its effects, self-esteem among Black males, and substance abuse. These mentors were paired with seven first offenders referred by the juvenile court. Four of these young men significantly improved in academic performance, citizenship behavior, and family relationships. [Source: RI]

Westmoreland, Cheri Lynn. 1996. "Faith in Action: A Descriptive Case Study of Project Impact, a Comprehensive Juvenile Diversion Program Sponsored by an African-American Church." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Cincinnati.
Abstract: Some African American congregations have established a Project IMPACT program, a comprehensive juvenile diversion program, to assist church and community youth experiencing discipline problems and low academic performance which has the potential to lead to dropping out of school. Project IMPACT Dayton works with the family to enhance youth development educational learning skills, parent effectiveness and provides incentives for the family to work towards strengthening the family unit and participation in the program. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the organizational mechanisms and the influences of the African American religious experiences and value system that were involved in the planning, development, and implementation of Project IMPACT Dayton by a single urban African American church. The study describes the perceptions of those involved with the project (students, parents, and staff) concerning the program's effectiveness in helping students perform academically and stay in school. A combination of methods were used to describe the comprehensive juvenile diversion program, Project IMPACT Dayton. In this study, the descriptive case study method included the use of participation, observation, interviews and document review as means of data collection. This case study provides certain aspects program evolution in the context of Christian values and mission service operating in this African American church. The case study involves the discussion of the history and mission of the Revival Center Ministries, the development of community outreach, the Project IMPACT program evolution and the values and religious experiences of the African American church that make this program effective. [Source: DA]

Keysar, A. and B. A. Kosmin. 1995. "The Impact of Religious Identification on Differences in Educational-Attainment among American Women in 1990." Journal For the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 34, pp. 49-62.
Abstract: This study demonstrates that religion is significantly associated with the acquisition of postsecondary education by white women in the contemporary United States. Religion has both direct and indirect effects on educational attainment. Religious traditions differ in the degree to which they emphasize the importance of the family, marriage, and child bearing. This, in turn, influences how much higher education the women of the group are likely to obtain. Thus, religion has an indirect effect on the educational levels of women through their demographic behavior. In addition, we show that there is a relationship between religion and the education of white women that is maintained beyond other sociodemographic factors. A refined model involving 12 religious identifications on a conservative-liberal continuum, subjected to multivariate analyses, illustrates that educational differences tend to be wider among older women. Surprisingly, Conservative Protestant and No Religion adherents do not form the polarities, but have similar middle-order levels of educational attainment. [Source: SC]

Brody, G. H., Z. Stoneman, D. Flor, and C. McCrary. 1994. "Religion's Role in Organizing Family Relationships - Family Process in Rural, 2-Parent African-American Families." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 56, pp. 878-888.
Abstract: We proposed a family process model that links maternal and paternal formal religiosity to marital interaction quality, parental co-caregiver support and conflict, parent-youth relationship quality, and parental use of inconsistent/nattering parenting strategies. The sample included 90 African American youths and their married parents, who lived in the rural South. African-American community members participated in the development of the self-report instruments and observational research methods used to test the model. The results supported most of the hypotheses. Religiosity was linked with higher levels of marital interaction quality and co-caregiver support, and with lower levels of marital and co-caregiver conflict. The associations between religiosity and parent-youth relationship quality were mediated by the marital and co-caregiver relationships. [Source: SC]

Mittelstaedt, Mary E. 1994. "Intergenerational Family Patterns of Teen Mothers Associated with Successful Versus Not So Successful Mother-Infant Attachment/Interaction." Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University.
Abstract: The relationship between a parent and a child is crucial to the child's development. This study addresses two areas of adolescent parenting in which there exists a paucity of research: (a) teen mothers who are successful in developing a supportive relationship with their children versus those who are having difficulty and (b) the intergenerational family influences on the mother-child relationships of these teen mothers. This qualitative descriptive study used a synthesis of styles and methodologies to explore the similarities and differences in the intergenerational families of teens who have a supportive relationship with their babies and those who do not. A standardized mother-child interactional instrument was used to score the quality of mother-child videotaped interactions between 106 mothers and children participating in a mid-Michigan adolescent parent program. Five participant families (a teen and one adult from each family) were then selected from each of the score distribution extremes to participate in an interview. In the interview, each family told their family story and constructed a family genogram. A constant comparative analysis of the interview transcriptions and genograms identified three core categories: family frame, family characteristics, and family function. Differences between the two groups of family participants pointed out several persistent intergenerational stressors that appear to influence the ecological system of these families: family size, family spacing, generational compression, cultural origin and mobility, socioeconomics, housing, religion, relationships, perceptions of family status, role of the rule makers and breakers, and daily routines. These social stressors experienced by several generations seem indicative of intergenerational distress. The greater the amount of intergenerational distress expressed in the family stories of the informants, the more difficulty the teen appeared to have in forming a supportive relationship with her baby. [Source: DA]

Hammond, J. A., B. S. Cole, and S. H. Beck. 1993. "Religious Heritage and Teenage Marriage." Review of Religious Research vol. 35, pp. 117-133.
Abstract: Teen marriage may be a way of legitimately culminating a sexual relationship and attaining adult status. Our purpose is to investigate whether the religion in which a young person was raised has an impact on the decision to marry early. Extrapolating from our findings on premarital sex as well as previous research of others, we hypothesized that Fundamentalist and Institutional Sect backgrounds produce higher rates of teen marriage. We utilized data from the NLSY between 1979 and 1984 for Whites and female Blacks. The logistic regressions indicated substantial differences in the likelihood of teen marriage by religious heritage category for male and female Whites, but not for female African-Americans. Using mainline Protestants as the comparison group, we find that young Whites with Fundamentalist and Sect-like backgrounds are much more likely to marry by age 19, while Catholics and non-Christians are significantly less likely to marry early. These differences persist even when controlling for geographic factors, parental and family characteristics, church attendance, and expectations for adult roles. [Source: SC]

