Baier, C. J. and B. R. E. Wright. 2001. ""If You Love Me, Keep My Commandments": A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Religion on Crime." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency vol. 38, pp. 3-21.
Abstract: Do religious beliefs and behaviors deter criminal behavior? The existing evidence surrounding the effect of religion on crime is varied contested, and inconclusive, and currently no persuasive answer exists as to the empirical relationship between religion and crime. In this article, the authors address this controversial issue with a meta-analysis of 60 previous studies based on two questions: (I) What is the direction and magnitude of the effect of religion on crime? (2) Why have previous studies varied in their estimation of this effect The results of the meta-analysis show that religious beliefs and behaviors exert a moderate deterrent effect on individuals' criminal behavior Furthermore, previous studies have systematically varied in their estimation of the religion- on-crime effect due to differences in both their conceptual and methodological approaches. [Source: SC]

Benda, B. B. and R. F. Corwyn. 2001. "Are the Effects of Religion on Crime Mediated, Moderated, and Misrepresented by Inappropriate Measures?" Journal of Social Service Research vol. 27, pp. 57-86.
Abstract: The present study consists of random samples from two public schools in the inner-city of a large metropolitan area on the East coast, involving 360 adolescents, and random samples from three rural public high schools in a state in the South involving 477 adolescents. The purpose of the study is to test generalizations found in the literature about whether: (a) church attendance is an adequate measure of the effects of religion on delinquency, (b) religion is related to more serious offenses like crimes against property and persons, (c) church attendance or religiosity are related to crime among adolescents when the effects of major predictors are controlled, and, (d) the effects of religiosity are moderated by region of residence. The findings show that religiosity rather than church attendance is significantly related to crime, and the former remains a significant predictor even it is analyzed simultaneously with the strongest predictor observed in the literature. Finally, the effects of religiosity are not moderated by region of residence (i.e., the effects of religiosity have a significant inverse relationship to crime on the East coast as well as in the South). The implications of these findings are discussed. [Source: SC]

Benda, B. B., R. F. Corwyn, and N. J. Toombs. 2001. "Recidivism among Adolescent Serious Offenders - Prediction of Entry into the Correctional System for Adults." Criminal Justice and Behavior vol. 28, pp. 588-613.
Abstract: This is a 2-year follow-up study of 414 adolescents, age 17 years, to determine what static and dynamic factors predict recidivism or entry into the correctional system for adults. The strongest predictor is prior incarcerations, followed by age persons started committing crime, gang membership, age they started using alcohol/drugs, their MMPIpd scores, and chemical abuse score. The denial and asocial subscales of the Jesness Inventory and all the subscales of the Carlson Psychological Inventory are significantly associated with recidivism. Implications of the study are discussed. [Source: SC]

Johnson, B. R., S. J. Jang, D. B. Larson, and S. De Li. 2001. "Does Adolescent Religious Commitment Matter? A Reexamination of the Effects of Religiosity on Delinquency." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquencyvol. 38, pp. 22-44.
Abstract: This study reexamines the relevance of religiosity to the etiology of delinquency, given the inconsistent and inconclusive evidence found in the literature, Like previous researchers, the authors test whether the effects of religiosity on delinquency are spurious or completely indirect via social bonding, social learning, and sociodemographic variables. Unlike previous researchers, however the authors (1) control for measurement errors in estimating the structural effects of religiosity on delinquency by applying a latent- variable modeling approach and (2) analyze longitudinal data collected from a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. The effects of religiosity on delinquency are found independent of the theoretical and statistical controls while being partly mediated by nonreligious variables ofsocial control and socialization. They also find same evidence of bidirectional causal relationships between religiosity and other predictors of delinquency and briefly discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings. [Source: SC]

Regnerus, Mark D. 2001a. "Linking Lives, Faith, and Behavior: An Intergenerational Model of Religious Influence on Adolescent Delinquency." Unpublished Paper: UNC, Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center.
Abstract: I propose and test an intergenerational model of the influence of religious affiliation and practice on adolescent delinquency. Research on religion and delinquency has generally concluded that only minor forms of deviance are affected by religious commitments. This study links parental religious identity and behavior to the serious delinquency of their teenage children both directly and indirectly, and accounts for a baseline influence as well as change. The results suggest that parental religiosity indirectly protective against delinquency, and may aggravate delinquency in boys. Parents' conservative Protestant affiliation displays a reverse pattern: negative direct effects on delinquency, but little indirect influence. Group analysis of the model indicates that parental religious influence was more effective among girls than boys, and among older adolescents. [Source: AU]

Regnerus, Mark D. 2001b. "Moral Communities and Adolescent Delinquency: Religious Contexts and Community Social Control." Unpublished Paper: UNC, Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center.
Abstract: I propose and test an expanded version of the "moral communities" thesis of religion and adolescent delinquency. The thesis suggests that religion, when understood as a group property, is linked significantly with lower crime and delinquency, and that only under conditions of high group religiosity will an individual's own religiosity constrain delinquent behavior. Employing multilevel regression models, I test this using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. While individual effects remain strongest, conservative Protestant homogeneity (market share or concentration) in both counties and schools corresponds with lower delinquency counts as well as interacts with their individual-level counterparts. I exploring how such communities influence individual behavior, and conclude with a call for contemporary social disorganization theory to account for religion as an important cultural influence. [Source: AU]

Aalsma, Matthew Charles. 2000. "An Empirical Typology of Adolescent Delinquency." Ph.D. Thesis, Ball State University.
Abstract: The goal of this study was to examine various background factors that are associated with particular models of chronic juvenile offending. It was assumed that when chronic offending postdictors are identified, then more beneficial interventions can be developed, insofar as they are based on empirical data. In order to achieve this end, a sample of juvenile offenders, who were confined to a residential treatment facility, were examined. A statistical grouping technique was used in order to differentiate possible types of adolescent offenders, on the basis of numerous risk variables. The sample included 174 adolescents (aged 12-17) who were identified by a juvenile justice system. Information was gathered from interview data (including demographic information, family relationships, substance use, school performance, suicidal ideation/attempts, abuse history, dating history, life stressors, and religiosity), the Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents (MMPI-A), and juvenile justice charge and placement data. Two separate offending profiles were then developed based on juvenile justice charges and interview data. The offending groups were then compared on the MMPI-A to aid in identification of chronic offenders. Additionally, offending group differences were assessed on measures of recidivism in order to assess the utility of the offending group categories. The offending profile based on juvenile justice charges was highly differentiated on measures of recidivism and severity of placement. No significant differences on the interview data or MMPI-A score profiles were evident with this offending typology. The offending profile based on interview data was significantly differentiated on MMPI-A score profiles. No significant differences were noted on juvenile justice charges and measures of recidivism and placement. Gender differences were apparent in the second offending typology. Specifically, a sub-sample of female offenders evidenced disordered family relationships and higher rates of general pathology. Hence, implications for gender differences, as well as both the mental health and juvenile justice fields were readily evident in this study. [Source: DA]

Benda, B. B. and R. F. Corwyn. 2000. "A Test of the Validity of Delinquency Syndrome Construct in a Homogeneous Sample." Journal of Adolescence vol. 23, pp. 497-511.
Abstract: This was a study of 387 adolescents who regularly attended churches affiliated with a primary Protestant denomination in a Midwestern state. The purpose was twofold: (1) to determine if the delinquency syndrome argument has validity in a sample of religious youths, by testing whether the same basic theoretical models explained crime and drug use; and (2) to examine the relative utility of sociodemographic, social control and social learning factors in explaining these two forms of delinquency. The study finds that all theoretical factors investigated are correlated significantly with both crime and use of drugs; however, some of these factors are differentially related to those two forms of delinquency. Also, social control elements did account for more additional variance in crime than did social learning or sociodemographic factors. Implications for future research are discussed in the context of limitations of the present study. [Source: ML]

Benda, B. B. and N. J. Toombs. 2000a. "Familial Aspects of Violence among Youth in Boot Camp."Journal of Family Social Work vol. 5, pp. 33-52.
Abstract: The present study is designed to examine what sociodemographic and theoretical factors are predictors of crimes against persons among inmates in a boot camp for non-violent offenders. This is the only boot camp for adults in Arkansas and is for first-admissions to the Department of Correction. Self-report data indicated that forty-four percent of the 326 study participants, aged 15 to 24 years, had committed at least five crimes against persons. Elements from social control and social learning theories are analyzed., The statistically significant (alpha = 0.05) predictors in order of size of the standardized regression coefficients (Beta) show crimes against persons increase as: (a) months in a gang and drug use increase, (b) months in gang are lengthened, (c) illicit drugs are used more frequently, (d) selling drugs rises, (c) carrying a weapon becomes more often, (f) self-esteem lessens, (g) the relationship with mother (or female caregiver) becomes more distant, (h) feelings of frustration rises, (i) beliefs in the moral validity of societal laws and norms diminish, (j) religiosity lessens, and (k) association with peers who engage in unlawful behavior becomes more frequent. [Source: CI]

Benda, B. B. and N. J. Toombs. 2000b. "Religiosity and Violence - Are They Related after Considering the Strongest Predictors?" Journal of Criminal Justice vol. 28, pp. 483-496.
Abstract: The present study was designed to examine the significance of religiosity and of church attendance after considering the effects on violence of sociodemographic variables and elements of control, strain, and social learning theories. The sample was comprised of inmates, aged fifteen to forty-seven years, at the only boot camp for adults in Arkansas. Logistic regression procedures indicated that religiosity, and not church attendance, maintained a significant inverse relationship to violence after other study factors were held constant. Implications of these findings were discussed. [Source: SC]

DuRant, R. H., D. Altman, M. Wolfson, S. Barkin, S. Kreiter, and D. Krowchuk. 2000. "Exposure to Violence and Victimization, Depression, Substance Use, and the Use of Violence by Young Adolescents." Journal of Pediatrics vol. 137, pp. 707-713.
Abstract: Objective: To examine the relationships among exposure to violence; tobacco, alcohol, and other substance use; depression; church attendance; and the use of violence among very young adolescents. Methods: An 86-item confidential questionnaire was administered to 722 sixth grade students (mean age = 11.9 +/- 0.8 years) attending 4 middle schools selling neighborhoods in and around public housing. Results: Boys had a higher mean violence scale score than girls (P less than or equal to .0001), and students living in public housing had higher violence scale scores than other students (P less than or equal to .0001). Self-reported use of violence was significantly associated with exposure to violence (r = .45); age (r = .28); frequency: of church attendance (r = -.14); depression (r = .28); the probability of being alive at age 25 (r = -.09); the frequency of use of cigarettes (r = .39), alcohol (r = .37), and multiple substances (r = .38); and interest in a gang (r = .37). When all of these variables were analyzed with multiple linear regression, multiple substance use, exposure to violence, interest in a gang, male gender, cigarette smoking, and depression level accounted for 49.7% of the variation in the use of violence scale. Conclusion: Recent multiple substance use and lifetime exposure to violence and victimization were the strongest correlates with the frequency that these youth reported using violence and carrying weapons. [Source: SC]

Easton-Waller, Bob. 2000. "Mean Street Monks."Tricycle: The Buddhist Journal vol. 10, pp. 60-66.

Figlio, David and Jens Ludwig. 2000. "Sex, Drugs, and Catholic Schools: Private Schooling and Non-Market Adolescent Behaviors." Columbia University.

Johnson, B. R., S. J. Jang, S. De Li, and D. Larson. 2000. "The 'Invisible Institution' and Black Youth Crime: The Church as an Agency of Local Social Control." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 29, pp. 479-498.
Abstract: We examine the degree to which an individual's religious involvement significantly mediates and buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on youth crime. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the fifth wave of data from the National Youth Survey, focusing on black respondents given the historical as well as contemporary significance of the African-American church for black Americans. Results front estimating a series of regression models indicated that (1) the effects of neighborhood disorder on crime among black youth are partly mediated by an individual's religious involvement (measured by the frequency of attending religious services) and (2) involvement of African-American youth in religious institutions significantly buffers or interacts with the effects of neighborhood disorder on crime and, in particular serious crime. Theoretical and methodological implications of the present findings are briefly discussed. [Source: SC]

Kowaleski-Jones, Lori. 2000. "Staying out of Trouble: Community Resources and Problem Behavior among High Risk Adolescents." Journal of Marriage and Family vol. 62, pp. 449-464.

Lindsey, Elizabeth W., P. David Kurtz, Sara Jarvis, Nancy R. Williams, and Larry Nackerud. 2000. "How Runaway and Homeless Youth Navigate Troubled Waters: Personal Strengths and Resources." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal vol. 17, pp. 115-140.
Abstract: Little attention has been paid to how runaway or homeless adolescents are able to make successful transitions into adulthood. This article reports on partial findings from an exploratory study of the research question, "How do former runaway and homeless adolescents navigate the troubled waters of leaving home, living in high-risk environments, and engaging in dangerous behaviors, to make successful developmental transitions into young adulthood?" This qualitative study involved interviews with 12 former runaway or homeless youth (aged 18-25 yrs). All youth had stayed in a youth shelter, group home, or other alternative living arrangements as an adolescent. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Findings related to the personal strengths and resources that enabled youth to make successful transitions: learning new attitudes and behaviors, personal attributes, and spirituality. Recommendations for program development and intervention with homeless or at-risk youth are discussed. [Source: PI]

Lopez Viets, Vanessa C. 2000. "Psychosocial Variables and College Student Gambling." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of New Mexico.
Abstract: Given the tremendous rise in the acceptability and the availability of gambling in contemporary society, it is not surprising that many youth are not only participating in gambling activities, but are also showing problematic patterns of use. College students are particularly vulnerable to problem gambling given their increased freedom and concomitant participation in various high-risk activities. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to college gambling and its associated factors. The Purpose of the present study was to examine two theoretical models in relation to gambling among college students. The first theoretical model was self-regulation theory, and it was hypothesized that individual risk factors subsumed under self-regulation would be associated with and predictive of problem gambling. The second tested model was social learning theory, and it was hypothesized that social support for gambling would be associated with and predictive of non-problem gambling behaviors. Another aim of the study was to investigate the influence of substance abuse on gambling. Background variables were included to control for their potential effects on gambling.. The self-reported gambling practices of 115 college students were obtained along with background (demographic, religiosity), substance use, personality (impulsivity, attention, self-regulation), and mood information (depression, anxiety, self-esteem). Additional data on gambling behaviors and social support for gambling were collected via structured, combined quantitative and qualitative interviews with the participants. Social support for gambling was a significant overall predictor of both gambling behaviors and problem gambling. Gambling behaviors were especially predictable in females as a result of the influence of social support for gambling and cigarette use. Deficits in self-regulation were predictive of problem gambling in males only. These results suggest that heterogeneous pathways may lead to the development of gambling behavior versus problem gambling, with behaviors being more predictable in females and problems being more predictable in males. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. [Source: DA]

Rivers, Monica Corbitt. 2000. "Resisting Risk: The Protective Roles of Family Environment and Personal Resilience among African-American Adolescent Girls Living in Low-Income Neighborhoods." Ph.D. Thesis, Vanderbilt University.
Abstract: Personal resilience was examined as a mediator of the influence of specific family environment variables (cohesion, control, achievement-orientation, moral-religious emphasis, and conflict) on selected developmental outcomes (academic achievement, alcohol and tobacco use, sexual behavior, and delinquent behavior) in African-American early adolescent girls. The sample included 106 10 to 12 year old African-American girls living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Findings provided no evidence of a direct effect of family environment on developmental outcomes; therefore, the hypothesized mediational model could not be tested. Additional analyses, however, revealed significant direct effects of personal resilience on two developmental outcomes under investigation, alcohol and tobacco use and delinquent behavior. Possible explanations for the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. [Source: DA]

Burke, Alison L. 1999. "Religion as Family Social Capital: Family Risk, Religiosity and Adolescent Problem Behavior." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Examines risk & protective factors & their role in predicting problem behavior among adolescents, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave I, 1994-1996. In general, the model adequately predicts problem behavior: large, direct effects of religiosity on problem behavior were found. Overall, the protective factors do not mediate the effects of family structure on deviant behavior, yet there are some small mediating effects of the saliency of religion. The applicability of a risk & protective factors model & limitations of the study are discussed. The results suggest that it is important to consider the effect of religion on the lives of adolescents. [Source: SA]

Clark, Harold A. 1999. "Teenage Gambling: There Is Another Elephant in the Sanctuary." Church and Societyvol. 89, pp. 50-54.

