Educational Aspirations

Taylor, A. 2001. "'Fellow Travellers' and 'True Believers': A Case Study of Religion and Politics in Alberta Schools." Journal of Education Policy vol. 16, pp. 15-37.
Abstract: The topic of religion within public schools has generated interest in several countries in recent years. In Canada, the United States, and England, educational policies favouring greater parental choice in education through grant-maintained schools, Charter schools and voucher plans have renewed parental interest in this area. Alternatively, one might argue that the lobbying by religious parents and others for choice has influenced educational policy. The dynamics of change are not always clear. This paper explores these dynamics through a two-part longitudinal case study in Alberta, Canada. My examination of events over a period of almost twenty years reveals both the micro-politics around religious programming in public schools and the macro-level changes in the policy context between the late 1970s and mid-1990s. This micro-macro approach provides a sense of the impact of local histories on education policies as well as parallels between sites. [Source: SC]

Miller, Jamie L. 2000. "Understanding Achievement Attribution and Achievement Motivation among African-American Youth: Racism, Racial Socialization, and Spirituality." Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology - Los Angeles.
Abstract: High school dropout rates among ethnic minority youth remain disproportionately high. Researchers indicated that less education is associated with poorer health outcomes, alienation, powerlessness and poorer occupational functioning later in life, specifically among historically oppressed groups. The purpose of this study was to examine ecological and cultural factors such as, experiences of racism, racial socialization and spirituality on achievement attribution and general achievement motivation among African-American youth. The participants were African-American students (N = 101) that attended high school in South Los Angeles. The sample reportedly came from working and middle class families. Fifty-four percent were 14 or 15 years old. The participants and their families frequently attended church. The following measures were administered: The Personal and Group Racism Experiences scales of the Racism and Life Experiences Scales (RaLES; Harrell, 1996); a modified version of the Teenager Experience of Racial Socialization Scale (TERS; Stevenson, 1996); the Spirituality Scale (SS; Jagers 1996); the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire (IAR; Crandall, Katkovsky & Crandall, 1965), and the General Achievement Motivation Scale (GAM; Miller 1996). An eight-item background questionnaire was also administered to participants. The predictions in this study were partially confirmed. Racism, racial socialization, and spirituality significantly related to achievement attribution and achievement motivation in different ways. As predicted, when racism increased, internal attribution for success and failure, and general achievement motivation decreased. Proactive racial socialization was a positive predictor of internal attribution for success and general achievement motivation. Contrary to the direction predicted, proactive messages were inversely related to internal attribution for failure. Further, as reactive racial socialization increased, internal attribution for success decreased, which was also contrary to the direction predicted. Spirituality was positively related to internal attribution for success and failure but not to general achievement motivation. In addition, other notable findings emerged among achievement attribution, racial socialization, and worship variables. The findings suggest that ecological and cultural aspects of academic achievement among some African-American youth should not be ignored. Further, intervention programs aimed to improve academic achievement and attribution issues among African-American youth should incorporate proactive racial socialization messages and spirituality discussions. Recommendations for future research are suggested. [Source: DA]

Trusty, Jerry and Richard E. Watts. 1999. "Relationship of High School Seniors' Religious Perceptions and Behavior to Educational, Career, and Leisure Variables." Counseling and Values vol. 44, pp. 30-39.
Abstract: This study used data from a national sample of 12,992 US high school seniors to investigate the relationship of religious perceptions and behavior to several school, career, and leisure variables. Seniors' positive perceptions of religion and frequent attendance at religious services were related to positive parental involvement, positive school attitudes and behaviors, and infrequent problem behaviors. Parental involvement mediated the effects of religious perceptions and behavior on adolescents, academic attitudes and drug use. However, a large portion of the effects of religious perceptions and behavior was independent of parental involvement. Implications for counselors and educators are provided. [Source: PI]