Josephson, Allan M. 1993. "The Interactional Problems of Christian Families and Their Relationship to Developmental Psychopathology: Implications for Treatment." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 12, pp. 312-328.
Abstract: Explores the clinical phenomenon of children and adolescents from Christian families who develop mental disorders. Common patterns of dysfunctional family interaction seen in some Christian families are related to child and adolescent psychopathology. The enmeshed family, the rigid rule-bound family, and the cold affect-bound family are described. This paper presents how mental representations are associated with developmental psychopathology. Case examples are provided along with implications for treatment from both a psychological and spiritual perspective. [Source: PI]

Saito, Yasuhiko. 1993. "Trends and Differentials in Marital and Family Formation Preferences of American Youth, 1967-1989." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Abstract: The main purpose of the study is to examine the nature and determinants of trends and differentials in attitudes toward marriage and family formation of American youth since the mid 1960s. Time trend analysis indicates that relative preferences for marriage and family formation of American youth decreased over the last couple of decades. While preferences for having a family did not change very much, preferences for goods and time use which might compete with having a family increased substantially over the period. The competing goods include luxury goods such as a new car every two or three years and clothes in the latest style, and time use includes leisure time and time for work. Changes in sex-role attitudes, moving towards egalitarianism, may have contributed to the changes in relative preferences for marriage and family formation of American youth. Micro-level cross-sectional analysis revealed that among American youth there are differences between the sexes and races in marital and family formation preferences as well as preferences for goods and time use which might compete with having a family. Religious affiliation, religiosity, overall high school grades, parents' levels of education, and mother's work experiences also had effects on preferences of American youth. The changing effects of these variables on preferences of American youth were examined in a pooled time series analyses. A weakening effect of being Catholic on the desired number of children was found in the analyses. Time is included in the pooled time series analysis as an explanatory variable. Results indicated that time was statistically significant but did not improve explanatory power of the model. [Source: DA]

Schaar, Sue Ann. 1992. "Gifted Children of the Clergy: An Exploratory Study of Systemic Influences on Achievement." Ed.D. Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College, New York.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are factors, positive or negative, which are peculiar to life in the parsonage and which affect the adjustment, and ultimately the possibility for realization of promise, in gifted children of the clergy (PKs). The first component of this study is a survey which gathered baseline data on the numbers and kinds of gifted PKs and parents' perceptions of adjustment in these individuals as adolescents. Data were gathered from 90 clergy families within the Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod. Interviews with adolescent and adult PKs and clergy parents from 13 families in several liturgical denominations comprise the second component. The third is a case study of a clergy family with two gifted adolescents, one highly achieving and one seriously underachieving, analyzed from the perspective of Bronfenbrenner's four levels of systemic influence. Variables in all three components were analyzed as to their relationship with adjustment and achievement in gifted PKs: roles and expectations of self and others, interpersonal relationships with family and peers, frequent relocation, schooling, finances, time stresses, and special assets of being a PK. The most important factor was that of family relationships; important sub-factors were time commitments of parents and the degree of meaningful family communication. Appropriate schooling was the only stable variable under consideration. All others, including expectations of self and others, peer and parishioner relationships, relocation, finances, and time stress, exhibited negative effects on some PKs, positive on some, and both consequences on others. Results are not generalizable to all clergy families because of differences within families, congregations, and communities. However, clear patterns emerged concerning personalities, family relationships, importance of the PK myth, boundary ambiguity between the parents' workplaces and the home, and the effects of macrosystemic influence. The polarity expressed by the PK myth seems to be true as demonstrated by the children in these families and surely plays a major role in the self-fulfilling prophecy. Understanding by parents, educators, and society in general is necessary if fulfillment of promise is to become a reality for many of these gifted children. [Source: DA]

Wilcock, Robert Orvel. 1992. "Adolescent Influences on Young Adult Religious Family Values." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: Using longitudinal design this research assessed the degree to which an adequate conceptualization and measurement of religious family values could be conducted. Questionnaire responses from 560 young adult LDS Males, originally studies in 1981, were analyzed revealing a cluster of values centering around family home evening, scripture study, family prayer, and moral behavior formed one dimension of religious family values. Three other related value dimensions were also identified, viz. birth control, divorce, working mother. A LISREL model was developed and tested which showed that the family, peer, and religious influences all contributed to explaining variation in young adult religious family values. Adolescent religiosity emerged as an important intervening variable which also influenced whether or not the young man chose to serve a mission for the church. Of the exogenous variables, home religious observance was the single most important influence on young adult religious family values. The direct effect over nine years suggests the strength of family socialization in a specific relationship to special values. These findings have important implications for those wanting to better understand how religious, familial, and peer influences combine to shape the adolescent's world, which in turn influences young adult religious family values some nine years later. [Source: DA]

Markstrom Adams, C. 1991. "Attitudes on Dating, Courtship, and Marriage: Perspectives on in-Group Versus out-Group." Family Relations vol. 40, pp. 91-97.
Abstract: Reviews a study in which 47 non-Mormon, religious minority high school students and 36 Mormon, religious majority high school students were asked to identify perceived barriers in dating between groups. Literature review; Methods; Results; Discussion; Theoretical implications; Topics for future research; Implications for youth and religious workers. [Source: AS]

Spilka, Bernard, William J. Zwartjes, and Georgia M. Zwartjes. 1991. "The Role of Religion in Coping with Childhood Cancer." Pastoral Psychology vol. 39, pp. 295-304.
Abstract: Examined the role of religion in the crisis of childhood cancer through interviews with 259 members of 118 families that had a child with cancer. 66 patients (mean age 15.1 yrs), 112 mothers, and 81 fathers completed interviews. Measures of family and patient religiosity were related to a broad spectrum of parental and patient perceptions and activities. Religion related positively to familial support of the patient and to efforts to keep school performance at pre-illness levels. As religious commitment increased following diagnosis, there were signs of a narrowing of the family's social field. At the same time, relationships with close friends may be strengthening. Religion appeared to act as a protective-defensive system that motivated efforts by family members to cope constructively with the crisis of illness. [Source: PI]