Gilyard, Freddie Harriett Glover. 1999. "The Competition between Gangs and Schools." Ed.D. Thesis, The Fielding Institute, Santa Barbara.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine gangs in a southeastern city in the United Sates and to cull the systemic indicators of gang culture from community stakeholders. The participants involved in the research were youth, parents, and professionals. The literature review suggested that the term "gang" has different meanings depending on the places the gangs exist (Hagedorn & Macon, 1998). Gangs have been a part of America's history for most of its existence (Brantley & DiRosa, 1994). The historical development of gangs in America was profiled in the works of Willwerth (1991) and The National Safety and Training Institute (1996) which provided the profile of the gang-involved youth. Knox (1994) said that gangs form along racial and ethnic lines with identifiable leadership models. Gaustad (1991) suggested that gangs play a major role in the spread of violence in schools. The National Institute of Justice (1998) suggested that youth join gangs to satisfy basic needs unmet by the family. Gang problems have increased in public school (Bastian & Taylor, 1991) and are influenced by religious, political and utilitarian agendas (Parkay, 1995). This research was a case study. Using an interview protocol, youth, parents, and professionals were asked to respond to questions and statements relating to the behavior and attitude of gangs as they relate to family, community, and school life. The work of Bogdan and Bilken (1982) and Gay (1987) developed the framework for the qualitative study. It was found that the intentions of gangs and schools conflict. The results were strong enough that the researcher could produce recommendations, for eliminating the competition between gangs and schools as they relate to family, community, and schools. Research implications suggested that the family establishes the culture of gangs. Home life creates the values, communication styles, and discipline techniques that gang members take into the community and then into school. Schools have to absorb the experiences that students have had with gangs, divert the objectionable behaviors of gang members, and acculturate the attitudes they have about learning into an effective school curriculum. [Source: DA]

Harris, Mark Allen. 1999. "Neighborhood Structure, Religious Involvement, and Individual Delinquency: Context and Buffering Hypothesis." Ph.D. Thesis, The Ohio State University.
Abstract: According to community scholars, detrimental neighborhood characteristics create an environment that is conducive to individual delinquency. At the same time social control and learning perspectives emphasize that individual factors are important to delinquency. Recent multi-level criminological theory suggests that both levels are important; the impact of neighborhood and individual factors on delinquency depend on one another (i.e., cross-level interactions). This argument implies that neighborhood factors may be more relevant to delinquency for some youth than others. Stated differently, some individual-level factors likely buffer the impact of neighborhood characteristics on delinquency. Unfortunately, extant multi-level studies of individual delinquency rarely consider cross-level interactions. In light of the lack of adequate empirical attention to the notion of multi-level models, the most general goal of this dissertation is determine whether the likelihood of delinquent behavior stems from both contextual and individual sources. A major part of this effort will be to consider cross-level interactions. Specifically, this dissertation seeks to determine whether adolescent religious involvement reduces the influence of neighborhood characteristics on delinquency, and whether affiliation with a "strict"; denomination heightens this buffering capacity. To assess these hypotheses, this dissertation examines models of delinquency which include interactions among neighborhood characteristics, individual religious involvement, and strict denominational affiliation. Substantively, the findings demonstrate that low neighborhood socioeconomic status increases the likelihood of violence. Cross-level interactions demonstrate that this effect is buffered by religious involvement. However, strict denominational affiliation does not augment this effect. An additional interesting finding is that adolescents in more advantaged economic areas have a higher likelihood of common property delinquency and a higher frequency of minor drug use. Interestingly, affiliation with a strict denomination negates this effect for drug use. [Source: DA]

Kunitz, S. J., K. R. Gabriel, J. E. Levy, E. Henderson, K. Lampert, J. McCloskey, G. Quintero, S. Russell, and A. Vince. 1999. "Risk Factors for Conduct Disorder among Navajo Indian Men and Women." Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology vol. 34, pp. 180-189.
Abstract: Objectives: To describe the risk factors for conduct disorder before age 15 among Navajo Indians. Methods. The study was based on a survey of a stratified random sample of adult Navajo Indians between the ages of 21 and 65 living on and adjacent to two different areas of the Navajo Reservation. There were 531 male and 203 female respondents. The average age (SD) of the men was 38.7 (10.5) years and of the women 35.5 (9.0) years. Conduct disorder was diagnosed retrospectively using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule first developed for the Epidemiological Catchment Area study. The responses were combined into a continuous scale. Results: Significant risk factors for increased scores on the conduct disorder scale were: histories of physical and sexual abuse in childhood; abusive maternal drinking; a small number of households per camp; younger age; and being male rather than female. Measures of social status and religion in which subjects were raised were not significant. Conclusions: Many of the risk factors that are associated with conduct disorder in other populations are also risk factors in the Navajo population. There is suggestive evidence that some of these risk factors have become more common since World War II, raising the possibility that conduct disorder has become more prevalent, as is thought to be the case nationwide. [Source: SC]

Lightfoot, Cynthia. 1999. "The Culture of Adolescent Risk-Taking." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 18, pp. 183-185.

Overstreet, S. and S. Braun. 1999. "A Preliminary Examination of the Relationship between Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning." School Psychology Quarterly vol. 14, pp. 380-396.
Abstract: This article provides a preliminary examination of the relationship between exposure to community violence and academic functioning in a group of 45 African American children (mean age = 12.8 years) living in an impoverished urban environment. In addition, the role of family achievement expectations and religion, two previously identified family compensatory factors related to academic resilience, were evaluated as moderators of the relationship between community violence and academic functioning. Results suggested that exposure to community violence had only a weak relationship with academic functioning in general, but that relationship was intensified under certain circumstances. Significant interactions between exposure to community violence, and both family achievement orientation and religious emphasis suggest that exposure to community violence may alter the role of previously identified compensatory factors. Children who perceived very high achievement expectations and a very strong moral-religious emphasis were most at risk for poor academic functioning as exposure to community violence increased, although children from these types of families displayed the highest academic functioning at lower levels of community violence exposure. [Source: SC]

Rodell, Daniel E. and Brent B. Benda. 1999. "Alcohol and Crime among Religious Youth." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly vol. 17, pp. 53-66.
Abstract: Examined the relationship between alcohol and crime among religious youth by studying 528 adolescents (aged 12-18 yrs) who regularly attend churches affiliated with primary Protestant denominations in a Midwestern state. The purpose of this study was to determine if the delinquency syndrome argument has more validity in a religious sample than noted in the general population of youth. Different scales were used to measure the following concepts: attachment, parental supervision, beliefs, self-esteem, parental abuse, religiosity, peer association, modeling, rewards, excuses, crime, and alcohol use. The authors conclude that all theoretical factors investigated were correlated significantly with both alcohol use and criminal activity, however, differences in correlations between theoretical factors and alcohol use or crime show that beliefs, parental abuse, and peer association are more highly correlated with crime. The findings support the delinquency syndrome argument in this sample of religious youth, and show that religiosity is relevant to alcohol use and not to crime. [Source: PI]

Schmit, Harvey Michael. 1999. "The Influence of Home, Friends, School and Church on the Development of Values and Behavior in Adolescence among Lutheran School Students." Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Abstract: The role of four supportive contexts in predicting reported values and problem behavior among adolescents in Lutheran schools was investigated. The sample of students in Lutheran schools (N = 7858) was selected from Search Institute's 1990-94 national research program. Predictors included gender, ethnicity, grade and level of parent education, as well as four contextual variables. These included: (1) care and support in the home context, (2) modeling in the friend context, (3) support and encouragement from teachers in the school context, and (4) involvement in the church context. Dependent variables included values (defined as concern for others and their welfare), and problem behaviors involving the use of soft drugs, engaging in violence, and the use of hard drugs. All constructs were measured using self report items on a questionnaire. Regression analysis indicated that involvement and support in the four contexts mediated the effects of the demographic variables on values and problem behavior. The friend context had the strongest and most positive relation with the outcomes, with less problem behavior and more positive values related to perceptions of a positive friend context. Cross product interaction terms in the regression equations revealed that there were some interactions between contexts of the home or church context was weak when the friend context was stronger. Results are discussed in terms of current theory, particularly regarding the role of demographic variables, the function of supportive contexts, and implications for Lutheran schools. [Source: PI]

Stafford, Tim. 1999. "The Criminologist Who Discovered Churches: Political Scientist John Dilulio Followed the Data to See What Would Save America's Urban Youth." Christianity Today vol. 43, pp. 34-39.

Weaver, Andrew J. and Carolyn L. Stapleton. 1999. "High Stakes: What We Lose When Teens Gamble."Christian Ministry vol. 30, pp. 20-23.

Zacharioudakis, Manos Antonis. 1999. "Problem Behaviors of Greek-American Adolescents: The Relationship of Ethnic Identification to Risks and Protective Factors." Ph.D. Thesis, St. John's University (New York).
Abstract:In a cross-sectional study of 257 Greek-American (GA) adolescents from across the US (ages 16-19, 72% female, 93% USA born) the incidence and psychosocial corrlates of problem behaviors (PB) (i.e. smoking, drinking, marijuana, heavy drugs, sexual intercourse, deviant behaviors) were explored. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory's (PBT) generalizability in this population were examined. Differences in PB incidence, risks, and predictors, explored through correlational and multiple regression analyses, across GA ethnic identification, gender, and school status (i.e. high school-college) were found. The findings generally supported PBT. Strong positive intercorrelations among all PB, all (but one) positive intercorrelations among prosocial behavior, and all negative correlations of PB with prosocial behavior, and all negative correlations of PB with prosocial behaviors were documented, as hypothesized. The "one latent factor of general deviance" hypothesis found support for males, but not for females or the total sample. Higher Greek-identified youth showed higher drinking, smoking, and deviance, and lower marijuana/drug use and sexual experience scores, compared to lower Greek-identified youth, but these differences were due to SES differences and disappeared when SES factors were partialled out. Family cohesiveness showed protective main effects for most PB but no interaction with ethnicity effects. Family adaptability failed to show any significant effects. Significant gender differences were found: males showed higher marijuana, alcohol use, deviance scores, and sexual promiscuity and less diet/laxative pill use that females (no smoking or heavier drug use gender differences were found). Females showe higher levels of religiosity, stressful events and psychopathology (i.e. anxiety and general symptomatology, but not depression). College students showed higher scores for most PB (except heavy drugs or deviance). Youth from non-intact parental marriages showed significantly higher levels of all PB while intact family incidence showed a positive correlation to Greek ethnic identity. In predicting the total sample's PBindex, in decreasing order, friends' regular engagement In smoking/drinking/marjuana use/sex, time going to bed on weekends, stressful life events, relative parent-friend influence, non-acceptance of premarital sex by youth, intolerance of deviance, parental approval of PB, and age, were the significant predictors. Significant differences in predictors were found among ethnic, gender, and college-status subgroups (e.g. a high contribution of PBT "personality" variables only for high Greek identifiers, of family cohesion for females, and of "perceived environment" factors--i.e. friends models and parental controls--for males). [Source: DA]

Chard -Wierschem, Deborah Jo. 1998. "In Pursuit of the "True" Relationship: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Religiosity on Delinquency and Substance Abuse." Ph.D. Thesis, State University of New York At Albany.
Abstract: The long held notion that religious beliefs and practices deter crime and deviance has been embraced by scholars as well as society in general. Yet, studies examining the relationship between religion and deviance have yielded little insight. Past research on the religiosity-delinquency relationship has been severely criticized for lack of theory, poor operationalization of religious beliefs and behavior, inadequate statistical analyses and in general, has been frustrated by many contradictory findings. This study addresses these criticisms by placing the religion-delinquency relationship within the framework of an elaborated social control theory and proposes to test this theory using longitudinal data from the Rochester Youth Development Study. Results from the longitudinal analysis suggest that religiosity does indeed have an effect on both delinquency and drug use: religious youth are less likely to engage in delinquency or drug use than non- religious or less religious youth. However, most of the effect of religiosity on delinquency and substance use is indirect through other model variables, in particular, through conventional values, delinquent peers and delinquent values. These relationships were fairly consistent across three different time periods, suggesting that although the quantity or quality of religiosity may change as a youth matures, the basic manner in which religiosity operates in deterring delinquent behavior remains relatively consistent. Parent religiosity was also found to be strongly related to youth religiosity and to increased educational commitment. The main theoretical model was also tested for three denominational categories of youth (Catholic, Protestant and Non-Denominational Christian) and for a sample of youth who said they did not believe in a particular religion. Although sample sizes were relatively small, differences in the way in which religiosity did (or did not) effect delinquency and substance use were observed. Finally, reciprocal relationships between youth religiosity, delinquent peers, delinquent values and delinquency were also explored. More evidence exists to indicate that youth religiosity decreases delinquency and substance use rather than the reverse. Policy implications and suggestions for further research are also discussed. [Source: DA]

Donohue, B., V. B. Van Hasselt, M. Hersen, and S. Perrin. 1998. "Role-Play Assessment of Social Skills in Conduct Disordered and Substance Abusing Adolescents: An Empirical Review." Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse vol. 8, pp. 1-28.
Abstract: An integration and critical examination of studies that have evaluated social skill functioning in delinquent and substance abusing youth utilizing role-pray assessment is warranted. Hence, the purpose of this paper is threefold: (a) to delineate the often misunderstood term "social skill," (b) to describe role-play assessment, the most commonly utilized method to evaluate social skill functioning and, (c) to critically examine studies investigating social skills of conduct disordered and substance abusing adolescents. [Source: SC]

Fisher, Judith, Hansoo Kim, and Sonja Choi Lee. 1998. "Stability of Religious Orientation and Academic Dishonesty." Journal of Research on Christian Education vol. 7, pp. 55-66 bibl.
Abstract: A study investigated the probable influence of individual religiosity on academic cheating. Data were obtained from a group of Seventh-day Adventist youth in grades 6-12. Specifically, the study examined the relationship between students' religious experience or religious activities and academic honesty, the religious variables that influence academic honesty, and the correlation between the stability of religious orientation and academic honesty. The results revealed that although religious beliefs may result in the adoption of religious behaviors, such as church attendance, personal Bible study, or dedicated time for prayer, these behaviors do not appear to have a direct impact on academic honesty. The implications of the results are discussed. [Source: EA]

Hughes, Jean Susan. 1998. "The Relationship of Leisure Lifestyle to Selected Risk Behaviors of Adolescents."Ed.D. Thesis, University of Arkansas.
Abstract: Currently, there is a need to develop holistic models that address the multidimensional, psychosocial determinants of adolescent risk behavior. Approximately 40% of an adolescent's waking hours are unstructured, unsupervised discretionary time. This study surveyed 114 students in an alternative high school program. A risk behavior index was developed that was a composite measure of the incidence and severity of adolescent pregnancy, juvenile delinquency, substance use, undereducation, and stress. Using simultaneous regression, the risk index was examined in relation to (1) selected leisure variables of intrinsic leisure motivation, leisure constraints, leisure satisfaction and leisure interests; (2) selected social variables of gender, age, employment status of mother, income, number of adults in the household, relationship with parents, ruralness and number of siblings; (3) selected personal variables of school discipline problems, grade point average, absences, employment status of subject, and weekend curfew; and (4) selected group belonging variables of gang membership church membership, school athletics, school club, youth group, and community recreation agency. The leisure related measures used the intrinsic leisure motivation scale of Weissinger and Bandalos (1995), the leisure constraint scale of Raymore, Godbey, Crawford, and von Eye (1993), the leisure satisfaction scale of Ragheb and Beard (1980), and the leisure interest scale of Beard and Ragheb (1992). The results showed a negative relationship of the risk index to intrapersonal constraints, outdoor leisure interests and belonging to a church. There was a significant positive relationship between the risk index and belonging to a gang, working, problems at school and grade point average. None of the social variables were related to risk behavior. The significance of the study is the development of a risk index as a composite score. The study indicates a need to measure adolescent interests in order to meet their needs and create more involvement in structured settings. [Source: PI]