Jagers, Robert J., Paula Smith, Lynne Owens Mock, and Ebony Dill. 1997. "An Afrocultural Social Ethos: Component Orientations and Some Social Implications." Journal of Black Psychology vol. 23, pp. 328-343.
Abstract: Discusses the results of two studies exploring the component orientations of spirituality, affect, & communalism in an Afrocultural social ethos & their connections with pyschosocial functioning in inner-city African-American youth. In both studies, positive endorsement & moderate positive correlations among the orientations are expressed. Study 1 questionnaire data (N = 84 students in grades 5-6) indicate that an Afrocultural social ethos is predictive of more cooperative & competitive academic attitudes & lower levels of Machiavellianism. Spirituality emerges as a positive predictor of two academic attitudes. Study 2 questionnaire data (N = 77 students in grades 6-7) indicate that an Afrocultural ethos is predictive of empathy & a more altruistic view of human nature. At the level of orientations, affect is a unique predictor of these variables. Gender, rather than cultural ethos or orientations, is predictive of peer-rated prosocial behaviors. Discussion focuses on implications for future research on culture & the social development of African-American youth. [Source: SA]

Macbeth, David Michael. 1997. "Risk Factors Associated with Early Adolescent Sexual Values and Behaviors."Ph.D. Thesis, Utah State University.
Abstract: Adolescent sexual activity and subsequent pregnancy are an increasing dilemma facing American society. There appears to be an increase in the incidence of casual sexual activity among adolescents that leads to over 50% of students between grades 9 and 12 having been involved in sexual intercourse. This study examines changes in adolescent sexual attitudes, behaviors, and values in a select population over a 2-year time span. A survey of 548 families with adolescents was used to determine the impact of the Facts and Feelings home-based sexual abstinence program on mean scores for academic aspirations, academic achievement, sexual knowledge, the intention to have intercourse, sexual behavior, religiosity, mother approachability, father approachability, frequency of parental communication, sexual abstinence skills, friends', approval of premarital sex, value against sex prior to marriage, risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease, sex being acceptable in relationships, adolescent's values match parent's values, parents approve of premarital sex, and adolescent's rating of physical maturity. The sample was randomly split into equal size experimental and control groups. The treatment materials were given to the experimental group following a baseline measurement, and the control group received the materials after the study was completed 2 years later. Data were collected at four time intervals: pretest, 3-month posttest, 1-year posttest, and 2-year posttest. Dependent variables were identified from previous research as possible antecedents to early sexual activity. The youth studied were in the sixth and seventh grades, and were generally sexually abstinent throughout the study. Hypotheses were related to gender, group membership, and the interaction of these variables over time. A majority of the significant findings came in the hypotheses regarding gender. There were limited findings in the hypothesis that dealt with group membership, group membership by gender, and the interaction effects of gender by group over time. Most of the treatment effects were time limited and not maintained for long periods of time following the treatment. There was evidence that the Facts and Feeling materials used in the study were beneficial in changing behavior, values, and attitudes regarding teenage abstinence for a short time immediately following the treatment period. [Source: PI]

Hay, Steven D. 1995. "Maternal Employment, Parent-Adolescent Closeness and Adolescent Competence."Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This study examined the relationships between maternal employment, adolescent employment, extracurricular activities, and closeness between parents and adolescents among a sample of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. A related focus was the relationship between parent-adolescent closeness and adolescent competency as represented by educational aspirations, self-esteem, and juvenile delinquency. It was found that maternal employment was not significantly related to parent-adolescent closeness. The strongest variable predicting LDS adolescents' closeness to their parents was the adolescents' perception of their parents marital quality. Parent-adolescent closeness was significantly related to girls' self-esteem, and negatively related to adolescent juvenile delinquency for both boys and girls. Maternal employment was positively related to victimless delinquency for both boys and girls. Close parent-adolescent relationships promote adolescent social competence. [Source: DA]

Kelly, Phillip S. 1995. "Designing a Vocational Guidance Program to Assist High School Students of the Wildwood Baptist Church, Kennesaw, Georgia." Thesis, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to assist selected high school students in making career choices. Twenty-four students were randomly selected to participate in a ten-week course in vocational guidance. The participants were controlled for gender, age, and educational level. The program equipped students to understand the relationship between God's will and decision making, and to recognize God's vocational will for their lives. The program included the historical, descriptive survey, and experimental methods of research. Evaluation of the project was derived from a pretest-posttest situation, a case study, an exit questionnaire, and critical specialist observation. [Source: RI]