Waugh, Earle H., Sharon McIrvin Abu Laban, and Regula B. Qureshi (eds.). 1991. Muslim Families in North America. Edmonton: Univ of Alberta Pr.
Abstract: Preface. Introduction. Family and religion among Muslim immigrants and their descendants, S Abu-Laban. The Muslim family: the scriptural framework, S Qureshi. North America and the adaptation of the Muslim tradition: religion, ethnicity, and the family, E Waugh. Islamic identity, family, and community: the case of the Nizari Ismaili community, F Ross-Sheriff and A Nanji. The Muharram majlis: the role of a ritual in the preservation of Shia identity, V Schubel. Parents and youth: perceiving and practicing Islam in North America, N Barazangi. Marriage and divorce among Muslims in Canada, W Hogben. Marriage strategies among Muslims from South Asia, R Qureshi. Family stability among African-American Muslims, N Akbar. Muslims in North America: mate selection as an indicator of change, I Ba-Yunus. Yemeni and Lebanese Muslim immigrant women in southeast Dearborn, Michigan, B Aswad. Palestinian-American Muslim women: living on the margins of two worlds, L Cainkar. Reflections on Islamic tradition, women, and family, M Waldman. Epilogue: prospects and assessments. [Source: RI]

Cornwall, Marie and Darwin L. Thomas. 1990. "Family, Religion, and Personal Communities: Examples from Mormonism." Marriage and Family Review vol. 15, pp. 229-252.
Abstract: Examines the role of personal communities in the family and religion interface, using empirical data from Mormon populations. Topics discussed include (1) religious communities and the church-sect continuum, (2) religious socialization, (3) religion and family influence on adolescent social competence, and (4) religion, family, and adult well-being. [Source: PI]

Lastoria, Michael D. 1990. "A Family Systems Approach to Adolescent Depression." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 9, pp. 44-54.
Abstract: Discusses key concepts and terms within family systems theory as they relate to depression in adolescents. The adolescent stage of the family life cycle is described as requiring structural changes within the family. Two major dynamics are addressed: (1) the differentiation of the adolescent self from the family system and (2) the sacrificial roles that adolescents may acquire within a family structure that arrest or slow the process of differentiation. Integrative reflections are offered for the therapist working with Christian families. [Source: PI]

McNamara, Patrick H. 1990. "Peer-Constructed Moral Attitudes: Cross-Cultural Findings among American and British Adolescents." Paper presented at International Sociological Association (ISA).
Abstract: Previous research by S. Dornbush has underlined the importance of peer evaluative pressure in predicting adolescent moral choices when presented with written moral dilemmas, & raised questions about the internalization of moral standards in a modern society characterized by a diversity of standards & by considerable geographic mobility, both of which free individuals from constant observation & adult social controls. The effects of parents' strength of convictions & the time & attention they give to the discussion of moral issues with adolescent children have not been investigated. It is suspected here that, since baby-boom generation parents in the US grew up in a climate of challenge to & uncertainty concerning traditional values, & are likely to both be in the full-time paid labor force, they may spend less time with their children, thus reducing their moral influence on them. Proposed research focusing on Catholic adolescents in GB is described that will explore Ss' perceptions of their parents' values & the extent of communication between parents & children. It is expected that peer influence on moral choices will be significantly diminished within a cultural setting of greater consensus regarding tradition & in which fewer parents are both in the full-time paid labor force. [Source: SA]

Schoellmann, Edward R. 1990. "A Comparative Study of Paternal Nurturance as Experienced by Select Categories of Early Adolescent Children." Ed.D. Thesis, Texas Southern University.
Abstract: This study investigated and compared the experiences of paternal nurturance by early adolescent children. It was designed to determine if there is a difference in a father's nurturance as experienced by the early adolescent child in varying groups in the select categories of sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, family configuration, and family income. The child's experience of paternal nurturance was measured with the Buri, Misukanis, and Mueller Paternal Nurturance Scale (1988). This is a 24-item Likert-type scale used to measure parental nurturance from the viewpoint of an adolescent evaluating the nurturance he or she has received from his or her father (Buri, Hengel, Komar, and Richtmeier, 1989). A child begins acculturation within the setting of his/her family. There is a commonness in the socialization of persons experiencing the same culture and society. Parents and family members bring this into the home of the child; however, mothers and fathers each represent differing modes of socialization (Johnson, 1972). This study focused on the early adolescent child's experience of a father's nurturance. Aspects of the father's nurturant activity affect attachments, self-concepts, self-esteem, gender orientation, and cognitive development. Normal and healthy development in all of these areas assist socialization of the child in preparation for a wholesome, and satisfying life in the adult world. This study tested twenty Null Hypotheses of a child's experience of paternal nurturance by the father. Ten of the hypotheses were supported and ten were rejected. When one compares variables of ethnicity, family configurations, religion, age, and income, it shows that there are differences in experienced nurturance among children within these groupings. The findings of this study provide information for parents, religious leaders, teachers, counselors, and persons working in the delivery of social services. Information in this study is also of value for family life awareness programs. It can alert fathers to their parenting habits, the needs of their children, and with this awareness, possibly help them avoid future family crises. [Source: DA]

Haas, Marilyn Goldman. 1989. "Concerns and Characteristics of Tucson Jewish Youth, Grades 4-12."M.A. Thesis, The University of Arizona.
Abstract: This study assesses the concerns of Jewish youth in Tucson, Arizona and reports their demographic characteristics and those of their families. Other issues explored are Jewish identity, family and peer relations, use of community resources, and program interests. The 382 Jewish youth surveyed in grades 4-12 were essentially an affiliated population with over 96% belonging to a Jewish religious institution, education program, or youth organization. The relationship was examined between Jewish youth concerns and family changes of single-parent and stepfamily living, dual careers, and interfaith marriage. Differences in concerns were also identified by gender, educational level, and affiliation. Results are also presented of a survey of 59 Jewish community resources concerning their utilization by parents and youth and their perception of youth concerns. Based on findings, recommendations are made to encourage Jewish community awareness and responsiveness to concerns and needs of Jewish youth and their families. [Source: DA]