James, Marian Dorothy. 1998. "Factors That Impact Adolescent Weapon Carrying and Violent Behaviors."Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland College Park.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine which resiliency and risk factors appeared to predict adolescent involvement in weapon carrying and violent behaviors. To determine the level of resiliency, exposure to risk and participation in violent behaviors, a 72 item Risk and Resiliency Questionnaire (RRQ) was administered to a west coast sample of detention center youth (n = 93). The different sections of the RRQ measured the following: (1) respondent's behavioral risk status; (2) exposure to risk factors; (3) resiliency; and (4) sociodemographic variables. Study results demonstrated that the resiliency variables Expectation, Hope, Empathy, Prosocial behaviors, Academic achievement and Religious attendance were not age or race specific. Gender could not be examined due to the small percentage (11.2%) of females. Three items from the Exposure to Risk Subscale, number of stabbings witnessed, frequency of witnessing neighborhood gang activity and frequency of witnessing people selling drugs were significant predictors of weapon carrying behavior. The combination of the 3 items accounted for 35% of the variance in the sample. Involvement in violent behavior was significantly predicted by two items from the Exposure to Risk Subscale, frequency witnessed others and friends fighting and number of stabbings witnessed. Forty-four percent of the variance in the model was accounted for by these two variables. Seven statistical models were built to predict involvement in weapon carrying and violent behaviors from risk and resiliency factors. Alcohol consumption increased the likelihood that a youth would carry a knife. Physical fighting and gang membership were significant predictors of youth who had carried a gun. Low expectations and gang membership predicted the likelihood of shooting a gun at another person. Three predictor variables (carried a gun, sold drugs and carried an object to be used as a weapon) were found to significantly increase the likelihood of participation in aggravated assault. [Source: DA]

Josephson, Michael and Rosa Maulini. 1998. "1998 Report Card on the Ethics of American Youth."Josephson Institute of Ethics, Marina del Rey, CA.
Abstract: Reports the results of a national survey of the ethics of American young people. More than 20,000 youth from schools across the nation were interviewed about issues pertaining to lying, cheating and stealing. According to Michael Josephson, "this report card shows that the hole in our moral ozone is getting bigger." Results indicate that the percentage of high schoolers who admit to stealing from a store is on the rise. Similarly, the percent of high school students who say they cheated on an exam rose from 64% to 70% between 1996 and 1998. Another major finding is a significant increase in the percentage of students who lie to their parents or would be willing to lie to get a good job. [Source: AU]

Mason, Henry L. 1998. "A Counseling Intervention Model for Ministry to African American Male Juvenile Offenders: Ages 10-17." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project proposes and designs a model of counseling ministry for African American juvenile offenders, testing it with 12 young people between the ages of 10 and 17. Through biblical teaching, counseling, and prayer, these young people experience rehabilitation and healing on different levels. Future efforts will involve family members with the juveniles enrolled in the program. [Source: RI]

McCubbin, Hamilton I., Wm Michael Fleming, Anne I. Thompson, Paul Neitman, Kelly M. Elver, and Sue Ann Savas. 1998. "Resiliency and Coping in "at Risk" African-American Youth and Their Families." Pp. 287-328 in Resiliency in African-American FamiliesResiliency in Families Series, Vol. 3, edited by Hamilton I. McCubbin and Elizabeth A. Thompson. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Abstract: (from the chapter) Examined the relative importance of both youth coping and family coping repertoires as predictors of youth offenders' ability to recover from adversity. 821 African-American youth (abused, neglected, or adjudicated delinquents) in Boysville of Michigan completed a youth coping index and their parents completed a family coping index. It is noted that positive changes in youth coping efforts directed at spiritual and personal development and negative changes (reduction) in youth coping efforts directed at incendiary communication play an important part in predicting successful completion of the Boysville program and successful post-treatment adaptation 12 mo later. When both changes in youth and family coping are considered, the highest accuracy in predicting successful and unsuccessful program completion, post-program adaptation at 3 mo, and post-program adaptation at 12 mo. [Source: PI]

McCurrie, Thomas F. 1998. "White Racist Extremist Gang Members: A Behavioral Profile." Journal of Gang Research vol. 5, pp. 51-60.
Abstract: Studied 82 hard core White racist extremist gang members, including members of the Aryan Nation, Aryan Youth Movement, Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazis, skinhead groups, White power groups, and motorcycle gangs. Violent crimes accounted for 70.9% of known offenses committed by the gang members. Profiles outlined for the gang members include school/education, sexual, family background, religious, drug involvement, gang involvement, and gang quitting. Gang organization, correctional behavior, and prosecution impact profiles are also summarized, and recommendations included for those concerned about gangs and hate groups. [Source: PI]

Scharf, Alice Anne. 1998. "Environmental Stress, Potential Protective Factors, and Adolescent Risk-Taking." Ph.D. Thesis, Fordham University, New York.
Abstract: Recent research has examined the impact of various risk and protective factors on adolescent risk-taking behaviors; however these studies have been narrowly focused and often included aggregated indices measuring involvement in several behaviors. The present study examined contributions of life event stress and daily hassles as risk factors and religiosity and attitudinal intolerance for deviance as protective factors for five separate behaviors including: adolescent alcohol use, marijuana use, delinquent behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and the potential for dropping out of school. Participants included 201 urban and mostly minority high school students from all four grades. Results from simultaneous regression analyses demonstrated the following eight significant interactions: life events and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, daily hassles and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, and life events and extrinsic religiosity for alcohol use; life events and extrinsic religiosity and life events and intrinsic religiosity for marijuana use; life events and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, daily hassles and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, and life events and extrinsic religiosity for delinquent behaviors; and life events and extrinsic religiosity for the potential for dropping out of school. Only main effects were found to be significant for levels of risky sexual behaviors. Being male significantly predicted higher levels of delinquent behaviors and risky sexual behaviors. All other demographics inconsistently predicted levels of risk-taking behaviors. For males, significant interactions were found for alcohol use and delinquent behaviors. And for females, significant interactions included life event stress with extrinsic religiosity and life event stress with intrinsic religiosity for alcohol use. Results indicate that levels of religiosity and attitudinal intolerance for deviance generally had moderating effects for adolescents experiencing high levels of life events or daily hassles. Contributions of both stressors to higher levels of all five risk-taking behaviors suggest that involvement in these behaviors may be maladaptive ways to cope with stress. High levels of protective factors appear to guard adolescents against involvement in substance use, delinquency, and the potential for dropping out of school. Adolescents facing high levels of stress who have low levels of protective factors are at particular risk for engagement in risk-taking behaviors in response to stress. [Source: DA]

Taylor, Anthony Lee, Sr. 1998. "Gather the Children: An Effective Church-Based Community Outreach Program for Youth Empowerment." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project proposes a dialogical workshop, See-Judge-Act, to teach inner-city youth how to respond when confronted by social ills and how to avoid involvement in delinquent acts, testing it in the Huntersville neighborhood of Norfolk, Virginia, served by Union United Church of Christ. Youth involvement in the congregation's church school increases as a result of the workshop. [Source: RI]

Benda, Brent B. 1997. "An Examination of a Reciprocal Relationship between Religiosity and Different Forms of Delinquency within a Theoretical Model." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency vol. 34, pp. 163-186.
Abstract: Results from a study of 1,093 adolescents (aged 13-20 yrs) do not support the argument that property crimes, crimes against persons, and use of alcohol and other drugs are behavior manifestations of an interrelated constellation or syndrome of delinquency. A factor analysis clearly shows that the various forms of delinquency studied load on three distinct factors. In addition, whereas the hypothesized theoretical model does explain considerable variation in frequency of alcohol use and of criminal behavior (22% and 24%, respectively), it does not account for much variance in drug use (6%). Whereas there are reciprocal relationships between religiosity and drug use and religiosity and crime, only the feedback effect of religiosity on alcohol use is significant. These latter findings suggest that future studies need to examine reciprocal relationships and that the relationship between alcohol use and religiosity needs to be re-examined conceptually and empirically in future studies. [Source: PI]

Benda, Brent B. and Robert Flynn Corwyn. 1997a. "Religion and Delinquency: The Relationship after Considering Family and Peer Influences." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 36, pp. 81-92.
Abstract: Examines the delinquency-religion relationship among 724 public high school students in AR & OK via questionnaires. Analysis indicates that the significance of the relationship depends on the measures of religion used, whether other important familial & peer influences are considered, & the form of delinquency analyzed. When only controlling for demographics, while examining measures of church attendance & religiosity, results support the usual conclusion that religion is related to status offense & not to crime. However, evangelism is not related to either form of delinquency when only considering the effects of demographic variables. On the other hand, when elements of control theory were added to demographic factors with hierarchical regression procedures, church attendance & religiosity ceased to be relevant to status offenses & remained irrelevant to crime, whereas evangelism was related to crime. The implications of the findings for future investigations are discussed. [Source: SA]

Benda, Brent B. and Robert Flynn Corwyn. 1997b. "A Test of a Model with Reciprocal Effects between Religiosity and Various Forms of Delinquency Using 2-Stage Least Squares Regression." Journal of Social Service Research vol. 22, pp. 27-52.
Abstract: This was a study of 1,093 9th-12th graders from 6 different public high schools, where the same integrated theoretical model of control and social learning theories fit the data on alcohol use, heavy alcohol consumption, use of marijuana, criminal behavior, sexual exploration, and suicidal thoughts. It was observed that the model explained significantly more variance in some of these forms of delinquency than in others, indicating only equivocal support for the deviance syndrome argument in the literature. This study also found that religiosity was a significant influence only on criminal behavior, whereas the feedback effect of delinquency on religiosity was significant for all forms of delinquent behavior studied. [Source: PI]

DiIulio, John. 1997. "With Unconditional Love: Interview on Church Influence on Youth by Jim Wallis." Sojourners vol. 26, pp. 16-22.

Hill, Dartanya G., Sr. 1997. "Kwanzaa: Youth Crime and Violence Prevention and Treatment Program." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project proposes, implements, and evaluates a pilot program to reduce and reverse youth crime and violence, enlisting 10 young people referred by courts in mentoring, biblical instruction, counseling, and restitution through community service. Mentoring is valuable in reversing behavior associated with fatherlessness. Occupying the time of troubled youth and offering them a sense of belonging through youth-specific activities can be effective in promoting socially appropriate values. Participants in the pilot program do not return to court, and several of them find employment, accept personal responsibility for shared community living, and exhibit improved attitudes. [Source: RI]

Larson, Scott J. 1997. "The Spiritual Development of Juvenile Offenders." Thesis, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project proposes a spiritual-assessment tool, including a needs-assessment survey and a Christian-identity survey, in order to understand the process of spiritual change in the lives of at-risk youth by accurately assessing these youth in their spiritual and developmental environment. Based on this assessment the project offers effective ministry strategies tailored to needs and identity. [Source: RI]

Litchfield, Allen W., Darwin L. Thomas, and Bing Dao Li. 1997. "Dimensions of Religiosity as Mediators of the Relations between Parenting and Adolescent Deviant Behavior." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 12, pp. 199-226.
Abstract: Data from over 1,500 American adolescents (aged 11-18 yrs)--collected in 2 separate projects, both longitudinal-- were used to examine the interrelations among parent/child interactions, adolescent religiosity, and adolescent and young deviance and the degree to which these dimensions mediated the effects of parental behavior on adolescent deviant outcomes. Results found that the 3 religiosity dimensions functioned as intervening variables between parental behaviors and deviance, with adolescents' expectations of future religious activity reducing subsequent deviance more than either public or private adolescent religiosity. These findings imply that from their parent/child relationships and their public and private religious activity, adolescents construct a view of what will be their future patterns of religious activity. They then tend to participate or not in deviant behavior consonant with their future religious orientation. [Source: PI]

Macintosh, William Robert. 1997. "Adolescent Victimization among High School Students: Testing a Model Utilizing a Religious Minority." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model of characteristics that related to being a victim of delinquent activity among high school students. Strong family relations, heightened school performance, and strong religious beliefs are believed to lessen the chances of being victimized. Teenager members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints living in the Mid-Atlantic states, the Pacific Northwest, and in Utah were surveyed. The original intent was to identify those characteristics that contributed to a teenager's victimization as students in high school. This study showed that delinquency, religiosity, sex, school performance, and self-esteem were the characteristics that predicted victimization. The model of victim characteristics does identify students who are most likely to become victims. Additional variables may exist that will strengthen the models predictive ability. [Source: DA]

Mack, Sir Walter Lee, Jr. 1997. "The Use of Luke 15 to Empower Reconciliation among Male Juvenile Delinquents in the African-American Community."Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project establishes mutual relationships between African-American juvenile delinquents and members of New Hope Granville Baptist Church (Oxford, NC), in order to help these young men become reconciled with God, themselves, and other human beings while changing their attitudes toward crime through spiritual, educational, and recreational activities. The parables of Luke 15 become the paradigm of reconciliation for the church and these troubled young men. [Source: RI]

Neumark Sztainer, Dianne, Mary Story, Simone A. French, and Michael D. Resnick. 1997. "Psychosocial Correlates of Health Compromising Behaviors among Adolescents." Health Education Research vol. 12, pp. 37-52.
Abstract: Investigated psychosocial correlates of diverse health-compromising behaviors among adolescents of different ages. Ss included 123,132 11-21 yr old males and females in 6th, 9th, and 12th grade. Psychosocial correlates of substance abuse, delinquency, suicide risk, sexual activity, and unhealthy weight loss behaviors were examined. Psychosocial variables included emotional well-being, self-esteem, risk-taking disposition, number of concerns, extracurricular involvement, religiosity, school connectedness and achievement, physical and sexual abuse, and family connectedness and structure. Results show that risk-taking disposition was associated with nearly every behavior across age and gender groups. Other consistent correlates included sexual abuse and family connectedness. Correlates of health-compromising behaviors tended to be consistent across age groups. However, stronger associations were noted between sexual abuse and substance use for younger adolescents, and risk-taking disposition and school achievement were stronger correlates for older youth. Findings suggest the presence of both common and unique etiological factors for different health-compromising behaviors among youth. [Source: PI]

Powell, Kathleen B. 1997. "Correlates of Violent and Nonviolent Behavior among Vulnerable Inner-City Youths." Family and Community Health vol. 20, pp. 38-47.
Abstract: Questionnaire data are used to identify determinants of violent & nonviolent behavior among 521 inner-city students at high risk for violence in Birmingham, AL. Logistic regression analysis predicted violent behavior from youths who are exposed to violence, are gang members, have family or friends who are gang members, & have peer support. Nonviolent behavior was predicted from youths who have adult social support, view religion as important, are younger, & are female. Practice implications are noted. [Source: SA]