Maxwell, Mary Percival and James D. Maxwell. 1994. "Three Decades of Private School Females' Ambitions: Implications for Canadian Elites." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology vol. 31, pp. 139-167.
Abstract: Studied whether the educational and occupational aspirations and expectations of students at 2 of Canada's elite girls' schools, 1 Catholic and 1 Protestant, would change over time (1966-1986). Over the 20-yr period, the differential impact of religion declined and significantly more students expected to be employed throughout the life course. Furthermore, by 1986 career was given as the major source of life satisfaction by over 80% of the respondents. The implications of these trends for elite recruitment and the social reproduction of the elite and the dominant class are analyzed. (French abstract) [Source: PI]

Plotnick, Robert D. 1992. "The Effects of Attitudes on Teenage Premarital Pregnancy and Its Resolution."American Sociological Review vol. 57, pp. 800-811.
Abstract: Drawing on problem behavior theory and complementary models of behavior, the influence of attitudes and related personality variables on the probability of teenage premarital pregnancy, abortion, having an out-of-wedlock birth, or marrying before the birth were examined. 1,142 non-Hispanic White adolescents, drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, were analyzed using the nested logit method. The estimates show that self-esteem, locus of control, attitudes toward women's family roles, attitudes toward school, educational aspirations, and religiosity were associated with premarital pregnancy and its resolution in directions predicted by theory. The effects of self-esteem, attitudes toward school, attitudes toward women's family roles, and educational expectations were substantively important. [Source: PI]

Lamanna, Mary Ann. 1991. "Teenagers' Decision-Making About Sexuality and Reproduction: Policy Implications." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Data from 225 focus group participants & semistructured interviews with 64 teenage women (white/black; ever-pregnant vs never-pregnant) provide information on teen women's sexual & reproductive decision making in a midwestern US city. Typical decision sequences are identifiable. Young women in the pair bonding model make an early commitment to family-building, in an often fictive "ritual marriage." In the development model, teens are highly committed to educational & career goals, more attentive to the need for contraception, & more open to abortion or adoption as possible solutions to problem pregnancies; goals & aspirations regarding future relationships & marriage are vague, & paradoxically, their rational & detached approach to gaining sexual experiences leads to activity that seems emotionally undesired, yet entails the risk of pregnancy. Results are compared to the premises of contemporary teen pregnancy policy in such areas as: religious proscriptions, family relationships, & sexual activity; life goals & self-esteem; peer culture; sex education; mentoring programs; school retention programs; role playing; contraceptive programs; adoption, or abortion as solutions to problem pregnancies; & job training & career development. [Source: SA]

Luck, Mary Ann. 1991. "Factors That Influence Black High School Graduates to Go to College." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Abstract: Problem. A declining percentage of Black high school graduates is going to college. If they do not gain access to higher education, their prospects for economic success and personal growth, as well as the economic and social health of America, are jeopardized. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the stated reasons of black high school graduates for going to college. The emphasis was on discovering factors that encourage college enrollment. Methodology. Thirty Black graduates of a California high school were interviewed. Fifteen were college-goers; 15 were not. They were asked about family, schooling, friends, activities, and personal beliefs about the benefits of a college education for them. To analyze responses, a frequency count and a chi square test for association were done. Similarities and differences between the two groups were identified. Findings. Factors that associated with college attendance included: parents who had attended college and who believed education was very important, encouragement by high school counselors, taking the Scholastic Aptitude Test, participation in extracurricular activities, and deciding early to attend college. Factors that did not associate included: number of parents and siblings in the home, encouragement by family to attend college, parents' income, parents' expectations about grades, number of schools attended, study time, athletics, the racial make-up and attitudes of close friends, being active in church, and the armed services. Conclusions. These subjects and their families valued higher education and believed Blacks benefit from it. Most planned to earn bachelor's and master's degrees. Parents expressed high expectations but did not enforce them. Parents provided little information about college. Subjects were influenced by educators, particularly high school counselors. Recommendations. (1) Begin elementary school counseling for students and parents about the value of a college education for them. (2) Encourage school counselors to discuss the college option with all students and to allow students to prove they are capable. (3) Establish a school club to encourage students to consider college. (4) Tutor at-risk students. (5) Teach study skills to students. (6) Affirm the Black student's belief that he or she can be successful in this society. (7) Research further the perceptions and beliefs of Black students. (8) Research further the impact of family encouragement on college attendance. [Source: DA]