Smith, Althea. 1988. "Responsibility of the African-American Church as a Source of Support for Adolescent Fathers." Urban League Review vol. 12, pp. 83-90.
Abstract: It is argued that the traditionally supportive role of the Afro-American church with regard to the family must be extended to adolescent fathers, & that its traditionally intolerant attitude toward early pregnancies has to change. Adolescent fathers have various concerns: their education/vocation; the health of the mother & baby; their future parenthood; & their relationship with their partner. The church today needs to create opportunities for the educational & professsional advancement of Afro-American youth by providing family & parenting services & education on sexuality & responsible sexual behavior. A. Devic [Source: SA]

Stillwell, Peggy Taylor. 1988. "Family Stress, Coping, and Resources as Perceived by Adolescents in Nuclear, Single Parent, and Remarried Families." Ph.D. Thesis, The Florida State University, Tallahassee.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in family stress, availability of resources, and levels of coping as reported by adolescents in nuclear, single parent, and remarried families. The 1,277 respondents were selected from a larger sample who participated in a statewide project funded by the Florida Department of Education. Four instruments were administered to Home Economics Family Living students by their teachers: (1) a background information questionnaire; (2) the Adolescent-Family Inventory of Life Events and Changes; (3) the Family Inventory of Resources for Management; and (4) the Adolescent-Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences. Adolescents' scores indicated that members of nuclear families had experienced fewer family life events or changes and less family stress than adolescents in single parent and remarried families. The level of available resources was higher for adolescents in nuclear families than for those in the other family forms. Despite differences in the number of life events or changes, levels of family stress, and availability of family resources, the coping scores among adolescents were not significantly different across family types. Sex of the adolescent was identified as an important influence on stress levels in nuclear and remarried families. Adolescents' coping scores were most influenced by the sex of the adolescents in all three family forms and by the importance of religion in nuclear families. Social class appeared to influence perceptions of available resources in nuclear families but appeared to have little effect in other family forms. Social class and the importance of religion appeared to be predictive of the level of available resources in nuclear families. In all three family types, a higher correlation was found between students' coping scores and their resource scores than between their coping scores and perceived level of family stress. [Source: DA]

Goldscheider, Calvin and Frances Kobrin Goldscheider. 1987. "Moving out and Marriage: What Do Young Adults Expect?" American Sociological Review vol. 52, pp. 278-285.
Abstract: Living independently before marriage is part of a broader pattern of family & demographic change characterizing modern societies since WWII. Expectations about premarital residential independence among young adults are examined, based on data from the High School & Beyond survey of the class of 1980 (N = 28,240 Rs). The finding that about 70% of the young adults surveyed expect to move out of the parental home before marriage suggests that new norms are emerging that fit into patterns of independence in the transition to adulthood. There is substantial variation in factors affecting expectations about premarital residential independence. Young men more than young women, those with more parental resources, those who expect to marry at older ages, & those who do not have ethnic & religious ties that link them to their parental home until marriage expect to live independently. Religious, racial, & ethnic differences interact in complex ways with gender & SES to influence expectations about premarital residential independence. [Source: SA]

McKeon, Marsha Jeanne. 1987. "Toward a Theory of Sibling Relationships: A Conceptual Model Applied to the Crisis of Pediatric Cancer." Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology - Los Angeles.
Abstract: A conceptual model is presented for understanding the meaning and influence of the sibling relationship in normal development; this model is then applied to the crisis of pediatric cancer. While the model is designed as a tool to address a vast array of sibling situations, its application to the cancer experience provides a demonstration of its usefulness and a conceptual understanding of the dramatic impact a crisis of this nature has on sibling relationships. Two bodies of literature are extensively reviewed: the research describing the role of the sibling relationship in normal development and the literature relating to the psychosocial adjustment of well siblings of pediatric cancer patients. While the research suggests that siblings can have a powerful and enduring influence on one another and that well siblings of cancer patients are often gravely affected by their siblings' illness, the findings remain primarily descriptive and atheoretical. The purpose of the model proposed here is to help organize, within a plausible framework, this growing body of knowledge about sibling behavior. In the present model, the ambivalent nature of the sibling relationship is conceptualized as a dialectical tension between the opposing poles of conflict and harmony. In the well-functioning sibling relationship there exists a constant balancing of and interaction between these poles. Rigid, entrenched sibling relationships, in contrast, are marked by exclusively conflictual or exclusively harmonious interactions. Parental influence provides the essential "fulcrum" that supports and facilitates the sibling interaction. Salient variables influence the dynamics of the relationship and determine the unique nature of any particular sibling bond. These include sibling contextual variables (e.g., degree of sibling access), parental contextual variables (e.g., parental expectations, parental sibling history), family contextual variables (e.g., coalitions, structure), and sociocultural variables (e.g., ethnicity, religion). The model is then applied to pediatric cancer, illustrating the dynamics of the sibling relationship in crisis. Suggestions for clinical interventions are given, and strategies are provided for using the sibling relationship as an important resource to facilitate the adjustment of the entire family. [Source: DA]

Ricks, Shirley Smith. 1987. "Antecedents of Adolescent Satisfaction with Family Life." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test a model of adolescent satisfaction with family life consisting of various antecedents--demographics, family structure, religion, parent/child interactions, adolescent feelings about self, and parents' marital and family satisfaction. The sample consisted of 106 families composed of father, mother, and oldest teenager in the home which were drawn from three systematic random samples of approximately 500 families each in Salt Lake, Carbon, and Cache counties in Utah during the last months of 1985. Responses predominantly from the adolescents themselves accounted for 67 percent of the variance in adolescent family satisfaction. Both parent/child interactions--father support, mother positive control (from mother's perspective), mother negative control, father negative control, and parent-child conflict--as well as adolescent feelings of social worth and self-derogation accounted for a good portion of the variance. In addition, adolescent religious behavior and parents' marital satisfaction (from adolescent's perception) were a part of the final model. Demographic and family structure variables were poor predictors of adolescent family satisfaction. [Source: DA]