Rapposelli, Teresa Maria. 1997. "Family Characteristics of Hispanic Male Adolescents Involved in Youth Gangs."Psy.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alameda, Berkeley.
Abstract: This study tested the hypothesis that Hispanic adolescent boys may be turning to gangs in order to seek a place where they feel they belong. The breakdown in the nuclear family unit and how this is associated with an increase in gang involvement, delinquent behavior, and violence and crime for Hispanic youths was studied. Sixty Hispanic male adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 participated in this study. Thirty adolescents who did not self identify as gang members composed the Control group. The Experimental group consisted of thirty adolescents who indicated that they were gang members. A Personal Information Questionnaire was used to assess demographic variables, cultural preferences, and issues concerning family characteristics, values, and emotions of the research participants. The quality of the subjects' family relations was measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-II. It was predicted that families of gang members would demonstrate high levels of cohesion (emotional connectedness) and adaptability (flexibility). Although significant difference between groups was found on the means of the total scores for cohesion, chi square analyses showed no statistical association between non- gang/gang membership and the four cohesion categories. Similarly, no significance was found when comparing the means of the total scores for adaptability, nor did chi square analyses show statistical association between non- gang/gang membership and the four adaptability categories. Finally, results of the Mann-Whitney U test demonstrated no significant difference in the family type between groups. Discussion centered on the implication of findings for the general delinquency literature. The importance of Hispanic cultural values and the necessity of distinguishing traditional Hispanic family dynamics from those of other cultural, ethnic, or religious groups was stressed. Issues of acculturation, environmental stress, and the basic survival issues and societal pressures that Hispanic families face within a dominant culture were also addressed. Recommendations for future research regarding depression, post traumatic stress, substance abuse, and other extraneous factors that may more clearly determine whether or not gang membership is truly due to family dysfunction were given. [Source: DA]

van Hulst, Yael and Heather Madray. 1997. "Deterrents to Delinquency: The Impact of Social Ties." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Previous literature suggests that religiosity deters adolescent delinquent behavior. Recent discussions have focused on individual variables in explaining behavior. Although these variables may play a role in producing delinquent behavior, it is contended here that it is important to acknowledge that cultural institutions mediate psychological & familial variables. The impact of social support received via religious & community involvements on the delinquent behavior of youth is examined, & it is hypothesized that religious & community involvements have similar effects in providing social ties. The Monitoring the Future dataset (Form 6, 1992) is used to examine the effect of religiosity & community involvement revealed that religiosity has an effect on drug & alcohol use, but that community involvement has more of an effect on delinquency & norm-violating behavior. Moreover, the interaction between religion & community involvement appears to have the greatest effect in reducing drug & alcohol use & delinquency. [Source: SA]

Wiederhold, Terie Shawalter. 1997. "Predictive Variables of Gang Membership and the Structure of Gangs in Utah County." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: The intention of this study was to statistically find predictive variables of gang membership. A 52-item questionnaire was given to 341 youth participants living in Utah. The obtained cases were categorized into three groups: control, delinquent, and gang. A factor analysis was used to consolidate several of the questions of interest. Using a stepwise discriminant function analysis the following 12 variables were found to be predictive of group membership: inappropriate behaviors, illegal behaviors, religiosity, knowledge of gangs, gender, social reasons for joining a gang, age, danger risk-taking behavior, fast driving risk-taking behavior, hanging out value, religion, and media activities. Given these 12 predictors, group membership for similar participants should be adequately determined better than chance alone. The second purpose of this study was to identify the structure and organization of gangs in an area recently experiencing a gang problem. Descriptive variables were thus used to describe gang activities in Utah County. This study found that even gang members in these low-crime communities gave grandiose estimations of their gang behaviors. Further research needs to focus more on the psychological perspective of gang membership. Possible future research topics include family discipline styles, hours spent with family and friends, and family involvement. [Source: DA]

Curry, Theodore R. 1996. "Conservative Protestantism and the Perceived Wrongfulness of Crimes." Criminologyvol. 34, pp. 453-464.

DuRant, Robert H. and Frank Treiber. 1996. "Intentions to Use Violence among Young Adolescents." Pediatricsvol. 98, p. 1104.
Abstract: Examines the influence of exposure to violence, depression, church attendance, multiple drug use and demographic variables on young adolescents' intentions to use violence to resolve conflict. Description of the clustering behaviors that can jeopardize the health of young adolescents who live in economically disadvantaged environments; Theories supporting the study. [Source: AS]

Evans, T. David, Francis T. Cullen, Velmer S. Burton, Jr., R. Gregory Dunaway, Gary L. Payne, and Shesha R ke thineni. 1996. "Religion, Social Bonds, and Delinquency." Deviant Behavior vol. 17, pp. 43-70.
Abstract: Used comprehensive measures of religion, secular social bonds, and delinquency to resolve questions concerning the relative efficacy of religion as an inhibitor of delinquency. Unlike prior research, these models also included measures of 3 separate dimensions of religiosity (religious activities, salience, and "hellfire") and peer religiosity. In the most fully specified models, using data collected from 263 students in Grades 10-12, individual religiosity and peer religiosity appeared to be important predictors of general delinquency. However, antiascetic acts, i.e., those explicitly proscribed in a religious context, were dampened by peer religiosity only. [Source: PI]

Fang, X. Y., B. Stanton, X. M. Li, D. Romer, J. Galbraith, and S. Feigelman. 1996. "Similarity of Risk and Protective Behaviours among African- American Pre- and Early Adolescent Members of Naturally Occurring Friendship Groups." Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine vol. 73, pp. 285-300.
Abstract: To determine whether self-reported risk and protective behaviors, expectations, and attitudes are more similar among African-American early adolescents within a community-based friendship group than across groups, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 382 African-American youth 9 through 15 years of age forming 76 community-based groups of 3 through 10 same-gender friends. Each member of the friendship group reported his/her own past involvement in nine risk behaviors (sexual intercourse, substance abuse, drug-trafficking, and other delinquent activities) and two protective behaviors (high academic performance and regular church attendance) and their expectations and feelings regarding several of these behaviors. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated overall and by gender and age. Members were generally more similar within friendship groups than across groups with regard to several risk behaviors and expectations including sexual intercourse and drug-trafficking. Particularly striking was the similarity among members of ''junior'' friendship groups (e.g., median age of youth +ADw-11 years) of both risk and protective behaviors and expectations. The finding of enhanced similarity of risk behaviors and expectations among members within groups suggests that intervention delivery through community-based friendship groups may be a useful approach for risk prevention efforts targeting pre-adolescent African-American youth living in low- income settings. [Source: SC]

Jagers, Robert J. 1996. "Culture and Problem Behaviors among Inner-City African-American Youth: Further Explorations." Journal of Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 371-381.
Abstract: The relationship between cultural associations & problem behaviors among African-American inner-city children in a large midwestern US city was examined in a questionnaire survey examining the endorsement & impact of various cultural influences (N = 119 fifth & sixth graders). Drawing on A. W. Boykin's triple quandary framework (1983), it is argued that African-American children must negotiate between three primary cultural influences: Afrocultural, which emphasizes spirituality, affect, & communalism; Anglocultural, which endorses material well-being, effort optimism, individualism, & competition; & the minority marginalized realm, which is characterized by feelings of alienation & repression. Findings suggests that inner-city African Americans responded positively to all features of Afrocultural identity while also placing faith in the Anglocultural ideals of hard work & sacrifice. However, concern with material gain was correlated with school problems & involvement in gangs & street activity, & it is argued that the actual experiences of the more troubled adolescents evidenced the abandonment of communalism in favor of predatory individualism & objectification of others. Further, strong endorsement of Afrocultural ideals was associated with fewer aggressive & delinquent behaviors. Directions for future research are briefly discussed. [Source: SA]

McCreary, Micah L., Lesley A. Slavin, and Eloise J. Berry. 1996. "Predicting Problem Behavior and Self-Esteem among African-American Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 11, pp. 216-234.
Abstract: Investigates the utility of using stress, social support, & racial identity to predict problem behavior & self-esteem among African-American adolescents. Questionnaire data indicate that stressful life events & lack of perceived support from friends were predictive of problem behavior (eg, drug & alcohol use, delinquent acts) in a sample of 221 African-American high school students attending a Baptist church-sponsored weekend retreat in a southeastern state. Strong support from friends attenuated the effects of stress. Only one racial-identity variable - attitudes toward African-Americans - contributed to the prediction of problem behavior after other variables were entered into the regression equation. More positive attitudes predicted lower levels of problem behavior. Similar results were obtained in a regression analysis using self-esteem as the dependent variable. It is concluded that stress models are useful with African-Americans, particularly if a racial-identity variable is included. [Source: SA]

Meyer, Aleta L. and Linda Lausell. 1996. "The Value of Including a "Higher Power" in Efforts to Prevent Violence and Promote Optimal Outcomes During Adolescence." Pp. 115-132 in Preventing Violence in America. Issues in Children's and Families' Lives, Vol. 4, edited by Robert L. Hampton and Pamela Jenkins. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Abstract: (from the chapter) argue that an adolescent's understanding of his or her own spiritual belief system makes a unique contribution to that person's development on both personal and societal levels / describe common themes within spiritual belief systems and . . . present a preliminary consideration of the role of spirituality in adolescence / review . . . research directly related to spirituality in adolescence / discuss future possibilities for the role of promoting personal spiritual belief systems in preventing violence and optimizing adolescent outcomes. [Source: PI]

Moss, Belinda Gale. 1996. "Perceptions of Church Leaders Regarding the Role of the Church in Combating Juvenile Delinquency in San Antonio, Texas: Implications for Church and Community-Based Programs." Ph.D. Thesis, St. Mary's University (San Antonio).
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of church leaders regarding juvenile delinquency in their church community in San Antonio, Texas and whether the church should be an active participant in arresting adolescent criminal behavior. The increased incidence of juvenile delinquency, especially violent crimes, in urban, suburban, and rural areas, in cities large and small, begs the invention of new programs which can be effective in combating juvenile delinquency and reducing recidivism rates for juvenile offenders. There is a proliferation of data on factors relating to juvenile delinquency. Cited most often are low socio-economic status, educational difficulties, and dissolution of the family. Still, the development of effective preventive methods, treatment programs, or rehabilitation for these conduct-disordered youth is at best limited. Although there is no panacea for treating conduct-disordered youth, there is evidence in literature that the church is an organization that provides moral development, values clarification, and a sense of community for its members. Accordingly, the church may be helpful in facilitating troubled youth. It is documented that church attendance lessens depression, sexual activity, alcohol and substance abuse, and deviant behaviors. This current study revealed that 87 percent of the clergy in San Antonio, Texas perceived that the church had an active role in thwarting juvenile delinquency. Of the 200 participants, some 74 percent had developed religious-based programs specifically addressing the juvenile delinquency problem, as well as active involvement in various community-based programs, to include, J.O.V.E.N., D.A.R.E., and FAIR-WELL TO VIOLENCE. This study revealed promising evidence that may prove effective in reducing juvenile delinquency. [Source: DA]

Neverdon-Merritt, Michal. 1996. "The Socialization of the Urban, Black, Male Delinquent in a Low-Income, Single-Parent, Female-Headed Household." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland At Baltimore.
Abstract: Juvenile delinquency has been declared a widespread social problem. Statistics show that low-income, black male juveniles have higher rates of involvement in delinquent activities than white male, white female and black female juveniles. Family structure (i.e., one parent vs two parent families) has been related to juvenile delinquency. Some researchers have argued that juveniles from single parent families (specifically families headed by females) are more vulnerable to delinquent activities than those of two parent families. There are limited entries, past and current, that directly relate to single parenting and its influence on juvenile recidivism. The purpose of this qualitative "grounded" theory field study was to explore and describe the effects of mother son interaction patterns on the black male delinquent (ages 10-17). Open ended interviews were conducted with each mother son dyad (N = 11) in three rounds of data collection. Interviews were conducted in the homes of the families. The constant comparative method of data collection and analysis was used, concepts and themes were identified, systematically linked, negotiated and refined into working hypotheses. The working hypotheses were negotiated to develop "grounded" theory. The results indicate that black male juveniles who are continuously encouraged by their single mothers to be "independent" tend to exhibit aggressive behavior and have a pessimistic outlook on life. The mothers' expectations of independence for their sons are based on the following factors: (a) mothers' own childhood experiences and socialization process; (b) mothers' interactions with male partners; (c) mothers' perceptions of sons; and (d) mothers' emotional well- being and religious/philosophical outlook on life. The sons' aggressive behaviors and pessimistic outlook on life are related to: (a) their perceptions of their parents and interactions with mothers; and (b) their support from their extended family and community. Implications of these findings include recommendations for policy, research and direct practice within the social work profession and various helping professions in the community. Significant findings indicated that "juvenile delinquency is a community problem." The educational system, the juvenile justice system, mental health centers and others need to coordinate their services for youth. All agencies would benefit from having social workers develop and implement programs. [Source: DA]

Perkins, Daniel Francis. 1996. "An Examination of the Organismic, Behavioral, and Contextual Covariates of Risk Behaviors among Diverse Groups of Adolescents."Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University, Detroit.
Abstract: This study explored the interrelationship of risk behaviors (i.e., alcohol and drug use, antisocial behavior/delinquency, sexual activity, and school misconduct) and, in turn, their relationships with individual-organismic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, and ethnicity), individual-behavioral characteristics (i.e., involvement in extracurricular activities, religiosity, and view of the future), and contextual characteristics (i.e., family support, parent-adolescent communication, peer group characteristics, and school climate). A sample of 16,375 Michigan adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years, derived from the Community-Based Profile of Michigan Youth study, was administered the Search Institute Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire (ABQ), a self report measure indexing adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. In almost all cases, correlations among risk behaviors within the entire sample and within the age, gender, and ethnic subgroups were significant. Correlations between males and females and among the racial/ethnic and age groups generally did not differ significantly. However, intercorrelations among European American adolescents were generally higher than was the case for corresponding correlations among African American adolescents. Multiple regressions were used to assess how the risk behaviors were predicted by the individual and contextual characteristics, and to determine whether this covariation differed among subgroups. All results were significant and, across equations, peer group characteristics was the most frequent significant predictor. Age, gender, and religiosity were significant predictors, particularly in the multiple regressions for sexual activity. Self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, view of the future, and family support were not significant predictors. Results were discussed in regard to this study's limitations and to directions for future research. Limitations were associated with the study's cross sect. [Source: PI]

Powell, Kathleen Bucher. 1996. "Determinants of Nonviolent Behavior among High-Risk Inner-City Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Birmingham.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of nonviolent behavior among a high-risk group of inner-city youth. Geographical areas known to be at high risk for violence were identified within a Southeast county. Schools within identified areas that reported the highest percentage of student conduct code violations were selected as target schools. Students enrolled in fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh grades of target schools (n = 521) were administered an anonymous questionnaire. Respondents were classified into four mutually exclusive, violence-related categories according to whether they were involved in a physical fight in the past 12 months and/or carried a weapon in the past 30 days. Forty-eight percent of students self-reported nonviolent behavior. Analysis of variances revealed significant relationships between violence behavior and age, gender, adult social support, violence exposure, gang-related involvement, and religiosity. Logistic regression analysis predicted nonviolent behavior from youth who have adult social support, view religion as important, are younger aged youth, and are female. Violent behavior was predicted from youth who are exposed to violence, are gang members, have family/friends who are gang members, and have peer support. Factors not independently associated with violence behavior in the logistic model included church attendance, family support, and participation in extracurricular activities. These data indicate that violence-related activities are frequent among this population, but that the presence of certain factors may mitigate violent behavior. [Source: PI]

Ramey, Timothy R. 1996. "The Development of a Mentor Ministry to Train the Brotherhood of the Barraque Street Missionary Baptist Church." Thesis, Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Kansas City.
Abstract: This project proposes to combat the rising rate of violent crime and social disintegration among young Black males by preparing Christian men to serve as mentors to neighborhood youth. The project conducted three seminars for church leaders concerning child abuse and its effects, self-esteem among Black males, and substance abuse. These mentors were paired with seven first offenders referred by the juvenile court. Four of these young men significantly improved in academic performance, citizenship behavior, and family relationships. [Source: RI]

Stark, Rodney. 1996. "Religion as Context: Hellfire and Delinquency One More Time." Sociology of Religion vol. 57, pp. 163-173.