Wiese, Michael D. and Barbara K. Townsend. 1991. "College Choice in the Church-Affiliated Sector of Higher Education: The Influence of Congregational Cultural Orientation." Research in Higher Education vol. 32, pp. 107-122.
Abstract: The relationship between cultural orientation & college choice is investigated, using questionnaire data from a systematic random sample of 276 lay leaders in participative congregations (reflecting a high % of college-bound youth choosing to attend the denominational university) & 403 lay leaders in nonparticipative congregations (having a very low % of such youth) affiliated with a Midwest institution. The local-cosmopolitan dichotomy used by previous researchers is applied to test the hypothesis that the cultural orientation of local congregational leaders reflects norms that are aligned to congregational enrollment support or nonsupport for the denominational university. The results demonstrate that the use of the local-cosmopolitan construct offers a plausible means to assess how cultural forces can influence college choice for students likely to attend church-affiliated institutions. It is concluded that the potential of cultural analysis in understanding the inquiry stage of the college-choice model is worthy of further exploration. [Source: SA]

Hill, Jean Louise. 1990. "Toward an Understanding of Teenage Sexual Behavior: An Analysis of Two Theoretical Models." Ph.D. Thesis, Depaul University.
Abstract: The study evaluated the effectiveness of two theoretical models of adolescent sexual behavior. Model One focuses on the effect of perceived responsibility for birth control use on birth control use and the variables which contribute to perceived responsibility. The outcome variables are age of first intercourse and birth control use. The independent variables are locus of control and knowledge of birth control. Three variables, perceived responsibility for birth control use, perceived probability of pregnancy, and level of communication with partner, play mediating roles in the model. Model One was hypothesized to be more applicable to male adolescents than to females. Model Two examines the direct and indirect influence of variables related to a teen's willingness to have a baby. The outcome variables are age of first intercourse and birth control use. The independent variables are locus of control, perceived costs of a teen pregnancy, perceived family support for a teen pregnancy, the number of role models who were teen parents, educational goals, and level of religiosity. Hopelessness and willingness to consider having a child as a teenager play mediating roles in the model. Model Two was hypothesized to be more applicable to females than to males. The study involved 149 male and 107 female, predominantly African American, students at an inner city high school. Approximately half of the female participants and the majority of the males reported being sexually active. Path analyses were performed. The results indicate significant differences between male and female participants. Model One was shown to be an adequate description of the sexual behavior of male participants, but was only marginally descriptive of females. Model Two was not applicable to males and only marginally applicable to females. Possible methods of improving the fit of the models include improving the measures used, dropping some variables from the models or adding others, and treating some variables as latent or unobserved. The results point out the importance of treating male and female sexual behavior as separate phenomena, and designing appropriate prevention programs for each. In addition, the results indicate the usefulness of developing and testing theoretical, predictive models. [Source: DA]

Daly, Doris L. 1989. "The Relationship between High School Class, Grades, Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Concerns." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University.
Abstract: This research was conducted to increase knowledge of a population of adolescents by means of an assessment of their concerns. Research has demonstrated that environmental conditions impact on adolescent concerns, and therefore, a local survey provides knowledge relevant to each population. In addition to a survey of concerns, demographic variables--grade level, grade point average and participation in extracurricular activities were included to determine the mediating role of each variable on adolescent concerns. To add knowledge to the contemporary complex problems of adolescent suicide, alcoholism, and drug abuse, an analysis of specific items relating to these problems were included in this study. Comparative studies to determine if concerns are mediated by community differences and by time (zeitgeist) were also conducted. To assess concerns, the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) (Mooney & Gordon, 1950) was used. This instrument contains 330 items of concerns grouped into 11 distinct categories. A new category, "Drugs and Alcohol," was added by the researcher and contained 30 items relating to drug and alcohol concerns. The sample consisted of 356 students (grades 9-12) who attended a private male college-preparatory high school. These students responded to the MPCL, the new category, and a questionnaire including the demographic information. The data was analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed the top three ranking categories of concerns in this population were: "Adjustment to School Work," "Social/Psychological Relations," and "Morals and Religion." Multivariate discriminant analyses revealed groups differentiated by each demographic variable--grade level, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities were significantly different, with the exception of 11th and 12th grade groups. The tenth grade, low grade point average, and "no" activity groups had higher levels of total concerns with academic concerns the major category. In addition, t tests revealed respondents to each of the suicide, alcohol, and drug items of concern showed significantly higher levels of concerns in the majority of categories in comparison to nonrespondents. Finally, comparisons with earlier research demonstrated that students in this current study (1987) responded to a higher level of total concerns. [Source: DA]