Hanson, Shirley M. 1986. "Healthy Single Parent Families." Family Relations: Journal of Applied Family and Child Studies vol. 35, pp. 125-132.
Abstract: Assessed the characteristics of 42 healthy single-parent families. A total of 84 Ss--the parent (mean age 41.6 yrs) and a target child (mean age 14.1 yrs)--participated. The variables included socioeconomic status (SES), social support, communication, religiousness, problem solving, and the physical and mental health status of single parents and their children. The effects of the sex of custodial parents and the custody arrangements on health outcomes were also analyzed. A multimethod, multivariable approach was used. Data collection procedures included 6 questionnaires (e.g., Family Environment Scale, Family Interaction Schedule) and an interview in the home setting. Single parents and their children reported fairly high levels of both physical and mental health. Communication, social support, SES, religiousness, and problem solving were also correlated with the mental and physical health of parents and children. [Source: PI]

Sloat, Donald. 1986. The Dangers of Growing up in a Christian Home. Nashville: T. Nelson Publishers.

Wolfson, Orna. 1986. "Adolescent Separation from Home: An Ethnic Perspective." Ph.D. Thesis, Boston University.
Abstract: This study examined ethnic aspects of the separation process for adolescents leaving home. It was assumed that separation is a critical task of adolescence. The principal hypothesis was that adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds would experience separation differently. The differences were expected to follow the relative dominance of centripetal and centrifugal forces, operating to pull family members together or push them away. This hypothesis was derived from Stierlin's transactional theory (1981), depicting the interplay between adolescents and parents in the process of separation. I attempted to relate this theory to studies of ethnic differences pertaining to attitudes toward adolescence and preferred modes of family functioning in times of stress. The subjects were 163 college students from Italian-Catholic, Irish-Catholic, and WASP backgrounds. Five measurements were used for various aspects of culture and separation: (a) a background information questionnaire; (b) the Thematic Apperception Test scored for separation themes; (c) the Fundamental Interpersonal Relation Orientation scales; (d) Moos's Family Environment Scale; (e) a questionnaire measuring the experience of going to college. Differences between the ethnic groups in the experience of separation were noted, partially supporting the major hypothesis. Italian-Catholics demonstrated dominance of centripetal forces, operating to discourage separation and resulting in a difficult experience of separation. Italian-Catholics produced more TAT stories with separation anxiety themes, tended to stay at their parents' homes while at college, and if they did leave home they expected to feel homesick at college, and started college feeling mostly sad. WASPs showed dominant centrifugal forces, making separation an encouraged and relatively easy process. WASPs produced fewer TAT stories with separation anxiety themes, tended to leave home when they attended college, preferred to go to a college far from home, and started college feeling mostly excited. Following Stierlin's description, the Italian-Catholic families were seen as binding, while WASP families were protrayed as expelling. Regarding Irish-Catholics, no systematic pattern was found consistent with Stierlin's theory. The applicability of Stierlin's theory to families with complex separation processes, like the Irish-Catholic families, was questioned, and the need for further research in this direction was noted. [Source: DA]

Embry, Jessie L. and Martha S. Bradley. 1985. "Mothers and Daughters in Polygamy." Dialogue vol. 18, pp. 98-107.
Abstract: When daughters raised in second generation polygamous families saw how their mothers got along with each other, how they ran their families, and what accommodations they made to the peculiar demands of the principle in practice, they adapted this learning to their own lives. The important messages that polygamous mothers were inadvertantly teaching their daughters were the intricate patterns of relationships--how to live with others in obedience to a difficult principle, how to share both husband and children, and, finally, how to be a female member of a polygamous family. [Source: RI]

Rosen, Evelyn A. 1985. "Attitudes toward Women and Women's Roles as Related to Education, Age, Ethnicity and Religion." Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

Fancett, Carrie Susan. 1984. "Predictors of Adolescent Stepchildren's Satisfaction with Their Stepparents."Ph.D. Thesis, University of South Carolina.
Abstract: Previous studies on stepfamily satisfaction have primarily employed the stepparent and natural parent as respondents. Studies with stepchildren have focused on cognitive development and school achievement while studies with stepparents have addressed personal stress and relationship issues. The present study examined how adolescent stepchildren's relationships with their stepparents were influenced by communication, perception of shared stress with the stepparent, and the complexity of the stepfamily system. The author developed a Stepparent Satisfaction Questionnaire to assess these variables. The Cornell Medical Index and the Two-Factor Index of Social Position were also used to supplement the questionnaire. Sixty stepchildren, ages 12-19, completed a structured one-hour interview. Seventy-four percent of the variance in the model was predicted by six of the questionnaire items: (a) whether the stepchild perceived the stepparent to be interested in what she or he had to say; (b) whether the custodial parent's and stepparent's religion was the same; (c) how often the stepchild and stepparent talked with each other; (d) whether the stepchild perceived that she or he, the stepparent, or both had adjusted the most to the stepfamily; (e) the stepchild's perception of the custodial parent and stepparent's relationship; and (f) how the stepchild felt about family finances compared to how the bill-payer in the family felt. Several areas mentioned in the literature as important stresses were not significant in predicting satisfaction: (a) differences in reactions to discipline; (b) contact with the noncustodial parent; (c) adoption orientation; and (d) the presence of half-siblings in the present marriage. Reasons for these findings were discussed. Recommendations for interventions and further research were made, with an emphasis upon the role that empathy and perception of shared stress play in the adjustment of teenage stepchildren to their stepparents. The orientation is taken that stepchildren and stepparent can learn more about each other's stresses through open communication. [Source: DA]