Westmoreland, Cheri Lynn. 1996. "Faith in Action: A Descriptive Case Study of Project Impact, a Comprehensive Juvenile Diversion Program Sponsored by an African-American Church." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Cincinnati.
Abstract: Some African American congregations have established a Project IMPACT program, a comprehensive juvenile diversion program, to assist church and community youth experiencing discipline problems and low academic performance which has the potential to lead to dropping out of school. Project IMPACT Dayton works with the family to enhance youth development educational learning skills, parent effectiveness and provides incentives for the family to work towards strengthening the family unit and participation in the program. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the organizational mechanisms and the influences of the African American religious experiences and value system that were involved in the planning, development, and implementation of Project IMPACT Dayton by a single urban African American church. The study describes the perceptions of those involved with the project (students, parents, and staff) concerning the program's effectiveness in helping students perform academically and stay in school. A combination of methods were used to describe the comprehensive juvenile diversion program, Project IMPACT Dayton. In this study, the descriptive case study method included the use of participation, observation, interviews and document review as means of data collection. This case study provides certain aspects program evolution in the context of Christian values and mission service operating in this African American church. The case study involves the discussion of the history and mission of the Revival Center Ministries, the development of community outreach, the Project IMPACT program evolution and the values and religious experiences of the African American church that make this program effective. [Source: DA]

Bankston, Carl L., III and Min Zhou. 1995. "Religious Participation, Ethnic Identification, and Adaptation of Vietnamese Adolescents in an Immigrant Community."The Sociological Quarterly vol. 36, pp. 523-534.
Abstract: This article addresses the role of religion in immigrant adaptation through the case of Vietnamese adolescents. Our results show that religious participation consistently makes a significant contribution to ethnic identification, which, in turn, facilitates positive adaptation of immigrant adolescents to American society by increasing the probability that adolescents will do well in school, set their sights on future education, and avoid some of the dangers that confront contemporary young people. These results suggest that an immigrant congregation does not function simply as a means of maintaining a psychologically comforting sense of ethnicity while group members drop ethnic traits in their day-to-day lives. Nor does identification with an ethnic group appear to limit life chances by binding group members to ethnic traits. On the contrary, the ethnic religious participation examined here, to a large extent, facilitates adjustment to the host society precisely because it promotes the cultivation of a distinctive ethnicity, that, in turn, helps young people to reach higher levels of academic achievement and to avoid dangerous and destructive forms of behavior. [Source: SS]

Benda, Brent B. 1995. "The Effect of Religion on Adolescent Delinquency Revisited." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency vol. 32, pp. 446-466.
Abstract: Tested 4 hypotheses on the effects of religion on adolescent delinquency. Ss were 1,093 public high school students from rural Oklahoma; rural Arkansas; Little Rock, Arkansas; and Baltimore, Maryland and were evenly distributed across Grades 9-12. Seven dependent variables including property, person, and status offenses were examined. Results do not support the hypothesis that either antiascetic behaviors are more affected by religiosity than are criminal behaviors or that religiosity is an antecedent factor that has effects fully mediated through other more proximate elements of social control. There were few real differences in the effects of religiosity on various forms of delinquency between the urban and rural areas. Longitudinal data are needed to examine whether religiosity is antecedent to, or the consequence of, various forms of delinquency. [Source: PI]

Durant, R. H., A. G. Getts, C. Cadenhead, and E. R. Woods. 1995. "The Association between Weapon-Carrying and the Use of Violence among Adolescents Living in or around Public-Housing." Journal of Adolescence vol. 18, pp. 579-592.
Abstract: The study examined social and psychological factors associated with the frequency of weapon-carrying by Black adolescents living in a community where there is extensive poverty and a high level of violent crime. Using a cross-sectional anonymous survey design adolescents (N=225; males=44%) ages 11 to 19 years living in or around nine HUD housing projects in Augusta, Georgia were administered an anonymous questionnaire. The dependent variables were the number of days that a weapon, such as a gun, knife, or club was carried in the previous 30 days and the frequency that a hidden weapon was carried in the last year. Carrying a weapon during the previous 30 days was significantly (p<0.05) associated with previous exposure to violence and victimization, age, corporal punishment scale, depression, family conflict, purpose in life, and the self- appraised probability of being alive at age 25, and was higher among males. Based on multiple regression analysis, previous exposure and victimization to violence, gender, age, and self- appraised probability of being alive at age 25 explained 17 per cent of the variation in frequency of weapon-carrying. The exposure to violence and victimization scale, school grade, and probability of being alive at age 25 explained 12.1 per cent of the variation in frequency of carrying a hidden weapon in the last year. The two indicators of weapon-carrying were not associated with family structure, religious behavior, or any other demographic variable. [Source: SC]

Hay, Steven D. 1995. "Maternal Employment, Parent-Adolescent Closeness and Adolescent Competence."Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This study examined the relationships between maternal employment, adolescent employment, extracurricular activities, and closeness between parents and adolescents among a sample of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. A related focus was the relationship between parent-adolescent closeness and adolescent competency as represented by educational aspirations, self-esteem, and juvenile delinquency. It was found that maternal employment was not significantly related to parent-adolescent closeness. The strongest variable predicting LDS adolescents' closeness to their parents was the adolescents' perception of their parents marital quality. Parent-adolescent closeness was significantly related to girls' self-esteem, and negatively related to adolescent juvenile delinquency for both boys and girls. Maternal employment was positively related to victimless delinquency for both boys and girls. Close parent-adolescent relationships promote adolescent social competence. [Source: DA]

Ransom, Elbert, Jr. 1995. "Developing a Mentorship Program Model for Black Males as a Prison Ministry in an Urban Congregation." Thesis, Wesley Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The mentorship program evolved from a need to provide a socio-religious support system for young Black males who are at risk with the law in the city of Alexandria, Virginia. Black males are fraught with negative societal perceptions in Alexandria and need support in positive self-esteem, moral, and spiritual persuasion. They are victimized by poor education, poor economics, and a shrinking labor market. Many young Black males are involved in a life of crime as the result of hopelessness. The Alfred Street Baptist Men's Department is responding to the need by providing a mentorship program, with its foundation in Matthew 25:31-36. [Source: RI]

Smith, Jacqueline Elizabeth. 1995. "Latino Gang Male Youth and Risk Factors: Time Preference, Time Perception, and Locus of Control." Ph.D. Thesis, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles.
Abstract: The growth of gangs in Los Angeles, California has brought with it an increase in gang related violence. Two thirds of this gang population are Latino male adolescents. Researchers have considered the concept of time when observing at-risk youth (Bruno, 1993, Norton, 1993, Colarusso, 1988). Differences between at-risk youth and "normal" comparison groups were found in time allocations, time preferences, time perceptions, and locus of control. This investigator attempted to determine possible risk factors and indicators of adolescent gang involvement. The sample consisted of 194 male, Latino adolescents, broken into two groups; 100 gang members and 94 non-gang members. Most of the gang members lived in a youth authority facility, and the non-gang members came from high schools in the Los Angeles area, in neighborhoods where the gang members had lived prior to their arrests. Each participant completed a time-allocation portfolio, a perception survey, a locus-of-control survey, and background questionnaires regarding demographic and gang affiliation information. For incarcerated gang members, activities reported were those occurring prior to their arrests. Significant differences found between the gang and non- gang groups included: The gang group had more non- directed time preferences and fewer outer-directed (achievement oriented) time preferences. "No temporal dominance" was found more with the gang group than the non-gang group. Locus of control was not found to be significantly different between the gang and non-gang groups. The gang-group members were more likely to have been reared in single parent homes, with more tending toward alcoholism and drug addiction in the family, and with siblings also being gang members, and were less likely to attend church and school regularly. Findings indicated that possible risk-factors to gang involvement are: time allocations, time preferences, time perceptions, and family situational variables. Indicators of gang involvement are: type of clothing worn, number of tattoos, number of friends in a gang, arrests, and graffiti writing. [Source: DA]

Watson, Deborah Nava. 1995. "Violence and Gang Membership: The Influence of Family, Religion, and Deviant Behavior." Ph.D. Thesis, Colorado State University.
Abstract: Research has suggested that the majority of gangs are in low-income neighborhoods, which are mostly comprised of ethnic minorities. Not surprisingly, within the general youth population, adolescents of specific ethnic groups face greater risk than White non-Hispanic youth for becoming assaultive violence victims. Today, gangs in urban areas are increasing rapidly. The increasing number of youths joining gangs and committing serious acts of violence has many worried about safety in their own neighborhoods. The purpose of this paper is to review family factors that promote adolescent delinquency and to investigate whether those negative family factors influence an adolescent to join a gang. Some 2,347 youths from a southwestern U.S. community completed a variation of the American Drug and Alcohol Survey which included additional variables of interest for the present investigation. The study was limited to Mexican-American (MA) and White non-Hispanic (WnH) youth. The youths were classified into four subgroups: gang members, former gang members, gang wannabe's, and non-gang members based on self-reports. These four sub-groups were compared on a set of behaviors, which included: friends in a gang, delinquent behavior, religiousness, victimization, family environment, tolerance of deviance and minor deviant behavior. Analyses of variance revealed that gang members were the most delinquent of the groups; they also tended to be more tolerant of deviant behaviors. The main objective of this paper was to investigate whether a negative home atmosphere increases the chances that a youth would join a gang and exhibit delinquent behavior. It was found that youths who reported being gang members or former gang members perceived their families to be less caring for them and the youths in turn felt less caring for their family. The present findings suggest that a negative home life can be influential in a youth's participation in a gang. [Source: PI]

Cochran, John K., Peter B. Wood, and Bruce J. Arneklev. 1994. "Is the Religiosity-Delinquency Relationship Spurious? Social Control Theories." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency vol. 31, pp. 92-123.
Abstract: Examined the effects of religious variables (participation and salience) on adolescents' self-reported delinquent behaviors while controlling for arousal and social control influences. Data were obtained from 1,591 15-21 yr old high school students in Oklahoma through confidential questionnaires. OLS and LISREL analyses showed that for every category of delinquency examined, the effects of religiosity declined when arousal and control variables were added to the models. The effect of religiosity was reduced to insignificance for assault, theft, vandalism, illicit drug use, and truancy. However, the effect remained significant for tobacco and alcohol use. For all but the 2 more minor juvenile offenses, results support social control theorists' claim that the religion-delinquency relationship is spurious. [Source: PI]

Adeseun, Quadri Akintunde. 1993. "The Impact of Religious Beliefs and Religious Commitments on Delinquent Behaviors." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park.
Abstract: This research explores the importance of religion on delinquent behaviors. Specifically, the theoretical model examines both the direct effect of participation in religion and religious commitment and its indirect effect through various intervening causal factors. In addition, by exploring the impact of religious beliefs on delinquent behavior with panel data, thereby controlling for the temporal order of variables, this study considers the relationship between religiosity and delinquent behavior. Uniting a key theme in the writings of Freud, Durkheim and Mead, I trace the influence of moral beliefs and religiosity on delinquent behaviors. These three theorists offer an explanation of what has been called the PROBLEM OF ORDER. That is a particularly important topic in criminology because that is the ultimate question that all criminologists deal with, but only control theorists deal with it explicitly. Using two waves of the Elliott's National Youth Survey, this research tests the impact of religious commitments on general delinquency and various types of specific offenses. The findings do not totally support the claim that religious commitments have a strong direct effect on delinquency. There was only a direct effect for religious commitments on drug sales. And the effects on general delinquency, though inverse as expected, were not significant. The only empirical confirmation of the theoretical mode is that religion has a very weak effect on delinquency by strengthening a delinquency inhibitor and weakening a delinquency generator (delinquent peers). [Source: DA]

Chadwick, Bruce A. and Brent L. Top. 1993. "Religiosity and Delinquency among Lds Adolescents." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 32, pp. 51-67.
Abstract: Tested the religious ecology hypothesis that postulates that religion is negatively related to delinquency only in a highly religious climate. Questionnaire data were collected from 1,398 adolescent Latter-Day Saints (LDS [aged 14-29 yrs]) living on the East Coast. The link between religion and delinquency in this low-LDS religious climate was compared with the connection found in an earlier study (S. L. Albrecht et al; see record 1978-25042-001) of 3 highly moral LDS communities in California, Idaho, and Utah. The religious ecology hypothesis was not supported; religiosity had a strong negative relationship to delinquency in both the high and low religious ecologies. A multivariate model was tested that allowed peer, family, and religious factors to compete to explain delinquency. The multivariate model revealed that although peer influence made the strongest contribution in the regression equation, religiosity also made a significant contribution. [Source: PI]

Moffitt, Terrie. 1993. "Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course Persistent Anti-Social Behavior: A Developmental Taxonomy." Psychological Review vol. 100, pp. 674-701.

Nakkula, Michael James. 1993. "Toward Methodological Dialogue in Adolescent Risk Research." Ed.D. Thesis, Harvard University.
Abstract: This study examined whether the clustering, prediction and self-reported meaning of various forms of high-risk behavior differed within two divergent high school cultures. 406 students were sampled, 242 from an urban high school in a low-income, working-class community, and 164 from a suburban high school in a middle-income, working-class and professional community. The urban subsample was largely African-American (35%) and Hispanic (30%), with smaller numbers of Haitian (15%) and Caucasian (7.5%) students. The suburban subsample was almost exclusively Caucasian (86%). Females comprised 55% of the sample within each school; males 45%. Sampling was largely random. Nine forms of high-risk behavior were included in the assessment of clustering differences: Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, harder drug use, multiple substance use, crime, depressive behavior, school-related problems, and sexual behavior. Involvement in each of these behaviors was assessed by the Risk and Prevention Questionnaire and Interview (RAP QI) (Nakkula, Way, Stauber, & London, 1989), a lickert-type survey, developed in consultation with high school students representing a broad range of reading levels. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis uncovered three clusters of behaviors within each school. The cluster of depressive behavior and school-related problems was found within both schools, while the two unique urban school clusters were sexual behavior with crime and the substance use cluster of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use and multiple substance use. The two unique suburban school clusters were cigarette smoking, alcohol use and sexual behavior; and marijuana use, multiple substance use, harder drug use and crime. Within each school, cluster scores were best predicted, via multiple regression, by different combinations of risk and resiliency factors, including family functioning, quality of relationships with parents and friends, hopefulness/hopelessness, religiosity, and friends' and family substance use, each of which was assessed by the RAP QI. Qualitative analyses of indepth research interviews were conducted to interpret the meaning of selected regression findings for each school. The particular strategy for using quantitative and qualitative methods interactively, designed and exemplified here, represents movement toward a methodological dialogue that can deepen our understanding of adolescent high-risk behavior. [Source: DA]

Top, Brent L. and Bruce A. Chadwick. 1993. "The Power of the Word: Religion, Family, Friends, and Delinquent Behavior of Lds Youth." Brigham Young University Studies pp. 293-310.