Pejovic, Zoran. 1989. "Boulevard of Dreams: Croatians and Education in Ontario." Ph.D. Thesis, York University (Canada), Toronto.
Abstract: This study examined the effects of a select number of variables associated with educational aspirations. We discovered the effects that such variables as, "Socio-Economic Origin", "Gender", "Religious Origin", "Regional Origin", "Peer Influence", "Parental Influence", "Self-Concept", "Perception of Opportunity", had on the formation of educational aspirations among Croatian High School students in Toronto and vicinity. The sample consisted of 127 subjects of Croatian origin. As it was difficult to arrive at a random sample, the author relied on a purposive sample. A number of voluntary Croatian Youth Organizations, including Croatian students attending Croatian Heritage Language classes. Church Youth Groups, and Croatian Folklore and Tambouritza Ensembles were approached. As such, the sample may not necessarily representative of the Croatian High School students in general, however, they could be characterized as Croato-centric, that is, a group of strong culturally-bound Croatian youth. This study is a cross-sectional survey. The statistical procedures employed were Cross-Tabular analysis and Regression analysis. The author found that Croatian High School students have extremely high aspirations. Most compellingly, it was observed that "Socio-Economic Origin" variables (father's occupation, father's education, mother's education, mother's occupation and gender) did not have an impact on educational aspiration-formation among Croatian adolescents. This finding was incongruous to a number of Canadian and American studies. Consequently, in analyzing the impact of psycho- demographic variables, it was once again observed that, on the whole, Croatian adolescents were attracted to university education in overwhelming numbers. The author strongly believes that for Croatians, culture and ethnic identity influenced this, as well as the major findings of the present study. The implications of this study are that if ethnic children, in general, and Croatians, in particular, show an interest in post-secondary education, then the educational decision makers (teachers, guidance counsellors) should be sensitive to ethno-cultural differences, and work towards optimising every child's educational potential. The author concludes that there are numerous obstacles to university access. If the reasons for these obstacles disfavours ethnically or economically disadvantaged groups, then any notion of equalized access will become nothing more than an educational dream. [Source: DA]

Skolnick, Vivian B. 1989. "Occupational Choices of Daughters of Practicing Rabbis." Journal of Religion and Health vol. 28, pp. 128-142.

Valentino, Lorene. 1989. "Teenage Pregnancy from the Perspective of Three Groups of Low Income Teenage Girls." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Southern California.
Abstract: Purpose. The primary purposes of the study were to determine and to analyze the perceptions of three groups of teenagers (pregnant girls, girls using birth controls, and girls never pregnant and do not use birth controls) regarding (1) sex education in the schools; (2) their locii of control; and (3) their personal and professional goals. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the three groups of teenage girls on the basis of selected personal and professional characteristics. Procedure. A 40-item questionnaire-survey was utilized to survey 548 teenage girls enrolled in a summer work program for economically disadvantaged youth in Central California. The descriptive study used a Likert-type weighted scale to analyze and compare mean responses to survey questions. Findings. Most of the girls in all three groups received at least one quarter of sex education in the schools. Girls using birth controls reported receiving information about contraceptives in education classes at an earlier grade level than the other two groups. The birth control group of girls had the highest internal locii of control and also had a significantly higher reported use of birth controls than the pregnant girls who had the highest external locii of control. The group of girls who had experienced a pregnancy were one grade level behind girls in the other two groups. Girls who abstain from sex more often come from two parent families and attend church more frequently than girls in either of the other two groups. Conclusions. Instruction and activities which teach self- esteem, decision making, and assertiveness are effective methods to increase contraceptive use among sexually active teenage girls. Family stability and participation in religious activities make positive contributions to abstinence of sexual relations for teenage girls. Recommendations. Sex education is a highly controversial issue and educators should develop a program representative of differing viewpoints but still appropriate for teenagers. Information regarding contraceptives should be taught at a lower grade level than is current practice and curriculum should include self-esteem/assertiveness training activities. [Source: DA]