Varghese, Philip. 1984. "Helping Immigrant Mar Thoma Christian Youth and Parents Face Adolescent Identity Crises: A Shared Praxis Model." Thesis, Perkins School of Theology at Southern Methodist University.
Abstract: Children of immigrant families have to cope with the normal adolescent "identity crisis" in a bicultural setting. Members of the Mar Thoma church of South India failed to anticipate the serious and complex nature of this problem for their congregation in Dallas, Texas. This project addressed this issue by building on a strong family structure and providing the resources of the Christian faith so that communication was enhanced between parents and children. Parents and children thought family communication was facilitated when a shared praxis model was used. They better understood the inter-cultural tensions and each other's perspectives. [Source: RI]

Leonard, Barbara Jane. 1983. "Psychosocial Consequences on Siblings of Children with Chronic Illness." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: An exploratory study of 77 healthy siblings of brothers and sisters with newly diagnosed chronic illness (cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, cystic fibrosis) was conducted to determine the impact of their siblings' illnesses on their emotional, social, and psychological health. Tools utilized included the Symptom Checklist (SCL 90-R), Family Environment Scale, Child Behavior Checklist and interview schedules designed by the author. All new cases of the disease which fit the study criteria were recruited from three midwestern metropolitan medical centers. The 49 families comprising the study population were generally stable, middle-class, caucasian and religious. They came from rural (51 percent) and urban (49 percent) areas in the five-state region surrounding Minnesota. The independent variables included the parents' psychological health, the family environment, marital status, religiosity, severity of the illness, type of illness, control of the disease, communication between family members, other family problems, sex and age of the healthy siblings. Families were interviewed in their homes within one year of the diagnosis. Parents were interviewed together and children over the ages of four were interviewed privately. Of the 77 healthy siblings between the ages of four and 16 years of age, 17 (23.6 percent) evidenced behavioral problems as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. These children were in families which had other serious parental and marital problems said to antedate the ill child's diagnosis. The relationship was statistically significant at (p = .01) using Chi square analysis. The relationship between the parent's psychological health and that of the siblings was also significant (p = .01). None of the other independent variable relationships were significant. Siblings perceived their relationships to parents as close, understanding and open generally and with regard to the disease. The siblings and the ill children perceived the disease differently, with the siblings identifying the disease as more serious than the ill child, statistically significant at the .01 level. Healthy siblings and ill children did not discuss the disease with each other, with the exception of the adolescents who shared feelings with each other. [Source: DA]

McDonald, Gerald W. 1982. "Parental Power Perceptions in the Family: The Influence of Adolescent Characteristics." Youth and Society vol. 14, pp. 3-31.
Abstract: A number of adolescent characteristics are examined to determine their impact on adolescent perceptions of the parental power structure in the family. The variables include adolescents' sex, grade, religiosity, & birth order. Relationships were explored by using "parental power" as a multidimensional variable, including perceived outcome-control, referent, legitimate, & expert power. Purposive subsamples were taken from a larger pool of high school & Coll adolescent Rs, yielding 458 questionnaires (231 Ms, 227 Fs). Multiple regression was utilized to examine the relative influence of these adolescent variables on the differing parental power dimensions for each parent. Adolescents' sex & religiosity were systematically evidenced as the most important determinant variables. F adolescents consistently perceived the mother as having more power than did Ms, with both sexes similarly viewing the power of the father. Consequently, Fs saw the parental power structure as more equalitarian than did Ms. Religiosity, used as an indicator of traditionalism, was consistently found to be positively associated with parental power perceptions for both sexes, with the exception of parents' outcome-control power. The implications of findings for the socialization & personality development of M & F adolescents in the family are discussed. [Source: SA]

Colvin, Brenda Kay. 1981. "Adolescent Perceptions of Intrafamilial Stress in Stepfamilies." Ph.D. Thesis, The Florida State University.
Abstract: One purpose of this study was to measure and compare adolescent perceptions of intrafamilial stress for 1698 natural-parent, 283 stepfather, and 77 stepmother families. The Index of Family Relations scale was used to measure the level of intrafamilial stress in family member relationships. Results of the one-way analysis of variance show that while adolescents in stepfather families report significantly more intrafamilial stress than adolescents in natural-parent families, adolescents in stepmother families report the highest degree of stress. These results indicate that one-third of the adolescents in stepfather families and approximately one-half of the adolescents in stepmother families report clinically significant family member relationship problems. On the other hand, two-thirds of the adolescents in stepfather families and approximately one-half of the adolescents in stepmother families perceived no clinically significant problems in their intrafamilial relationships. A second purpose was to examine the relationship between adolescent perceptions of intrafamilial stress in stepfamilies (n = 360) and: (A) quality of the marital relationship (QMR); (B) quality of the mother-child relationship (QMCR); (C) quality of the father-child relationship (QFCR); (D) length of time the stepfamily has lived together; (E) presence or absence of a common child of the remarried couple; (F) type of termination of the previous marriage; (G) stepchild's religion; (H) stepchild's age; (I) stepchild's sex; (J) stepparent's age; and (K) stepparent's sex. The results of the regression analysis indicate that the QMR, the QMCR, and the QFCR (i.e., variables which were indicators of relationship dynamics) were excellent predictors of adolescent perceptions of intrafamilial stress in stepfamilies. The remaining eight demographic variables were non-significant. These results indicate that if researchers want information on family member relationship problems, it seems imperative to focus on variables which are related to relationship processes rather than single-factor demographic characteristics. [Source: DA]