Damphousse, Kelly R. and Ben M. Crouch. 1992. "Did the Devil Make Them Do It? An Examination of the Etiology of Satanism among Juvenile Delinquents."Youth and Society vol. 24, pp. 204-227.
Abstract: Multivariate techniques were used to examine two hypotheses regarding the phenomenon of youth involvement in Satanism: (1) Satanic involvement has an etiology in common with other youthful deviance; & (2) Satanists possess certain characteristics that differentiate them from non-Satanists. Findings of interviews conducted over a 6-month period in 1989 at the reception center of the Texas Youth Commission in Brownwood (N = 530 males (Ms) & females (Fs), ages 10-17) reveal a Satanic profile of a white M or F, with a higher level of imagination & intelligence, who seeks a sense of control over the events in his or her life. Although youths involved in Satanism are as delinquent as other youths, they are less apt to have seriously delinquent friends, suggesting that this type of occult activity attracts only certain kinds of youth. [Source: SA]

Ketterlinus, Robert D., Michael E. Lamb, Katherine Nitz, and Arthur B. Elster. 1992. "Adolescent Nonsexual and Sex-Related Problem Behaviors." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 7, pp. 431-456.
Abstract: Data from a subsample (N = 1,197 males [Ms] & 1,834 females [Fs], 75% white & 25% black) of the 1980 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are drawn on to compare the involvement in problem behaviors of those who were: (1) virgins, (2) sexually experienced but never pregnant, & (3) pregnant or parents. Logistic regression analyses reveal that, after controlling for the effects of sociodemographic status, age, school status, & frequency of attendance at religious services, sexually experienced, never pregnant adolescents are more likely than virgins to have been involved in four types of nonsexual problem behaviors. However, pregnant/parenting adolescents are no more likely to engage in such behaviors than are their experienced but never pregnant peers. For Ms, but not for Fs, early age at first intercourse is associated with increased involvement in problem behaviors. Implications for policy & interventions for adolescents at risk are discussed. [Source: SA]

Oetting, Eugene R. 1992. "Planning Programs for Prevention of Deviant Behavior: A Psychosocial Model."Drugs and Society vol. 6, pp. 313-344.
Abstract: Presents a psychosocial model of adolescent deviant behavior that is based on peer cluster theory and aimed at the prevention of such behavior. The model shows that the major influences on a youth that can encourage or prevent deviance are the family, school, and peer clusters. The influence of secondary socialization links, including the community, religion, extended family, peers, and the media are considered. Issues related to conformity and planning prevention programs are addressed. [Source: PI]

Downs, W. R. and J. F. Robertson. 1991. "Random Versus Clinical Samples: A Question of Inference."Journal of Social Service Research vol. 14, pp. 57-83.
Abstract: A study included a clinical sample (N = 127) and a stratified random sample (N = 114) of adolescents, aged 13 to 17. Multiple regression was performed with delinquency as the dependent variable and family dynamics, parental alcohol use, and type of sample as the independent variables. Interaction terms were constructed by multiplying each regressor by type of sample (coded 0 = random sample, 1 = clinical sample). The interaction terms for three family dynamics variables (organization, intellectual-cultural orientation, and moral-religious emphasis) were statistically significant, indicating that the relationship between these regressors and delinquency differed significantly across type of sample. Consequently, within-sample regressions were performed. Family conflict was the only statistically significant predictor of delinquency in the stratified random sample (R*super* 2 = .32). Thus no common predictor of delinquency was found across sample type. These findings call into question the generalizability of random sample results to clinical populations. [Source: SA]

Merrell, Arthur R. 1991. "Developing a Pastoral Care Program for Use in the Juvenile Justice System." Thesis, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.
Abstract: A study of facilities in the juvenile justice system indicates that the pastoral care program would be more effective with delinquent youth if: (1) program emphasis was changed from delivering services to institutions to "tracking" individual youngsters through a series of institutions; and (2) if our catechetical materials, sermons, and liturgical worship would take into consideration the fact that these youth do not come from traditional families or communities. The church might have more influence among these young people if it were perceived to be less the agent that calls to repentance than the place that facilitates personal change. [Source: RI]

Wilson, Paul R. 1991. Educating Street Kids: A Ministry to Young People in the Charism of Edmund Rice. New York: Alba House.

Haga, Frances Ogden Foreman Garber. 1990. "Staying in or Getting Out: "Importation," Behavior, Coercive Program Assignment and Length of Stay in Juvenile Training Schools." Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State University.
Abstract: Using data from the North Carolina Division of Youth Services computerized Management Information System for 590 students exiting the five North Carolina training schools in 1985, this study used regression analysis and path modeling to examine the impact of family structure, family problems, religious affiliation, recidivism, seriousness of committing offense, age at the time of admission, race, gender, behavior, emotional and learning problems, school achievement levels, and intelligence on assaultiveness rates in training school, social involvement beyond training school routines, non- assaultive training school rule breaking, assignment to more restrictive/coercive programs within the training school settings, and total length of stay. Testing John Irwin's "importation" challenge to Erving Goffman's model for coercive control in total institutions such as prisons and mental hospitals, this study found statistically significant direct effects for family structure, age, race, gender, and intelligence, as well as indirect effects for family problems and race on training school program outcomes. After students behavior was taken into account with statistical controls, the direct effects of imported background characteristics were attributed to the labeling effects of staff perceptions, decisions and responses. Female students and white students received more coercive/restrictive program assignments than did males or black students. Students from one and two parent families spent fewer months in North Carolina training schools than did students with no families. During years where student release was earned through a point-and- level behaviorally oriented residential program, the variables tested accounted for 49% of the variation in levels of coercive/restrictive program assignment and 22% of the variation in total months in training school. Assaultive students received higher levels of restrictive program placement. Students with higher levels of coercive/restrictive program placement spent fewer months in training school. [Source: DA]

Warren, Michael. 1990. "Cultural Coding in the Young: The Ongoing Dilemma." Listening vol. 25, pp. 47-60.

Zide, Marilyn Rudes. 1990. "Social Bonds: Running to, Running from, Thrown out, and Forsaken Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, Barry University School of Social Work.
Abstract: Psychosocial scales based on the Social Bond construct were developed, tested, revised, and administered to runaway and homeless youths. These scales were used to explore the antecedents of runaway behaviors. Of the 261 survey participants, 163 were male and 98 were female, and these represented a major accessible group of runaway and homeless youth. Some 71% of these youths were clients of the three South Florida area shelters, while 29% were considered "street kids" or those youths "living on the street." This study developed an extended typology that explains the differences in behavior of the runaway and homeless youth. More specifically, the typology defined and predicted which type of homeless youth would have specific difficulties and problems. In addition, problems related to school delinquency, criminal behavior, drug and/or alcohol use, and attachment/bonding within their families were defined. One-half of the runaway and homeless youths who participated in this survey reported leaving home for the first time before they were 14 years old. Over fifty percent of the youths reported being out of their home for at least a year, and the mean time out of the home for this population was almost two years. The longest time reported spent out of the home was 12 years. The Pearson's Correlation analyzed the associations among the variables and the 13 psychosocial scales used. Notably, significant correlations were found between the scales Mother Bond, School bond, Criminal History and Drug use. Of importance to the social bond construct was the finding that the strongest correlations revolved around bonds with the youths mother and father. This suggested that strong parental attachment helped reduce the youths involvement in criminal behavior, drug use and minor deviance. Religious affiliation also played a central role in positive correlations with youths who rejected involvement in criminal and drug behavior. The discriminate analysis procedure was used to analyze the variables and classify the adolescents according to the hypothesized groups. A step-wise discriminate analysis successfully classified the runaway youths into the following categories: (1) "Running to" youths--68.12%, (2) "Running from" youths-- 56%, (3) "Thrown Out" youths--58.7%, and (4) "Forsaken" youths--51.1%. These analyses suggest that a parsimonious collection of well-constructed psychosocial scales, related to social and familial bonds, can be used to identify and predict adolescents who are at risk of running away from home, or who find themselves homeless due to certain conditions, situations and circumstances. These findings can help enhance the development of effective social welfare policies, program development, and future research designs. In addition, important implications for social work practice directed toward reducing consequences associated with youths who are without a home and who are in serious peril of becoming the next "cardboard generation" can be implemented. [Source: DA]

Bainbridge, William Sims. 1989. "The Religious Ecology of Deviance." American Sociological Review vol. 54, pp. 288-295.

Cochran, John K. 1989. "Another Look at Delinquency and Religiosity." Sociological Spectrum vol. 9, pp. 147-162.
Abstract: A homogeneous effects logistic regression technique for ordinal response dependent variables is employed to test the relationships between religiosity & several forms of delinquent behavior, using data from self-report questionnaires completed by a sample of 3,065 male & female adolescents in grades 7-12 in 3 midwestern states. Strong support for the hypothesis is observed. [Source: SA]

McGee, Linda. 1989. "Longitudinal Influence of Adolescent Sensation Seeking Needs on General Deviant Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southern California.
Abstract: Longitudinal structural modeling methods were used to examine the pattern of involvement in deviant behaviors (for example, licit and illicit drug use, criminal and delinquent activities) and attitudes (towards law abidance and religiosity) across-time during the critical developmental period from adolescence to young adulthood. The influence of adolescent Sensation Seeking needs on behaviors and attitudes during this transitional period was also explored. Latent variable methods were used to investigate the interrelationships between the latent constructs of General Deviant Behavior and Sensation Seeking and among the specific measured variables which reflected the latent constructs. From the existing literature the behaviors and attitudes examined in this study were hypothesized to covary and form a syndrome of problem behavior. Thus, they were grouped together to reflect a latent variable of General Deviant Behaviors. A latent variable was also hypothesized to represent the construct of Sensation Seeking, composed of the four observed measures of boredom susceptibility, disinhibition, experience seeking, and thrill and adventure seeking. These analyses are based on data from a community sample of 595 males and females. Three assessments were made during a five-year period. Two assessments were made one-year apart in late adolescence. The third assessment was conducted four years later when the subjects were young adults. Findings revealed that a majority of the subjects used licit drugs, while about one-half used illicit drugs, and substantial minority engaged in other delinquent or criminal activities, such as fighting, stealing, destroying property, and getting in trouble with authorities. In the longitudinal path models, Sensation Seeking did not predict increases in the latent factor of General Deviance over-time. The effects of Sensation Seeking on later behavior and attitudes were specific and indirect rather than general and direct. Clear support was found for the hypothesis that Sensation Seeking in adolescence generated increased young adult licit drug use. Several other important and significant predictions were found. For example, licit drug use during adolescence increased young adult General Deviance, disinhibition led to negative attitudes towards law abidance both one and five years later, and a negative attitude toward law abidance was a potent predictor of later engagement in criminal activities. [Source: DA]

Schonert, Kimberly Anne. 1989. "The Relationships among Empathy, Social Participation and Moral Reasoning in Behaviorally Disordered Adolescent Males and Their Non-Disordered Peers." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Iowa.
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to compare behaviorally disordered (BD) adolescents and their non- BD peers with respect to moral reasoning, empathy, and social participation. In addition, the study explored the relationships among empathy, moral reasoning, social participation, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) within these two groups. Thirty-nine BD adolescent males and 39 of their non-BD peers (matched for age, race, SES, and school) participated. All subjects were individually administered measures designed to assess moral reasoning (via the Defining Issues Test), empathy, social participation, and vocabulary in one 45-minute session. Results revealed that the BD adolescents were lower in principled moral reasoning, empathy, and social participation than were their matched non-BD peers. Higher percentages of BD youth than non-BD youth reported coming from broken homes and having no religious affiliation. Unexpectedly, the BD students were unable to adequately complete the vocabulary test. Justifications given by the BD students for not being able to complete the test indicated that these students possessed low self-confidence with regard to their academic capabilities. In both the BD and non-BD groups, empathy and moral reasoning were significantly related, as were empathy and age. SES was found to be related to principled moral reasoning in BD students. No significant relationship between participation in activities (number of organizations, clubs, teams or groups) and moral reasoning was evidenced in either group. BD students reported having less frequent contacts with friends as well as poorer relationships with siblings, peers, and parents than did non-BD students. Surprisingly, BD adolescents reported having numbers of close friends comparable to the numbers reported by their non-BD peers; this suggests that BD youth do not accurately perceive the deficits existing in their interpersonal relationships. The results were discussed in relation to Kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory of moral development and Selman's theory of perspective-taking. The role of the family and the peer group in facilitating the moral reasoning of BD youth was also discussed. [Source: DA]

Terrell, Phillip Joseph. 1989. "Students' Perception of Juvenile Gangs in a Selected Gulf Coast School District." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.
Abstract: The research ascertained if there was a significant difference in perception among three groups (gang members, recruits, and uninvolved youth) regarding seven contributing factors such as socio-economic status, unemployment of teenagers, lack of access to adequate recreational facilities, member of single parent home, need for social acceptance, lack of access to positive role models, and religious exposure in helping to explain why youths join juvenile gangs. The study also includes an ancillary analysis ascertaining if there was a significant difference in perception among self- proclaimed juvenile gang members in school and documented gang members incarcerated in a county jail of the same geographic area when using the contributing factors in helping to explain why youth join juvenile gangs. Based on the findings, the research concluded that there was a significant difference in perceptions among gang members, recruits, and uninvolved youth regarding student membership in single parent home and religious exposure in helping to explain why teenagers join juvenile gangs. There was no significant difference in perceptions among gang members, recruits, and uninvolved youth regarding social acceptance, positive role models, socio-economic status, teenage high unemployment, and lack of adequate recreational facilities in helping to explain why teenagers join juvenile gangs. In addition, there was no significant difference in perception among self-proclaimed gang members and documented gang members incarcerated regarding the seven contributing factors in helping to explain why youth join juvenile gangs. All data for the study were collected through an instrument designed, constructed and validated by the researcher. The data were in the form of Likert scale choices made by the respondents. Multiple linear regression was used in treatment of the data involving three groups and a T-test was used in the treatment of the data involving two groups of the ancillary analysis. [Source: DA]

Allanach, Robert C. 1988. "This Hurting Place: Character Alchemy and the Prodigal Adolescent." Thesis, Andover Newton Theological School, Newton Centre.
Abstract: The author argues that the legalistic, sociological and psychoanalytic approaches to treatment of the troublesome adolescent are flawed. This group of counselees is the most common group in inpatient psychotherapy. They manifest behavioral and anti-social problems as well as serious academic and family difficulties. The author provides a theory of the adolescent's psychic life. He proposes a promising alternative treatment that is multi-faceted. It insists that adolescents grow into adults by becoming responsible for their own behavior. Finally, the paper provides a therapeutic rationale and theological basis for the chaplain, church counselor and/or advocate that is faced with the challenge of ministry to the troublesome adolescent and his or her family. [Source: RI]

Cochran, John K. 1988a. "The Effect of Religiosity on Secular and Ascetic Deviance." Sociological Focus vol. 21, pp. 293-306.
Abstract: Stephen R. Burkett's & Mervin White's claim (see SA 23:4/75H5537) that nonascetic behaviors such as premarital sex & substance use, which are not consistently disapproved of in secular settings, are more likely than personal or property crimes to be affected by religiosity is explored using 1970s survey data on self-reported delinquency & substance use from M & F adolescents (N = 3,065) in grades 7-12 in 3 midwestern states. Results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that the deviance-inhibiting impact of religiosity is more generalized than previously suggested. [Source: SA]

Cochran, John Kerr. 1988b. "The Variable Effects of Religiosity on Deviant Behavior." Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Demartino, Richard Albert. 1988. "School Aged Juvenile Sexual Offenders: A Descriptive Study of Self-Reported Personality Characteristics, Depression, Familial Perceptions and Social History." Psy.D. Thesis, State University of New York At Albany.
Abstract: Conspicuously lacking in the current literature on juvenile sexual offenders is standardized psychometric measurement of the variables described as relevant by clinicians. The present study is an extension of currently available research and represents an effort to broaden the data base on juvenile sexual offenders. The present study investigated several aspects of self-reported characteristics of sexual offenders, aged 13-19, including: (1) personality variables, (2) structured interview data focusing on demographic and socio-historical information, (3) symptoms of depression, and (4) perceptions of family functioning. Thirty male adolescents at the St. Anne Institute Juvenile Sexual Offender Project were administered an assessment battery consisting of a structured interview, the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES-III). Results indicate that few subjects were from intact homes. Most experienced the separation/divorce of parents. The majority had no involvement in church or religious activities. Medical findings, including medication, broken bones, significant illnesses and sleep problems were noted. A large proportion were first-born children. Most subjects had death/loss experiences, and early sexual experiences, including their own experiences of being physically and sexually abused. The majority had been retained in school and had received remedial/special educational assistance. While the majority of subjects reported one victim, a substantial number reported many victims and numerous incidents. In assessing personality variables, the following picture emerged: juvenile sexual offenders tend to see themselves as discontented, pessimistic, excitable, with poor self concepts, low personal esteem, lacking in family rapport and having poor impulse control. They do not report depressive symptomatology. Perceived view of the family indicated that the majority saw their families as imbalanced and unsatisfying. This was true even for their idealized family, suggesting feelings of hopelessness and pessimism. Clearly, juvenile sex offenders tend to come from dysfunctional families. Although the mechanism is uncertain, a cyclical pattern of adolescent sexual offending emerged. Methodological concerns and future research directions are discussed. The implications of the present research for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders is described. [Source: DA]