Tucker, Larry A. 1987. "Television, Teenagers, and Health." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 16, pp. 415-425.
Abstract: The effect of TV viewing on adolescents' health-related attitudes & practices & physical fitness level is investigated using data from questionnaires containing multiple assessment instruments completed by 406 white, Mc, high school Ms. Multiple discriminant analysis reveals that high levels of TV watching are significantly associated with poorer physical & emotional health, increased drug & alcohol use, & decreased church attendance, exercise, self-control, self-confidence, & Coll aspirations. Though the directionality of causality cannot be assumed, it is argued that since TV viewing is a passive pastime, the media has great power to shape attitudes & behaviors. At present, its messages largely promote antisocial norms & unhealthy lifestyles. Suggestions are proposed to help health professionals & other specialists develop & promote more healthy, constructive uses of TV. [Source: SA]

Valez, William. 1985. "Finishing College: The Effects of College Type." Sociology of Education vol. 58, pp. 191-200.
Abstract: Used multivariate analysis to determine the odds that high school seniors would earn a bachelor's degree. Data on 3,169 students (84% White) were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (National Center for Education Statistics, 1980). Ss who started in 2-yr colleges were less likely to finish than Ss who started in 4-yr colleges. However, other variables such as religious background (i.e., being Jewish); educational aspirations; academic performance in college; participation in a work-study program; and living on campus exerted substantial positive effects on finishing. Non-White Ss with low educational aspirations were more likely to finish college than similar White Ss, but White Ss with high aspirations were more likely to finish than comparable non-White Ss. [Source: PI]

Ireson, Carol J. 1984. "Adolescent Pregnancy and Sex Roles." Sex Roles vol. 11, pp. 189-201.
Abstract: An examination of the relationship between traditional sex roles & adolescent pregnancy. Sex-role orientation & related variables were measured by a multiple-choice questionnaire administered to 161 Fs aged 13-18 when they sought pregnancy tests or birth control information at one of several clinics. The hypothesis that adolescents who get pregnant are more likely than other sexually active young women to be traditional in sex-role orientation receives some support from the findings. Pregnant adolescents, in comparison with those seeking birth control, perceive themselves to be competent in more highly sex-typed activities, have lower aspirations & school grades, & have less sense of personal control over events in their lives. Pregnant teens do not seem to differ much in sex-role values from those seeking birth control, & seem less likely to aspire to traditionally F occupations. SES is the strongest discriminator between pregnant & birth control seeking teens, with the former having lower SES. Pregnant adolescents, in comparison with those experiencing negative pregnancy tests, are younger & more likely to rely on God to determine the course of their personal lives. [Source: SA]

Morgan, William R. 1983. "Learning and Student Life Quality of Public and Private School Youth." Sociology of Education vol. 56, pp. 187-202.
Abstract: Conclusions from the 1981 public-private schooling report of Coleman, Hoffer and Kilgore are for the most part unsupported by data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Behavior. With the exception of a slight gain in verbal achievement for Hispanics in private schools, and a slight gain in vocational achievement for white students in public schools, the sectors do not differ in the amount of learning produced, once the appropriate background and curriculum controls are introduced. Attending Catholic school does slightly raise expected educational attainments. Consistent sector differences do appear in the rated quality of student life--instructional quality, discipline, safety, and peer relations are rated higher in private schools, while learning freedom and job counseling opportunities are rated higher in public schools. The discussion emphasizes the crucial difference between learning and quality of student life as criteria for making policy recommendations. [Source: JS]

Brinkerhoff, Merlin B. 1978. "Religion and Goal Orientations: Does Denomination Make a Difference?"Sociological Analysis vol. 39, pp. 203-218.
Abstract: The Mormon Church, considered to be characteristic of Weber's Protestant Ethic type, has been employed in a "quasi" case analysis to investigate the influence of religion on educational and occupational goals. In the initial analysis of data from 2,179 adolescents, no support was found; however, through the process of elaboration, the evidence indicated that sex roles and family size combine with religious denomination and involvement to influence goals. Multivariate analyses suggested that the Mormons' beliefs relative to women's roles increased the relationship between gender and goals, while their belief in large families decreased the effect of family size on goals. Both religious involvement and denomination influence goals, but the relationships are complex as they combine with other factors. [Source: RI]