Herrick, Susan Carol. 1981. "Sibling Violence: Does Piety Make a Difference?" Paper presented at Association for the Sociology of Religion (ASR).
Abstract: The relationship between level of piety & level of violence between siblings was researched using a secondary analysis of survey data gathered by Straus (1974) on a sample of 345 U students reporting on their home situations in their last year of high school. Piety, the independent variable, encompasses three aspects: the associational, orthodox, & devotional (Lenski, 1961: Stark & Glock, 1968). It is operationalized in terms of an index calculated on the basis of answers to questions regarding: (1) the frequency of church attendance & (2) the frequency with which one consults God when faced with difficult decisions. Sibling violence, the dependent variable, is measured by responses to questions regarding the use of violent acts such as kicking, pushing, throwing an object, etc, to resolve conflicts with a sibling. SES, the sex of the R, & husband-wife dominance were used as control variables. Examined are the effects of: the R's piety upon level of violence with a sibling; mother's & father's piety upon sibling violence; & level of family piety homogeneity upon sibling violence. Findings suggest that in pious families where father's dominance is less than or equal to mother's, sons tend to be above average in violence toward a sibling. [Source: SA]

Hoffman, Neil. 1981. "Factors Related to the Foster Child's Sense of Interpersonal Security." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland College Park.
Abstract: Foster children are at substantially greater risk for social-emotional maladjustment problems when compared to their nonfoster care peers. There is evidence suggesting that underlying this greater vulnerability is an impaired sense of security in interpersonal attachments and relationships. The nature of foster care itself has inherent elements potentially harmful to the child's sense of interpersonal security. Yet, these potentially negative effects are not equally realized in all foster children. The problem addressed in this study was "What are the factors that explain the differences in foster children's sense of interpersonal security?" Sense of security was defined as a subjective feeling state of an individual, comprised of two components--the child's perceptions of others as responsive, available agents of protection, nurturance, and support; and the child's self perceptions of his or her own attachability and acceptability. It was measured by the attachment-individuation balance of the Separation Anxiety Test Method (SATM); and by Factor 1 (Acceptance-Rejection) and Factor 2 (Psychological Autonomy-Psychological Control) of the 56-item revision of the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Thirteen factors were selected as independent variables and were placed under the general categories of entry into foster care, composition of foster home, experience in foster care, and demographic variables. Information concerning these variables was obtained from foster parents and Department of Social Services' caseworkers. The subjects were seventy-two foster children (50% male, 50% female; 81% black, 19% white) ages 11-14, who volunteered to be part of the study. The findings did not support the hypothesis that children placed because of neglect, abuse, or abandonment feel less secure than those placed for other reasons. In fact, these children were generally found to feel more secure. The findings did support the hypothesis that the younger the child when placed, the more secure the child feels. The following factors were also found related to greater sense of security on one or more of the dependent measures: placement with natural siblings, longer time in same foster home, greater continuity of current caseworker, and more regular and frequent church attendance with the foster family. Unexpectedly, greater number of placements was also associated with a healthier sense of security as measured by the SATM. White children and girls were found to feel more secure than black children and boys, respectively. In general, the findings suggested that current stability factors may be more important to the foster child's sense of security than are his or her past experiences in foster care. The implications of the research findings for attachment theory were discussed. It was also suggested that the findings may be useful for the early identification of high risk youngsters in foster care as well as for placement and service planning. [Source: DA]

Himes, Bonnie Sue. 1980. "The Relationship between Family Environment, Parent- Child Relationships, and Adolescent Self-Concept as Perceived by Adolescents and Other Family Members." Ph.D. Thesis, State University of New York At Buffalo.
Abstract: The current investigation examined the relationship of family environment, parent-child relationship, and adolescent self-concept as perceived by three family types: control, families of adolescents placed in youth homes; and families of adolescents placed in a mental health institution. The need for further knowledge regarding the environment of the family and relationships between parents and children and the impact these have on the self-concept of the adolescent seems apparent when one considers the problems relating to adolescence, the acting out behaviors exhibited by many adolescents, and the growth of family counseling. Previous studies examining families often failed to intergrate theory. The present study views the family as a system with members being interdependent. In the family system, each member affects other members. The family is a circular phenomenon where the family affects the child and the child affects the family. This study evaluates data using family environment and parent-child relationships as properties of the system. The stated hypotheses are consistent with the presented systems theory. Families of adolescents with acting out behaviors may have less structure, social stability, and positive affect, while families with adolescents who exhibit no acting out behaviors provide more organization, planfulness, and positive properties in relationships. The sample consisted of 61 families from Western New York. Members of the families included father, mother, adolescent, and adolescent sibling. All participants in the study were administered the (1) Family Environment Scale, and (2) Parent-Child Relations Questionnaire. Adolescent participants only, were administered the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The 61 families constituted three family types: 20 families of adolescents placed in youth homes; 20 families of adolescents placed in a mental health institution; and 21 families of adolescents from junior and senior high schools. Multivariate analysis of variance and univariate analysis of variance were used to test the hypotheses. The results of the study somewhat supported the presented systems theory. Significant differences were found in family environment, parent-child relations, and adolescent self-concept between the control group and the two treatment groups. However, no significant differences were found between the youth home and mental health groups; except, in the area of conflict where the youth home families were highest. Control group families perceive themselves as having more cohesion, less conflict, more achievement, intellectual, and cultural orientation, more emphasis on religious ideas and values and providing more organization and structure. The control families perceived parental behaviors as more loving, less rejecting and providing a balance between demands and casualness. The only significant difference between the treatment groups was in the high demanding behavior for youth home parents and low demanding with mental health parents. The adolescents in the control group ranked significantly higher in all areas of self-concept (physical, moral, social, family, and personal) than either of the other groups. There were no significant differences between the mental health and youth home adolescents. The results of the current study were, for the most part, supportive of systems theory. The present and future implications were discussed and suggestions for future research were offered. [Source: DA]

Wilkinson, Melvin L. and William C. Tanner. 1980. "The Influence of Family Size, Interaction, and Religiosity on Family Affection in a Mormon Sample." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 42, pp. 297-304.
Abstract: Many studies have shown an inverse relationship between family size and family affection. This relationship was tested from the perception of 223 adolescents in Mormon families. A small but significant positive relationship was found between family size, family activities, and family affection. Partial correlations indicated that religiosity, not family size, was the key causal variable. Path analysis showed that the relationship between religiosity and family affection was relatively independent of family activities. It is suggested that the degree to which the mother feels her work is important might be the key variable in coping with family size. [Source: PI]