Jackson, Mary Speed. 1988. "Drug Use and Delinquency in the Black Male Adolescent: A Descriptive Study."Ph.D. Thesis, Case Western Reserve University.
Abstract: The present study was conducted in two phases and utilized a survey design to gather information on alcohol and drug use patterns among black, male, juvenile delinquents in Ohio. A randomly selected sample of 248 incarcerated youths, ranging in age from 12 to 20 years and representing all eight of Ohio's male juvenile correctional facilities, served as participants. Data obtained during the quantitative phase of the study indicated that 90% of the participants had used some illicit mood altering substance; over 80% were using multiple substances; depending on the substance, between 30% and 46% of the users reported daily use; and the average age at initial use was approximately 12 years. Alcohol use tended to precede by about 5 months the use of other illicit substances. Three quarters of the committing offenses among the delinquents were money-related, suggesting that criminal behavior may be serving to support substance use. Increased frequency of substance use was associated negatively with age at initial use and positively with parental awareness of the relationships were observed between drug use and family intactness, religiosity, or severity of criminal offense. Qualitative impressions gathered from the youths and correctional staff suggested that youths held highly negative, intropunitive attitudes toward the self, which staff tended to reinforce. Further, it appeared that problems of impulse control among the adolescents may have stemmed, in part, from nihilistic preoccupation with self-views reflecting unworthiness and inefficacy. Staff views centered on their frustrations and diminished feelings of competency to effect change in the adolescents, which appeared to translate into lack of regard for the delinquents. Implications of these dynamics were discussed, and suggestions for more appropriate and effective intervention with the black, male, delinquent population were recommended. [Source: DA]

Levine, Murray and Simon I. Singer. 1988. "Delinquency, Substance Abuse, and Risk Taking in Middle-Class Adolescents." Behavioral Sciences and the Law vol. 6, pp. 385-400.
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that risk-taking attitudes are strong predictors of delinquency and substance abuse among male and female middle-class adolescents. 715 high school students completed a survey instrument, including self-reports of delinquent conduct and drug and alcohol use and measures of attachment to and involvement in family, school, church, and employment. Attitudes toward risk-taking, alone and in groups, were also measured. Data show that risk-taking measures make strong and independent contributions to predicting self-reported delinquency and drug and alcohol use, even taking into account bonding to family and school and attitudes toward religious faith and employment. A measure of involvement with delinquent peer groups also predicts delinquency and drug and alcohol use. [Source: PI]

Watson, Charles G., Teresa Kucala, Victor Manifold, and Mark Juba, et al. 1988. "The Relationship of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder to Adolescent Illegal Activities, Drinking, and Employment." Journal of Clinical Psychology vol. 44, pp. 592-598.
Abstract: Compared the self-reported incidences of adolescent legal problems, drinking, employment, and church attendance in 116 male psychiatric patients with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in 28 normal controls. Data raise doubts about the validity of the theory that PTSD is at least partially a result of pretraumatic personality maladjustment. [Source: PI]

Benson, Warren S. and Mark H. III Senter (eds.). 1987.The Complete Book of Youth Ministry. Chicago: Moody.
Abstract:A theology of youth ministry, W Benson. The youth culture in sociological perspective, A Campolo. Faith shaping: bringing youth to spiritual maturity, P Downs. A history of American youth ministry, D Borgman. Societal patterns that contribute to adolescent problems, B Klaus. The person of the youth minister, P Borthwick. The youth minister and the senior pastor, W Stewart and W Yaeger. Women in youth ministry, C Cistola. Interns and part-time youth ministers, S Strodel. The church without a youth minister, R Choun, Jr. Leadership development of lay leaders, M Wickstrom. Developing leadership potential in youth: motivating youth for ministry, L Christie. Axioms of youth ministry, M Senter, III. Stages of youth ministry, D Spader. Models of youth ministry, M Senter, III. Starting a youth ministry from scratch, J Burns. The first six months of a youth ministry, S Benson. Pulling off the long-term ministry with youth, W Stewart. Evangelism through youth ministry, R Caldwell. Speaking to high school students, D Webster and Jana Sundene. Working with parents of youth, C Bradshaw. Effective youth retreats, J Price and R Price. Strategies for summer camp as a part of the church ministry, M Risley. Music in the young church, S Salsbury. How to plan and lead a student mission trip, R Burns. Principles of student counseling, D Carlson. Youth in personal Bible study, J Byron. Youth and the Sunday school, E Gadd. Dynamics of small group Bible studies, D Rydberg. New Christians, delight or dilemma?, D Busby. Denominational and interchurch activities, R Ross. Junior high ministries, W Rice. The use of video in youth ministry, J Adkins and M Smith. [Source: RI]

Betts, Margaret Ernestine. 1987. "A Comparison of Cognitive Ability and Religious Knowledge in Lds Nondelinquent and Delinquent Students." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This study investigated differences in cognitive ability, religious knowledge, and attitudes toward religion in delinquent and non-delinquent male adolescent members of the LDS Church. Two groups of randomly selected LDS non-delinquents, 26 from a junior high school Seminary and 25 from a senior high school Seminary, were compared with 23 delinquent LDS adolescents randomly selected from the Utah State Correctional System. Delinquents scored significantly lower than non-delinquents in critical thinking ability, ability to use abstract thought, and in religious knowledge. Delinquents also showed a less positive attitude toward LDS Church doctrine than non-delinquents. Findings suggest that delinquent adolescents have lower cognitive ability, less religious knowledge, and a poorer attitude toward church doctrine than non-delinquents. [Source: DA]

Forliti, John E. and Peter L. Benson. 1986. "Young Adolescents: A National Study." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 199-224.
Abstract: Surveyed 8,165 5th-9th graders and 10,467 of their parents who belonged to 13 Protestant and Catholic youth-serving organizations about such topics as family life, school, the community, developmental processes, and the church. Results show that both parents and youth desired more communication with each other, particularly on the topic of moral values. Connections to church and religion were related to prosocial action, as were certain parenting practices (e.g., nurturance, democratic control). Sexual intercourse, drug use, and antisocial behavior among youth were related to less emphasis on religion and less nurturance and support from parents. The majority of youth saw religion as important, although it was less important to boys than to girls. A restrictive religious orientation was found to be tied to antisocial behavior, alcohol use, racism, and sexism. [Source: PI]

Sloane, Douglas M. and Raymond H. Potvin. 1986. "Religion and Delinquency: Cutting through the Maze."Social Forces vol. 65, pp. 87-105.
Abstract: Research on the relationship between religion & delinquency has produced contradictory results. Recent attempts to reconcile these findings have involved arguments that where, or in what social context, the religion-delinquency association is measured can affect the results. It is shown that how that association is measured can have an even more basic impact on the findings. Interview data from 1,121 US adolescents are used to describe & test the significance of religion-delinquency associations. Analysis reveals weak associations for some offenses but not others, & even these vary according to how religion is measured. When odds ratios & more sensitive tests of significance are employed, strong effects of religion are found on all offenses regardless of how it is measured. [Source: SA]

Thompson, Kevin Mark. 1986. "Testing Strain and Control Theories of Delinquency and Substance Use in Various Religious Climates: Purposeful Rebellion or Weakened Barriers." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Arizona, Tucson.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is four-fold: (1) to test delinquency theories in social settings that vary by their degree of religiousness; (2) to determine whether delinquency causal processes vary according to the nature of religious ecology; (3) to assess whether variation exists in the rates and types of adolescent offenses committed in these settings; and (4) whether these offenses are a response to unique influences in each context. Religious ecology is measured by tapping a dimension of school religious characteristics, including a school's level of religiousness and a school's religious group composition. Adolescent boys who are exposed to the confines of schools that are predominantly irreligious or disproportionately low in orthodoxy are significantly more likely to engage in delinquency than boys from more moral or highly orthodox schools. Experiences in fundamentalist reference groups also protects youngsters against engaging in substance use episodes, including harmful drugs such as cocaine. These patterns are independent of demographic characteristics such as race, gender, socioeconomic status, family size and community size. To account for religious ecological differences in problem behavior, strain and control theories of delinquency are tested. These testing procedures reveal little support for processes advocated by strain theorists. Not only is structural and interactionist induced strain not correlated with delinquency and substance use, but discrepancies between cultural expectations and perceived realization of these goals do not lead to psychosocial frustration and tension, as implied in many strain models. Control models more aptly account for delinquency and substance use variation in various religious climates, but the strength of religious, school, and family effects varies with the type of offense and the measure of religious ecology. If we measure religious ecology by the nature of denominational composition, religiosity has a uniform effect on delinquency. However, religiosity's effect in settings that vary by religious level is to more strongly inhibit chronic offending in secular disorganized communities. Involvement in delinquency and substance use is probabilistically less likely in moral and highly orthodox settings because religion's social expression is stronger, the broken home phenomenon is weaker and potentially harmful school behaviors and attitudes are unrelated to delinquency in these settings. [Source: DA]

Wright, Stuart A., Elizabeth S. Piper, Ken Rigby, and Tony R. Densley. 1986. "Families and Cults: Familial Factors Related to Youth Leaving or Remaining in Deviant Religious Groups." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 48, pp. 15-25.
Abstract: Studied 45 members of and 45 defectors from 3 highly controversial religious cults (Unification Church, Hare Krishna, and Children of God) to assess the extent of family influence on decisions to remain or withdraw. Findings reveal a strong correlation between measures of family affinity and choices by Ss. Important differences between leavers and stayers were shown with regard to perceived parental attitudes toward involvement, prior familial closeness, and adolescent experiences with families. Parental disapproval was found to be the most important variable in explaining disaffiliation. A re-examination of the alleged link between cult involvement and family deprivation--a causal connection not supported by the present study--is suggested. [Source: PI]

Peek, Charles W., Evans W. Curry, and H. Paul Chalfant. 1985. "Religiosity and Delinquency over Time: Deviance Deterrence and Deviance Amplification."Social Science Quarterly vol. 66, pp. 120-131.
Abstract: Both cross-sectionally & over time, religiosity deters self-reported delinquent conduct in a national panel of 817 white high school Ms interviewed as sophomores, juniors, & seniors (drawn from the larger study by Bachman, Jerald G., O'Malley, Patrick M., & Johnston, Jerome, Youth in Transition, Vol 6. Adolescence to Adulthood - Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men, Ann Arbor: U of Michigan Instit for Social Research, 1979). However, a deviance-amplification effect of religiosity is also noticeable: decreases from high sophomore religiosity are associated with greater senior delinquency than would be expected by simply the removal of religious deterrence. Implications for further research on the deviance-amplification effect of religiosity are discussed. [Source: SA]

Madge, Elizabeth M. 1984. "A Differential and Structural Analysis of Aggressiveness in High School Pupils." Thesis, University of South Africa, Pretoria.

Shields, Joseph J. 1984. "Religion and Delinquent Behavior: A Study of Adolescents." Thesis, Catholic University of America.

Elifson, Kirk W., David M. Petersen, and C. Kirk Hadaway. 1983. "Religiosity and Delinquency: A Contextual Analysis." Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal vol. 21, pp. 505-527.
Abstract: Interviewed 600 12-28 yr old White suburban students attending public school in the Atlanta, Georgia, area, using a variety of religious and delinquency measures. In spite of a relatively strong zero-order relationship between a number of religiosity and delinquency measures, within a multivariate context religion's contribution as an independent variable was not significant. [Source: PI]

Tittle, Charles R. and Michael R. Welch. 1983. "Religiosity and Deviance: Toward a Contingency Theory of Constraining Effects." Social Forces vol. 61, pp. 653-682.
Abstract: Examines perspectives on the relationship between individual religiosity and deviance and identifies contextual properties thought to condition the relationship. Hypothesized linkages between these contextual variables and the strength of relationship between religiosity and 9 types of deviant behavior were tested. Data were drawn from a survey of the populations (all residents 15 yrs or older) of Iowa, New Jersey, and Oregon (N = 1,993). Results indicate that the religiosity-deviance relationship varied predictably across sociodemographic contexts, but not always in directions suggested by extant theories. Individual religiosity appeared to constrain deviant behavior most effectively in environments characterized by general normative ambiguity, low social integration, generalized perceptions of low peer conformity, and a relatively high proportion of religious nonaffiliates. An integrated interpretation of these counterintuitive findings suggests that religious participation can operate as a unique deviance inhibitor only when conformity inducing mechanisms characteristic of religious communities are not reproduced in the larger community. Hence the impact of religious constraints is increased where secular controls are absent or weak. [Source: PI]

Stark, Rodney, Lori Kent, and Daniel P. Doyle. 1982. "Religion and Delinquency: The Ecology of a 'Lost' Relationship." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquencyvol. 19, pp. 4-24.

Whiting, Brooke Elizabeth. 1982. "Determinants and Consequences of Mattering in the Adolescents' Social World." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland College Park.
Abstract: The importance of Others to the Self has been well established in the social psychological literature and concepts from both the Symbolic Interactionist and the Reference Group perspectives have been used to describe this phenomenon. However, the reciprocal concept, the Self's importance to the Other has been a largely neglected issue until M. Rosenberg's and B. Claire McCullogh's (1979) pioneer research on parental mattering. Mattering was defined as the individual's judgements that they are the object of concern, attention or interest to the other. The present study examined other indivduals in the adolescents' social world as sources of mattering and compared the determinants and consequences of mattering to them with those of parental mattering. Variables to operationalize perceptions of mattering to parents, teachers, friends, siblings and globally were defined and posited as intervening between the socio-demographic variables (Race, Religion and Socio-Economic Level) and the outcome variables (Self Esteem, Self Concept of School Ability, Depression and Rebellious Behavior in School). Data from a nationwide study on tenth-grade boys in 1968 and a path analytic technique were utilized to examine the relationships. Only some of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results revealed: (a) mattering to one or more of the sources affected all of the outcome variables, corresponding with increased self esteem and self concept of school ability and decreased depression and rebellious behavior in school, (b) parental mattering exhibited the strongest and most consistent impact on the outcome variables, (c) although mattering to the other sources did not emerge to be as significant as expected there is some modest support for the application of the principle, which predicts that the differential strength of mattering on an outcome will be contingent upon the area of source expertise, (d) socio-economic level was the only socio-demographic variable with a consistently strong impact, and this was only evident for parental mattering, (e) a subsample analysis by race revealed that the process of mattering may be radically different between blacks and whites, (f) the reciprocal effects model indicated that global self-esteem and the self concept of school ability had nearly equivalent effects on each other. [Source: DA]

Herrick, Susan Carol. 1981. "Sibling Violence: Does Piety Make a Difference?" Paper presented at Association for the Sociology of Religion (ASR).
Abstract: The relationship between level of piety & level of violence between siblings was researched using a secondary analysis of survey data gathered by Straus (1974) on a sample of 345 U students reporting on their home situations in their last year of high school. Piety, the independent variable, encompasses three aspects: the associational, orthodox, & devotional (Lenski, 1961: Stark & Glock, 1968). It is operationalized in terms of an index calculated on the basis of answers to questions regarding: (1) the frequency of church attendance & (2) the frequency with which one consults God when faced with difficult decisions. Sibling violence, the dependent variable, is measured by responses to questions regarding the use of violent acts such as kicking, pushing, throwing an object, etc, to resolve conflicts with a sibling. SES, the sex of the R, & husband-wife dominance were used as control variables. Examined are the effects of: the R's piety upon level of violence with a sibling; mother's & father's piety upon sibling violence; & level of family piety homogeneity upon sibling violence. Findings suggest that in pious families where father's dominance is less than or equal to mother's, sons tend to be above average in violence toward a sibling. [Source: SA]