Hunt, Larry L. and Janet G. Hunt. 1975. "A Religious Factor in Secular Achievement among Blacks: The Case of Catholicism." Social Forces vol. 53, pp. 595-605.
Abstract: Studied the relationship between religious affiliation and secular achievement among Blacks. Examining a sample of 412 urban Black adolescents, Protestant-Catholic differences in attitudes toward achievement and Black identity were examined. Results indicate a distinctive secular orientation among Black Catholics, combining higher educational and occupational aspirations and an attenuation of Black identity. This pattern was absent in the lower class but present in the working and middle classes and was most apparent when the strength of religious identification was high. Findings suggest that Catholicism may be consequential for status maintenance and moderate mobility among Blacks. Whether this interplay can be understood as the effect of a "religious factor" is also considered. [Source: PI]

Brackbill, Yvonne and Embry Howell. 1974. "Religious Differences in Family Size Preference among American Teenagers." Sociological Analysis vol. 35, pp. 35-44.
Abstract: A presentation of a study analyzing differences between Catholic & non-Catholic young people in att's toward fam formation. A sample of 941 students in junior HSch's, HSch's, & Coll's in the Washington, DC area responded to a self-admin'ed questionnaire in 1971. Data were obtained on students' background, att's toward fam formation, girls' career aspirations, & pop awareness. In general, results emphasize & reemphasize the continuing importance of a religious diff'ial in fam size preference. Religious affiliation was far more predictive of preferred fam size than was race, sex, age, SES, number of siblings, type of Sch, maternal work history, or girls' career aspirations. These results differ from those obtained in recent studies based on short term trends in religious conformity but are consistent with longer term trends. [Source: SA]

Light, Harriett K. 1970. "Attitudes of Rural and Urban Adolescent Girls toward Selected Concepts." Family Coordinator vol. 19, pp. 225-227.
Abstract: Examined the attitudes of 164 rural and 161 urban adolescent girls toward family, religion, peer groups, premarital sex, ethnic prejudice, morality, and education. Ss were matched on age (16-17 yr. old), grade in high school (juniors-seniors) and socioeconomic status (middle class). Each S was given a questionnaire consisting of 45 statements with 5 choices for responding to each. Data were analyzed using chi-square. Results show highly significant differences between rural/urban girls toward family, religion, morality, premarital sex, and education: (a) family and religion are more likely to influence attitudes of rural than urban girls; (b) rural girls continue to accept conventional ethical standards, urban girls are more receptive to new morality; and (c) rural girls place greater value on education than do urban girls. [Source: PI]

Rhodes, Lewis and Charles B. Nam. 1970. "The Religious Context of Educational Expectations."American Sociological Review vol. 35, pp. 253-267.
Abstract: The educational plans of a national sample of white teen-age subjects are found to be associated with religious identification of the subjects'mothers and the religious composition of the schools the subjects attend. Teenagers with Jewish mothers are most likely to plan to attend college; those connected with the largest Protestant denominations (except Baptists) and the Roman Catholic Church are next most likely to plan for college. Teenagers whose mothers identify with many of the smaller Protestant denominations or sects or with the Baptist churches are least likely to plan for college. Roman Catholics attending Catholic schools are more likely to plan for college than Catholics in public schools, even where the latter have a majority of Catholic students. Protestants attending predominantly Protestant schools are less likely to have college plans than Protestants attending schools in which the student body is less than half Protestant. Jewish subjects in predominantly Jewish schools are more likely to plan for college than those attending other schools. The differences in college plans by religion of mother and religious composition of school persist when occupation of household head, subject's intelligence test score, his mother's educational attainment, and family income are taken into account in the analysis. The results of this study are consistent with a theory that the values imparted by some religious denominations are more supportive of high levels of educational aspiration than those imparted by other denominations. However, the data presented in this paper are insufficient to specify the processes through which a particular religion produces high or low levels of educational ambition. [Source: JS]

Harrison, Edward Nelson. 1966. "Dropout Study with Respect to Baptist Church Schools and Youth Groups in New Jersey." Ed.D. Thesis, Temple University.

Swerdloff, Sol and Howard Rosen. 1964. The College and Career Plans of Jewish High School Youth. Washington,: B'nai B'rith Vocational Service.

Christiansen, John R., John W. Payne, and Kenneth J. Brown. 1963. "Church Participation and College Desires of Rural Youth in Utah." Rural Sociology vol. 28, pp. 176-185.
Abstract: Attendance at Mormon religious organizations by rural adolescents is positively associated with their desires to attend college. [Source: PI]

Goetz, Wilma. 1962. "Occupational Aspirations of the Male Students in a Slected High School." American Catholic Sociological Review vol. 23, pp. 338-349.