Bardis, Panos D. 1978. "The Borromean Family and the Influence of Religion." Journal of Comparative Family Studies vol. 9, pp. 231-241.
Abstract: According to the author's Borromean theory, pro-family trends are balanced by anti-family ones, with the former dominating. Data from 200 White students at 2 Catholic high schools indicate that (a) increasing age was accompanied by diminishing religiosity and increasing anti-family attitudes, (b) frequent church attendance was associated with high religiosity and pro-family scores, and (c) mothers' education influenced the offspring's family attitudes inconsistently, but the children of less educated women were more religious. [Source: PI]

Becker, Tamar. 1978. "Inter-Faith and Inter-Nationality Attitudinal Variations among Youth toward Self, Family and the Collective." Review of Religious Research vol. 20, pp. 68-81.
Abstract: Two groups of American high school students, the first drawn from Catholic parochial schools and the second from public schools in the same community, are compared with regard to their attitudes to self, family, community, and nation. A third group, Israeli public high schoolers, is employed as an external standard of evaluation. Some intra-American differences were found, but their number and magnitude were much less significant than the inter-nationality differences. It is suggested that American youth culture, with its emphasis on the self and its anti-collectivity orientation, is the most potent determinant of attitudes among seventeen-year-olds and that it embraces at least those segments of American youth belonging to the "majority culture". The impact of the religious factor on the lives of Americans may be intimately related to the life cycle. [Source: RI]

Brackbill, Yvonne and Embry Howell. 1974. "Religious Differences in Family Size Preference among American Teenagers." Sociological Analysis vol. 35, pp. 35-44.
Abstract: A presentation of a study analyzing differences between Catholic & non-Catholic young people in att's toward fam formation. A sample of 941 students in junior HSch's, HSch's, & Coll's in the Washington, DC area responded to a self-admin'ed questionnaire in 1971. Data were obtained on students' background, att's toward fam formation, girls' career aspirations, & pop awareness. In general, results emphasize & reemphasize the continuing importance of a religious diff'ial in fam size preference. Religious affiliation was far more predictive of preferred fam size than was race, sex, age, SES, number of siblings, type of Sch, maternal work history, or girls' career aspirations. These results differ from those obtained in recent studies based on short term trends in religious conformity but are consistent with longer term trends. [Source: SA]

Vandenberg, K. R. and A. G. Konrad. 1974. "Student Perceptions of the Generation Gap." Alberta Journal of Educational Research vol. 20, pp. 116-121.
Abstract: Examined perceptions of 480 high school students in urban and rural centers in Alberta, Canada, regarding the generation gap. Although only one-fourth of the respondents perceived the existence of a generation gap between themselves and their parents, nearly one-half felt that a generation gap existed for other members of their generation. Perception of the generation gap was related to sex, religious affiliation, and value orientation (measured by Prince's Differential Values Inventory), but not to age, family background, community background, socioeconomic status, and employment status of the mother of the respondent. [Source: PI]

Elder, Glen H. Jr. 1962. "Structural Variations in the Child Rearing Relationship." Sociometry vol. 25, pp. 241-262.
Abstract: Seven types of social structures in the child rearing relationship are identified in this paper: autocratic, authoritarian, democratic, equalitarian, permissive, laissez-faire, and ignoring. The investigation is concerned with two problems: (1) the analysis of the relationship between social class, education and religion of parents and size of family, and the child rearing structures, and (2) the evaluation of structural effects upon the affective relations between parent and adolescent, and the adolescent's attitude toward parental child rearing policy. This study is based on 7,400 adolescents residing in Ohio and North Carolina; the data were obatined with a structured questionnaire. Parental dominance was most common to parents of low socioeconomic status, who are Catholic, and who have large families. The likelihood of mutual rejection in parent-adolescent relations and unfavorable evaluations of parental policy was greatest in autocratically structured relationships. [Source: JS]

Johannis, Theodore B. and James Rollins. 1959. "Attitudes of Teenagers toward Family Relationships and Homogamy of Social Characteristics of Their Parents." Sociology and Social Research vol. 43, pp. 415-420.
Abstract: The interrelationship of marital happiness, affection, and similarity in parental background is studied in terms of teenagers' attitude toward parents and home, etc. 1400 students, or 91% of an 8th-grade class, were asked to complete a questionnaire on parental background characteristics. The background factors (age, locality, rural-urban background, education, religious affiliation, occupation) were rated by Ss as were their attitudes toward parents, siblings, home life, etc. No significant difference was found between marital happiness and parental background, between male and female Ss, nor between their attitudes toward home life as related to the happiness of their parents. The Ss did show a more positive attitude toward parents and especially toward mothers than toward homelife. [Source: PI]

Remmers, H and B Shimberg. 1949. "Problems of High School Youth. (Purdue Opinion Poll for Young People. Rep. No. 21.)." Purdue University.
Abstract: A 300-item Problem Checklist was administered to 15,000 high school students in all sections of the U. S. Problem areas covered were (1) school, (2) vocational, (3) personal, (4) social, (5) family, (6) sex, (7) health, (8) general. Methodology and overall results are discussed briefly. Tables are included showing what percentage of students in various sub-groups checked each item. These include breakdowns for (1) total group, (2) sex, (3) school grade, (4) region of U. S., (5) size of community, (6) religion, and (7) family income level. The analysis was based on a stratified sample of 2500 signed questionnaires. The authors compared matched samples of signed and unsigned questionnaires and found that while the unsigned questionnaires yielded slightly higher percentages on nearly all items, the results obtained from both samples were essentially the same. [Source: PI]

Hoyland, Geoffrey. 1945. Religion and the Family. London,: G. Allen & Unwin ltd.