Shapiro, David Jay. 1980. "The Factorial Invariance of the Behavioral Research and Evaluation Corporation's Self-Report Delinquency Scale across Age and Sex."Ph.D. Thesis, Hofstra University, Hempstead.
Abstract: This study investigated the generalizability (invariance) of the factor structure, across age and sex, of the Behavioral Research and Evaluation Corporation's (BREC) Self-Report Delinquency Scale. An invariant factor solution refers to a factor pattern in one study which is the "same" factor pattern that emerges in a second study when the same variables are used in both studies. A self-report measure of delinquency was used to overcome the biases, inaccuracies and distortions that often accompany official data (viz., police, court, FBI records). While self-report studies are viewed as a breakthrough in criminological research, little attention has been directed toward analyzing the internal (factor) structure of a scale which is important in determining the reliability (internal consistency) of that scale, and also its generalizability across populations. This process is a necessary part of validating a test or scale. A multi-method approach to the invariance problem is warranted when analyzing empirical data; therefore, this study used principal components analysis, multiple group factor analysis, congruence coefficients, and RELATE (a computer program to provide an orthogonal procrustes solution) in comparing the factor structure of the BREC delinquency scale across subpopulations. The BREC scale consists of 28 items representing self- reported acts of antisocial behavior. The BREC scale was administered to youth who were enrolled in grades 7-12, from public, private, religious and alternative school programs in two Nassau County communities. The 3.967 youth who participated in the study were divided into six groups on the basis of age and sex. Each subsample was first analyzed using principal component analysis. The number of substantial components was determined by Cattell's scree test. One large and two smaller components emerged in each subsample. Due to the existence of a large first component in all subpopulations, a multiple group factor analysis was used to extract all 28 variables on the basis of a general factor hypothesis. Congruence coefficients were computed to assess the degree of similarity between all pairs of subsamples on the multiple group factor. For all subsamples, the residual correlation matrix from the multiple group factor analysis was analyzed using principal components analysis to test for the existence of group components. Two substantial bipolar components were found to exist in each subsample. Congruence coefficients were computed to assess the degree of similarity between all pairs of same age and same sex subsamples on the two group components. The results from this study indicate that a general factor of deliquency exists for all age by sex subpopulations. The general factor was found to be invariant across all subsamples. When the influence of the general factor was removed, a circular relationship (circumplex) was statistically defined between four subsets of the variables. These subsets were characterized by antisocial behaviors relating to: "hard drugs," "soft drugs," "vandalism," and "violence." While there were substantial similarities between pairs of same age and pairs of same sex subsamples, the patterns of interrelationships among variables changed to some degree across subgroups. The findings of this study represented a significant departure from results obtained in previous research related to the structure of antisocial behavior. Methodological and administrative differences among studies of self-report delinquency are discussed, and it was hypothesized that the procedures used to analyze the data are central to the discrepancies found in the literature. Strategies are suggested for future research that are necessary to the validation of the present findings and to the resolution of some of the discrepancies that exist between studies of self-report delinquency. [Source: DA]

Albrecht, Stan L., Bruce A. Chadwick, and David S. Alcorn. 1977. "Religiosity and Deviance: Application of an Attitude-Behavior Contingent Consistency Model."Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 16, pp. 263-274.
Abstract: Most investigators have concluded that religion is largely irrelevant to understanding deviance, but they have tended to rely on bivariate research models. Studies dealing with the problems of predicting behavior from measures of verbal attitudes suggest that religious attitudes must be combined with other social situational constraints for a better understanding of behavioral outcomes. Using questionnaire data on (a) engagement in 10 different deviant acts, and (b) religious participation, collected from 244 Mormon teenagers, good prediction of deviance was obtained when religious indicators were combined with measures of peer and family relationships. Consistent with the expectations of S. Burkett and M. White (see record 1975-27297-001), religious variables were more strongly related to victimless than to victim deviance. Peer and family expectations were more important for victim deviance, especially for boys. [Source: PI]

Donovan, John E. 1977. "A Typological Study of Self-Reported Deviance in a National Sample of Adolescents." Thesis, University of Colorado.

Higgins, P. C. and G. L. Albrecht. 1977. "Hellfire and Delinquency Revisited." Social Forces pp. 952-958.
Abstract: Although Hirschi and Stark (1969) concluded that religiosity is unrelated to delinquency, their findings and a replication of their study in the Pacific Northwest (Burkett and White, 1974) may not be generalizable to other areas of the country. Using self-report data from 1,383 Atlanta, Georgia, tenth-graders in 1970, a moderate negative relationship was found between church attendance and delinquent behavior. These data also suggested a causal structure in which respect for the juvenile court system links church attendance with delinquency. Church attendance may be a truer reflection of adolescents' religious experience in the South than in the West, thus accounting for the differences between the present findings and those of previous research. (Journal abstract, edited. Eli S. Levy.) [Source: SA]

Bloch, Richard and Steven I. Miller. 1976. "Educational, Social and Religious Behavior of Middle-Class Suburban Youth." Revista Internacional de Sociologia vol. 34, pp. 163-177.
Abstract: The purpose is to determine what variables are related to the contextual effects of schooling & in what way school variables are related to delinquent behavior. The study was conducted in 1972 on 1,105 teenage respondents in Skokie, Ill. The results showed that while most of the respondents could be classified as basically content youngsters, some tensions were noted between the teenagers & their parents & school administrators. Age, attitudes, & behavior were strongly related. Older respondents to the questionnaire tended to commit more criminal acts than younger ones, defined as under the age of fifteen. The increase in delinquency was attributed to lack of facilities for older teenagers & maturation problems. While in Skokie (& Niles, Ill), younger adolescents felt more positively about the quality of the education they were getting (defined as "knowledge of the world" in the questionnaire), in Evanston, Ill, it was the reverse. The overall conclusion is that the now popular hypothesis of suburban living is associated with increased rates of juvenile delinquency should be revised. Most of the upper middle class teenagers who took part in this survey were essentially content with their lives, schools, & community. [Source: SA]

Rohrbaugh, John and Richard Jessor. 1975. "Religiosity in Youth: A Personal Control against Deviant Behavior?" Journal of Personality vol. 43, pp. 136-155.
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that religiosity would function as a personal control against transgression in 475 high school students and 221 undergraduates. A measure of religiosity, constructed to encompass its ideological, ritual, consequential, and experiential aspects, was correlated with other measures of personal controls as well as with a variety of personality, perceived environment, and behavioral measures of deviance and of deviance proneness. Religiosity correlated positively and significantly with other measures of personal controls and negatively with measures of deviance proneness and deviant behavior. These relationships held when controls for differences in social origin variables were applied. Religiosity, as a cognitive attribute of personality, is best considered to be uni- rather than multidimensional in nature. [Source: PI]

Burkett, Steven R. and Mervin White. 1974. "Hellfire and Delinquency: Another Look." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 13, pp. 455-462.
Abstract: Hirschi and Stark (1969) reported very little relationship between religious involvement and adolescent delinquency. They concluded that religion is therefore "irrelevant to delinquency". the present paper offers an alternative interpretation of their findings and tests one of its implications. It is hypotesized that Hirschi and Stark's findings apply only to offenses against persons and property, and that a clear relationship between religion and delinquency should be found for "victimless" crimes. Data from high-school students in the Pacific Northwest replicate Hirschi and Stark's findings but also reveal a moderately strong relationship between religion and the use of marijuana and alcohol. Suggestions are made for further tests of the alternative interpretation. [Source: RI]

Hirschi, Travis and Rodney Stark. 1973. "Hellfire and Delinquency." Pp. 75-87 in Religion in Sociological Perspective, edited by C. Glock. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Ahmad, Mohammad Kh. 1971. "Religion and the Protection of Youth from Delinquency in Thought and Behaviour." Pp. 379-389 in Fifth Conference of the Academy Islamic Research, edited by M. Bisar. Cairo: General Organization for Govt. Print. Offices.

Gravley, Ernestine. 1970. "New Lives for Troubled Youth." Christian Century vol. 87, pp. 1497-1498.

Rhodes, Albert Lewis and Albert J. Reiss, Jr. 1970. "The "Religious Factor" and Delinquent Behavior." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency vol. 7, pp. 83-98.
Abstract: A multivariate model that assumes the effects of religious orientation & attendance for adolescents & their fam's, the occup'al status of the fam, & the age & fam structure of adolescents are additive is employed to test the effect of religion on DEL & truant behavior. An onymous questionnaires were obtained from 21,720 junior & senior HSch students representing over 90% of the enrollment in the Nashville & Davidson County Tenn Sch systems. Any boy or girl who was referred to the Davidson County Juvenile Court at some time between their 12th birthday & 1 yr after the questionnaire was admin'ed, & who was either officially or unofficially adjudged to be a DEL person is counted in the numerator of the rate if there was a questionnaire for him (her). The test shows that the life chances of being a DEL or truant depend upon the religious orientation & participation of adolescents & their fam's. Jews & nonfundamental Protestants have the lowest DEL'cy rates while S's with no church affiliation have the highest rates. A higher than expected rate for M Roman Catholics, however, remains unexplained. A test for the additive properties of the model was limited to examining the rates of court recorded DEL'cy for white M's. While several tests indicate that the effects of the independent variables on DEL'cy are not altogether additive, the model gives a first approximation to the actual measures of religious orientation & DEL'cy or truancy. Further work on the relationship of religious factors to deviant behavior is discouraged unless more refined measures of religious orientation & of the quality of religious commitment & participation are secured. [Source: SA]

Tobias, Jerry J. 1970. "Counseling the Affluent Suburban Male Delinquent." National Catholic Guidance Conference Journal pp. 80-86.
Abstract: Ss were 200 suburban youth, 100 offenders, 100 controls. Significant characteristics of offenders included behavioral changes, drop in academic achievement, lack of participation in sports, part-time work or home chores, irregular or nonattendance at church, few material needs unsatisfied, and little concern for future home and career. Physically and/or psychologically broken homes seemed to contribute to antisocial behavior. In addition, the delinquents' own reasons included influence of friends, nothing to do, influence of mass media, poor parental attitudes toward respect for law, right and wrong, no feeling of being needed, adventure, impulse, parental overindulgence, and hypocrisy. Counselors should recognize that small behavior deviations are symptomatic, that they are dealing with fairly bright pupils, and that preventive programs in counseling and occupations are needed. [Source: PI]

Branson, Helen Kitchen. 1968. "In Church Every Sunday." International Journal of Religious Education vol. 44, pp. 10-11.

McAllister, Joy Torstrup. 1968. "A Study of Delinquent Jewish Youth in Los Angeles County." Ed.D. Thesis, University of California Los Angeles.

Scholl, Mason E. and Jerome Beker. 1964. "A Comparison of the Religious Beliefs of Delinquent and Nondelinquent Protestant Adolescent Boys." Religious Education vol. 59, pp. 250-253.
Abstract: Questionnaire study to compare religious beliefs of institutionalized Protestant delinquents with a group of "normal" Protestant adolescents. [Source: PI]

Hoch, Erna M. 1962. "Delinquent Features in Children Examined at a Private Psychiatric Centre." Journal of Correctional Work vol. 9, pp. 59-98.
Abstract: A detailed study is presented of 22 delinquent and potentially delinquent children. Statistics regarding age, education, religion and caste, parents' occupation, sibling position, psychiatric diagnosis, and delinquent behaviour are given. Psychiatric diagnosis revealed mental deficiency epilepsy, postencephalatic, and neurotic trends in the Ss. Case histories are based upon luxury neglect, early pampering and later relative neglect, insufficient parental attention, and rejection. [Source: PI]

Liu, William T. 1962. "Self Concept, Life Goal, and Anomia among Delinquents and Non-Delinquents."American Catholic Sociological Review vol. 23, pp. 41-55.

Simms, David Mcd. 1962. "Communicating with the Adolescent Delinquent." Journal of Educational Sociologyvol. 35, pp. 221-227.

Hargraves, J. Archie. 1959. "Preventing Juvenile Delinquency: The Role of the Church." Social Action vol. 26, pp. 18-25.

Heath, R. W., M. H. Maier, and H. H. Remmers. 1958. "Youth's Attitudes toward Various Aspects of Their Lives." Purdue Opinion Panel Poll Report p. 24.
Abstract: The majority of teenagers appear to be absorbing the values of the culture and reflect pretty much the attitudes of the culture toward drinking, dating, divorce, religion, and juvenile delinquency. [Source: PI]

Holcomb, Elaine Parks. 1956. The Role of Religion in the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency. Dallas.

Valentine, C. W. 1943. "Adolescence and Some Problems of Youth Training." Nature London pp. 122-124.
Abstract: Questionnaire responses of over 200 university students and autobiographical essays point to great variation in the ages at which characteristic adolescent traits appear. Items discussed are: adolescent moods of intense depression, feelings of inferiority, self-consciousness, instability of intellectual interests, and interest in vocational problems. Delinquency among boys reaches its peak at 13 years, while among girls the peak age is appreciably later. Membership in youth clubs and attendance at church and evening schools as such seem to exert little causative influence in delinquency, but home discipline is a paramount factor. [Source: PI]

Caldwell, M. G. 1933. "Recent Trends in Juvenile Delinquency." Journal of Juvenile Research vol. 17, pp. 179-190.
Abstract: The report concerns 341 juvenile delinquents who appeared before the Juvenile Court of Richland County, Mansfield, Ohio, during the period from 1923 to 1932, inclusive. Stealing was the principal offense for the boys, sex offense for the girls. The group differs from most similar ones described in the literature in that it tended to be younger (the modal age was 15 years); only 29% of its members came from broken homes; as many as 68% had completed the seventh grade; very few came from families any member of which had an institution record or showed socially defective tendencies; and first offenders and those who had had no previous institution records constituted as much as 85% of the total. Urban communities contributed a proportionally larger number of individuals to the group than did the rural. Foreign born, native born, negro, Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish groups seem to contribute only in the proportion in which they occur in the population. Of the delinquents 42% were sent to a correctional school--a frequency the author thinks too high in view of the large number of first offenders involved. [Source: PI]

Reinhardt, J. M. and F. V. Harper. 1931. "Comparison of Environmental Factors of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Boys." Journal of Juvenile Research pp. 271-277.
Abstract: 40 unselected delinquent boys who came through the juvenile court at Grand Forks, North Dakota, were compared with 40 boys selected at random from the school population. The central trends of the findings for the former group differed considerably from the trends noted in the latter as follows: the delinquents had fewer club affiliations; they were members of larger families as well as families having a predominance of males among the siblings; their families had more often changed their domiciles, possessed fewer of the tools of culture such as books, and attended church with less regularity; and their fathers were not only more advanced in age but the disparity in the ages of the parents was also greater. [Source: PI]

Baker, H. J., F. J. Decker, and A. S. Hill. 1929. "A Study of Juvenile Theft." Journal of Educational Research vol. 20, pp. 81-87.
Abstract: A study of convicted cases for theft in Detroit matched for age, grade and nationality of fathers, with a control group selected from the schools. There were 94 cases in each group. The factors showing no significant differences are economic status, father's occupation, size of family, position of boy among siblings, roomers or borders in the home, church attendance, health or injury, time in school, change of schools, school marks, work and earning power of the boys, and attendance at movies. The factors showing differences in favor of the control group were age of parents at the birth of their children, unbroken homes, lack of crowding in homes, general intelligence, supervision of play, correction of physical defects, suitable playmates, and church affiliation. [Source: PI]

Berrien, J. and C. Winship. "Should We Have Faith in Churches? The Ten-Point Coalition's Effect on Boston's Youth Violence." in Managing Youth Violence, edited by G. Katzmann. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute Press.